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Full text of "The London Journal of Botany"

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lELAHD^'SliVNTFORiri 





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THE 



LONDON 

/ 

JOURNAL OF BOTANY; 



CONTAIVXiro 



FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS 



SUCH PLANTS AS RECOMMEND THEMSELVES BY THEIR 
NOVELTY, RARITY, HISTORY, OR USES; 



BOTANICAL NOTICES AND INFORMATION, 

ANB 

OCCASIONAL MEMOIRS OF EMINENT BOTANISTS; 
SIR W. J. HOOKER, K.H., D.C.L., P.R.A., & L.S. 

▼TCB-»«uiDBm ov rmm hnntMAK Mcnrri bonobaet MiMaiit ov ma botal ibiib 

ACAOBMT I MBMBSE OF THB WPBBXAL ACADBMT CAIAB-LBOrOLD. NATUBA CUBlOfOBini } 

OF TBB IMFBBIAL ■OCIBTT OiBSAB. NATUBJB CUBIOOBUM OF MOSCOW} OF THB BOTAI. 

ACA»nUBII OF SWBDBir, FBOBatA, LVNO} OF TBB ACADBMIBS OF FBIB.ADBI.FHA, WSW 

TCBK .BOSTON I OF TBB WAT. BIBT. 800IBTT OF MOMTBBAI., ftc. ftc. 

AND l^fBXCTOR Of 'CBS.'RUlrAL dAIUJOVS pK Kf^W.-.^ ; • 

VOL. VI. 

■WITH TWENTY-KHJR -PLATES. 

LONDON: 
HIPPOLYTE BAILLIfiRE, PUBLISHER, 

POBBIOW BOOHBLLBB TO TBB BOTAI. COLI.BOB OF tVBOBONa, AITO TO TBB 
BOTA& MBOXCO-CBIBVBOIGAI. ■OCIBTT. 

219, REGENT STREET. 

PAEIt : J, B« BAILU^RB, EUB DB l'eCOLB DB MKDBCINB. 
LBIPZIO: T. O. WEIQBL. 

1847- 



LOWDON : 

Printed by Schulie and Co.» ID; Polaad Street. 



271111 



• • -•• 



THE . ;. 

LONDON JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 

BDITKD BY * .' ^/ 

SIR W. J. HOOKER, K.H., L.UD.. F.R.S.. & L.S. ' '^ 



thar le genre Oodoya et ses analogues^ avec des obsitrvaiioru 
mar les Umites de$ Ochnaci^eb, et une revue des genres et 
etphes de ce groupe ; par J. E. Planchon, docteur-hS' 
Mciences. 

(Continued from Vol Vl.page 656.) 

Gen. III. OoMPHiA, Schreb. DC. A. St. Hil. Endl. Gen. 
pi. n. 5958. 

Lb8 caractftres de oe genre aussi bien connus que ceux 
des OcAiMi n'ont pas besoin d'etre r^p^t^s. De CandoUe 
ayait d^ja observe que les esp^ces de Madagascar ont 
lenrs stipules intra-axiUaires et qoud^es ; la mSme structure 
eanct^rise toutes les espioes de llnde et de TAfrique 
tropicale, tandis que les GompMa d'Am^rique ont leurs sti- 
pules latdrales et libres. Je pense qu*une telle diflf(£rence, 
cotBcidant avec la distribution g^ographique, autorise la 
formation de deux sections tr&s naturelles. Tune pour toutes 
lea esp^ces de Pancien monde, et I'autre pour celles du 
nouveau. dependant, il faudrait se garder d'^tablir des 
genres sur les modifications d'un organe unique ; puisque 
les esptees de MeUanikus offrent de la mani^re la plus frap- 
pante des diffiSrences correspondantes, sans qu'on ait jamais 
8ong6 i en faire des genres distincts. 

VOL. Vt. B 



1 1 








I£[AND°SIANFQiRDilVNI0R>yN]VB6IIY 



1 



:-'m. 



THE 

LONDON 

/ 

JOURNAL OF BOTANY; 

COMTAIVXWO 

FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS 



SUCH PLANTS AS RECOMMEND THEMSELVES BY THEIR 
NOVELTY, RARITY, HISTORY, OR USES; 



BOTANICAL NOTICES AND INFORMATION, 

ANB 

OCCASIONAL MEMOIRS OF EMINENT BOTANISTS; 

■T 

SIR W. J. HOOKER, K.H., D.C.L., F.RA., & L.S. 

Tica-MBMssirr ov nn hnfWMAM aoctmi hoitobaet mbmbbe ov the kotal ibisb 
ACASBMT f ummmmn, or raa inrcuAL agademt cm%am-imowovd. natihub cvjuoiorvm } 
ov ma umaiAL sooibtt ojbsak. natubjb cdkiosobum ov mosgow} ov tbb eotal 

ACA»mUlf ,OV SWBDBir, VEVtaiA, LUNOl ov TEE ACADEMIES OV VBILADELVBIA, NBIT 
* T0BJL ^O^OM^ OV TEE WAT. BIIT. tOCIETT OV MOMTEEAI., ftc. &ۥ 

*••'••'•': T: •..•"•'- . • : • - • ' 
• • • • •;•':. ; 

VOL. VL 

WITH TWENTY-FOWt-PLATES. 

LONDON: 
HIPPOLYTE BAlLLIfiRE, PUBLISHER, 

rOEElOV BOOUELLEE TO TBB EOTAL OOLUiOB OV SVEOBOltt, AITO TO TBB 
EOTA& MBOICO^BIEVEOIGAI. ■OCIBTT, 

219, REGENT STREET. 

PAEM : J. B« BAILLIBRX, EUB DB l'kCOLB DB MEDBCINB. 
LBIPZIO: T. O. WBIOBL. 

1847. 



8 SUR LE GENRE GODOTA. 

flexuosi. Folia textura tenui sed ligidula^ li poll, longa ; 
nervi fenaes^ supra prominuli ; petiolus brevissimas ; sti- 
pulae e basi latiascula subulate, petiolo triplo longiores : 
paniculee rami graoiles subflexuoso divisi; pedicelli ala- 
bastro 3-plo et ultra longiores ; antberie laeves. 
Hab, in insula Ste. Catherinie, Brasiliae meridionalis snb- 
tropicsB, Tweedie in herb. Hook. > 
Entre la description de oette espece et celle que M. Aug. de 
St. Hilaire a donn^ du Q.parvifioraj DC. il est difficile de 
saisir des differences bien marquees. Cependant la figure 
que de Candolle a donn^e de sa plante me paralt asses 
diff(£rer dans son ensemble des ^hantillons que j^ai d^rits, 
pour me faire craindre de determiner k faux une espece d'au-* 
tant plus int^ressante qu'elle paralt fitre la plus mdridionale 
de tout le genre. Le fruit du O. parvijhra^ lorsqu'il sera 
connu, pourra seul lever les doutes ^ cet ^gard. En atten- 
dant, le 6. pukhella se distinguera de toutes les esp^ces 
d^crites par la forme singuli^re de son gynophore, dont la 
partie infiSrieure cylindrique tr^s sensiblement courb^ se 
renfle en une t^te arrondie qui supporte un ou deux carpelles 
sph6riques. 

23. G. Sellourii, nov. sp. 

Q. parviflora, herb. BeroL in herb. Hook, non DC. 
G. ramosissima, glaberrima; foliis panris, confertis^ breve 
petiolatis, oblongis, basi obtusa leviter complicatis, apicem 
versus remote parceque serrulatis, cceterum integris, co- 
riaceis, nitidis ; nervis secundariis tenuibus, vix conspi- 
cuis ; venulis obsoletis ; paniculae terminalis parvcs ra- 
mulis divaricatis; pedicellis sub anthesi ebracteatis ala- 
bastro vix 2-plo longioribus ; petalis obovatis, obtusissimis 
calyce subsqualibus ; antberis kevibus, dorso latis. 
Frutex habitu rigidiore quam sp. praecedens : ramuli crebri, 
abbreviati, recti; folia conferta, nitidula, primo intuitu 
integerrima, 1^ poll, longa, 8-10 lin. lata; petiolus brevis- 
simus: bracteae in ramis floriferis nuUee, antea non vises; 
pedicelli quam illi prscedentes minus graciles, apice paulo 
incrassati. Fructus ignotus. 



8UR LE aSNRB GODOYA. 9 

Hab. in Brasilia (verosimiliter tropica) cl. Settow.mherh, Hook. 
Je n'h&iite pas k consid^rer cette espece comme distincte 
da Q. parvifloraj DC, parce que ses feuiUes^ au lieu d'etre 
attenu^, aigufis et planes k la base, sont au contraire 
obtoses et tr^s sensiblement compliquiea. D^ailleurs, elles ne 
sont pas enliftres comme elles paraissent au premier abord, 
et les petites dents qu'elles offrent vers leur sommet n^au- 
raient pas ^bapp^ & M. Aug. de St. Hilaire, si elles exis- 
taient ^galement dans les ^chantillons authentiques de 6. 
fomfiora^ qu'il a eu I'avantage d'examiner. 
24. Qi.panAfiora^ DC. in ann. du mus. vol. 17> p* 420, tab. 

16. 
Oehna Jabotapita, J7. Flum. voL 5, tab, 90, turn Plum. 
Hab. in Brasilia, DC; earn in sylvis primaevis prope 
fluvium Riopreio, provindse Minos Creraes, ad fines pro- 
▼inciae Rio de Janeiro, leg. d. A. St. Hil. 
S5. 6. Caraccasanaf nov. sp. 

O. glaberrima ; foliis magnis, petiolatis, oblongis, obtuse v. 
acutiuscule acuminatis, integenimis, v. sspius bine inde 
repando-serratis, tenuiter chartaceis, concoloribus, nitidis, 
nervo medio supra latiusculo, piano, subtus acute promi- 
nente ; secundariis tenuibus^ arcuato-ascendentibus, utrin- 
que prominulis ; panicula terminali, multiflora, ebracteata; 
pediceUis flore longioribus ; petalis angustis, calyce demum 
reflexo (persistente ?) vix longioribus; antheris subls- 
vibus. 
Arbor? calophylla; rami teretes; ramuli axisque infio- 
rescentiee compressi, fusci; folia majora 4 poll, longa, 
subdimidio lata; nervi venulis tenuissimis pulcbre inter- 
texti; petiolus 2 lin. longus, supra sulcatus, rubescens; 
flores parvi ; antherae leeves. 
Hab. prope Caraccas — ^Ltmfen, coll. n. 4. in herb. Hook. 

J'oserais k peine d^crire cette belle espece comme diSi- 
rente du 6. Guyanensis, au moins de la plante que de Can- 
doUe a figur^ sous ce nom, si je n'avais sous les yeux 
des &}hantiUona recueillis k Cayenne par M. Martin qui 
me paraissent se rapporter a cette derni^re esp^, et sont 



10 SUB LB OBNBB GODOYA. 

oertainement distincta de la plante de Caraccas. Dans la 
premiere les feuilles ik-peu.pr^s liases k leur face sup^rieure^ 
ont rinf<$rieure relev^e d'un beau r^seau de nenrures et 
de veines. Elles sunt sartout tr^s remarquables par la couleor 
d)fttain tris fonc^ qu'elles prennent par dessication : oelles 
da G. Caraccaaana ne changent pas sensiblement leur couleur 
verte ; d'aiUeurs, les fleurs de cette demi&re sont plus petites 
que celles dont les ^chantillons de Cayenne ofirent des frag- 
mens trop imparfaits pour £tre d^crits. 
26. 6. Guyanensia, DC. in ann. du mus. vol. 17» tab, 9; an 

Ouratea Ouyanensis ? Aubl. Guy. Ij p. 397j tab. 152 ? 
Hab. In Guyana Gallica, Aubl. ad Rio Negro, DC. 

Aublet d^crit oette esp&ce comme un bel arbre des forfits, 
dont le trone atteint jusqu'll la hauteur de 60 pieds. Si 
Ton songe que plusieurs Gomphia des Campos offirent des 
tiges simples et gr^les, d'un pied de haut, on aura dans 
le contraste un exemple frappant de I'influenoe des stations 
sur la y^g^tation des esptees du m£me genre. 
27* G. lucens, H B. K. nov. gen. et sp. vol. 7* p* I92| (ed. 

folio). 
Hab. in littore Novo Granatensii juxta El 2iapote ad ostia 

fluminis Binu, prope Cartbagenam, et ad Turbaco, alt. 180 

hexap. H. et B. 

28. G. saUctfolia, Aug. St. Hil. et Tulasne in Ann. des sc. 
nat. ser. 2, vol. 17> p. 137- 

Hab. prope Bio de Janeiro, Ildrf. Gomez, ex A. St. Hil. et 
Tul. 

29. G. curvaia, A. St. Hil. fl. Bras. mer. 1, p. 68. 

Hab. in sylvis prope viculum Carahype, prov. Spmtua 
Sancti, baud longe a littore maris; A. S. H. 

30. G. ctupidata, A. St Hil. 1. c. p. 67* 

G. serratula, Pohl.pl. Bras. \,p.lld, tab. 18], fide, A, St. 

Hil. et Tul. 
Hab. in sylvis primeevis ad littora fluminis Parahyba, prope 

villam Uba, prov. Bio de Janeiro, alt. circit. 600 ped.^ cl. 

A. St. HiL 

31. G. ^mula, Pohl, pi. Bras. 2, p. 180, tob. 182. 



SUB hE OBNRB GODOYA. 11 

Hab. in BrasUiaB, proTinda Rio de Janeiro. Pohl. 

Ob8. Cette espdoe n'estpeut-^tre pas assez distincte de la 
pr^o^ente, ainsi que Font soup9onn^ MM. Aug, de St. Hil. 
et Tulasne. Je regrette de n'avoir yu d'ecbantillon authen- 
tiqae que du seul 6. serrattUa. 

32. G. oUv^ornUs, A. St. Hil. fl. Bras. mend. 1^ p. 67* 
Hah. in sylvis prope Eio de Janeiro, A. Si. £fi/. Miersj 

Gardn. in herb. Hook. 

33. 6. /amatcenm, nov. sp. 

O.glaberrima; foliis oblongis^ intrinque acutis^ cuspidatis^ 
integris y. remote et obtuse denticulatis, supra .livide 
yirentibus^ subtus fiiscis^ coriaceis, nitidis; nervis latera- 
libus^ cunris, utrinque vix prominulis; paniculee termi- 
nalis ramis divergentibus ; floribus majusculis; antheris 
sublaevibus. 

Species pulchra^ habitu 6, olivofformis ; foliis 3^ poU. longa^ 
1^ poll, lata, patentia, subdeflexa; pedicelli et calyces 
inaperti siccitate nigrescentes ; petala late cuneato^bovata, 
calyce majora. 

Hab. in Jamaica, Mae Fadyen in herb. Hook. 

34. O. JabotapUa, Sw. fl. Ind. Occid. 2, p. 740 ; DC. in ann. 
du mus. 179 P* ^18, (ezclus. syn. Marcgr.) 

Hab. in insulis Antillanis ? Plum. 

35. G. squamosa, DC. 1. c. tab. 12. 
Hab. in insula Tobago ? DC. 

Obs. a en juger d'apr^s des figures, cette esp^ce parait 
eztr^mement voisine de ia suivante. 

36. G. Mexicana, H. B. pi. equin. 2, tab. 74. 

Hab. in calidis inter Acapuko et Chilpancingo, regni Mexi- 
cani, Humb. et Bonp. 

37- G. Jurgensemi, nov. sp. 

6« glaberrima ; foliis anguste lanceolatis, longe acuminatis, 
acutissimis, basi excepta argute serratis, tenuibus, rigidis, 
fragilibtts, nitidis, pulcbre arcuato-nervosis ; paniculae 
terminalis brevis laxiusculae depauperatSB ramis patenti- 
bus, bracteatis ; pedicellis gracilibus, longiusculis ; antheris 
sessilibus, tenuiter rugulosis. 



12 8UR LB GENRE GODOYA. 

Sp. elegans : epidermis ramulorum grisea, subleevis, nitida : 

folia 3i-4 poll, longa, vix 1 poll, lata, exquisite acuminata; 

petiolus 2-3 lin. longus ; stipulee valde deciduae non visa ; 

panicula foliis brevior ; flores in specimine manco semi- 

destructi. 
Has. in regni Mexicani montibus, dictis Sierra San Pedro 

Nolasco, Jurgens^ coU. n. 779- 

Cette esp^ce, la seconde qui soit d^crite du Mexique 
se reconnaitra sans peine k ses feuilles ^troites, tr^s 
longuement acumin^es, k reticulation delicate; elle est tr^ 
distincte du G. Mexicana, 

38. G. nitidaj Sw. fl. Ind. occid. 2, p. 739 ; DC. in ann. du 
mus. I79tab. 13??? 

Has. in Jamaica, Sw. ; in insul. S. Thomariiy DC. ; in in- 
sula Antigua ? Dr. Nicholson^ in herb. Hook. 

39. G. Gtdldingi^ nov. sp. 

G. foliis breve petiolatis, patenti-subdefleus, elliptieo-ob- 
longis, utrinque acutiusculis, basi excepta tenuiter serru- 
latisy glaberrimisj rigidis, coriaceis, discoloribus ; nervis 
secundariis crebris, tenuibus, prominulis ; paniculis e ramis 
denudatis ortis, brevibus ; pedicellis alabastro longioribus, 
calycibusque minute resinoso-puberulis ; antheris supra 
medium rostratis, transverse rugulosis, pons apicalibus 
minutis. 
Frutex v. arbor : ramuli crebri, angulo recto-patentes ; folia 
1^-2 poll, longa, dimidio lata, dura, supra olivaceo-fusca, 
lucida, subtus pallidiora, opaca; pubes inflorescentiie et 
calycum pulveracea, granulis minutissimis, vitreis con- 
spersa. 
Hab. in insula S. Vincentii, Rev. L. GuUding, in herb. 
Hook. 

Cette espece me parait bien distincte de la plante que 
De CandoUe a figur^efsous le nom de G. fdiida, (Mem. cit. 
tab. 13), et qui n'est probablement pas la m^me que celle de 
Swartz. Les diSi^rences spdcifiques sont, dans ce genre, 
si difficiles a rendre par des mots, qu'il est souvent impos- 
sible d'arriver k des determinations siires d'apr^s de simples 



SUB LE OBNBE GODOYA. 13 

descriptions. Aussi n'ai*je rapport^ qu'avec doute au 6. 
nUida lea ^hantillons de Pile d'Antigue d^j& mentionn^s. 
Void les di£f(£rences qui s'observent entre ees derniers et 
Peaptee id d^crite. Leors anth^res, & peine rugueuses, 
n'ofirent pas de retr&nssenient brusque et s'ouvrent par des 
pores asaea largea ; leurs calices sent Ik-peu-prfts glabres : les 
anthteea du G. OuUdingi sent, au contraire^ tr^s sen- 
aiblement rugueuses et brusquement retries en bee ; ses 
calices aont converts d'une couche pulv^rulentCj oi^ la loupe 
£ut voir dea petits granules crystallins, Les feuiUes et 
l^nflorescenoe sont les mSmes chez les deux plantes. C'est a 
oeuz qui poas&dent beaucoup de plantes des diverses iles des 
Antilles, et qui pourront les comparer avec des types 
originauz^ k d&nder s'il n'existe pas plusieurs especes con- 
fonduea sous le nom de O. niiida. 
40. G. Surinamensia^ nov. sp. 

O* glaberrima ; foliis petiolatb, oblongis, acutiusculis, acumi- 
natis, supra basim serrulatis^ coriacds, nitidis, subcon- 
coloribus, planis; nervo medio latiusculo secundariisque 
aicuatia utrinque impressis; paniculee terminalis depau- 
perate ramis pauds racemiformibus, lazifloris ; pedicellis 
gracilibus, alabastris duplo longioribus; calycibus post 
anthesim reflexis (an persistentibus ?) ; antheris undulato- 
mgulosis. 
Frutex v. arbor? ramuli stricti, keves, teretes, fusci; sti- 
poIflB foliorum juniprum subulatse, petiolum 2 lin. longum 
aupra sulcatum eequantes. Folia 2-3 poll, longa, 1-2 poll, 
lata. 
Hah. in GuyanM Batavica, prope Surinam, Dr. Hoatmann, 
in herb. Hook. 

Obs. On distinguera sans peine cette esp^e du G. nitida, 
par ses nenrures imprim^es k la face sup^rieure des feuilles, 
et par ses anth^res qui ne sont pas simplement rugueuses, 
mais comma chiffonn^s par des pUs transversaux. Je 
pourrais la croire identique avec le G. cardiosperma, DC, 
dont on ne connaSt que les fruitSj tandis quails manquent 
dana lea dchantillons de mon esp^ce. Cependant, les ovaires 



14 BUR LS OBNBS GODOTA. 

ni^me an peu grosms ne m^offirent encore dans leurs lobes 
aucane tendance vers cette forme remarquable^ qui caract^ 
rise les carpelles murs da O. cardioiperma. 

41. O. acumnata^ DC. in Ann. da mas. 17^ tab. 14. 
Hab. in Brasilia, DC L c. 

42. 6. iubscandeng, nov. sp. 

O. glaberrima ; foliis patentibas v. subdeflexis, oblongis, aca- 
minatis, ab apice infra mediam obsolete et obtuse serratis, 
ooriaceis, subaveniis, nervo medio supra lato impresso, 
subtas acute prominulo, secandariis tenuibus, crebris, ar- 
cuatis, utrinque impressis; panicuke terminalis, magnsd, 
ramis elongatis, incurvo-patentibas, maltifloris, ebracteatis ; 
fioribus mediocribus, confertis, pediceUo subesquilongis ; 
petalis caneato*oboyatis, calyce parom longioribas) antheris 
sessilibus transverse rugulosis. 

Frutez subscandens, Gardn. ; rami teretes, griseo-fusci, len- 
tioeUis punctiformibus adspersi; folia majora 3^-4 poll, 
longa, l|-2 lata; serraturte versus folii apicem remotee, 
obtusissimiB, interdam obsolete^ ; substantia foUi tenax nee 
fragilis ; petiolus 2 lin. longus, supra canaliculatus, margi- 
nibus involutis, rubro-nigrescens : paniculee subpedalis 
rami inferiores longi superioresque gradatim abbreviati, 
compresso-angulati ; baccie 1-2 subelliptico-obovatee, la- 
teribus compressse, gynobasi globosee iisdem crassiore insi- 
dentes. 

Hab. in sylvis prope Pemambuco^ frequens— Oorifo. n« 956, 
in herb. Hook. 

43. O. hexoiperma, A. St HiL pi. us. Bras. n. 38> cum 
icon. 

Hab. in campis arboribustortuosisintersitis baadinfrequens, 
prsdsertim in partibus prov. Minas Geraes, qum dicuntur 
Minas nova$ et Certdo do Rio de 8. Firancisco, A. 8L IBI. 
provincia Piauhy, Oardn. in herb. Hook. n. 2511. 

44. Q.peniiieni, A. St. Hil. fl. Bras. mend. 1, p. 56, (ann. 
1825.) 

Hab. In montibas dictis Serra da Caraqa, prov. Mina$ 
Geraei, A. St HiL 



SUR LB GKNRB GODOYA. 15 

44 bis. 6. semUerraia, Mart, et Nees, in nov. [act acad. nat. 

ear. vol. 12, p. 42, (ann. 1824.) 
Has. in prov. JUnuu Geraes, prope TamburU et Valos-^ 
Mori. 

Ob8. C'est a dessein que je donne k cette esp^ce le mSme 
nnin^ro d'ordre qu'a la pr^dente. Je pr^iume en effet 
qu'il faudra lea r^anir, loraqu'une suite nombreuse d'^chan- 
tillons permettra de saisir le passage de Pane a I'autre. La 
collection de Sir W. Hooker renferme un ^chantillon envoy^ 
de rhwbier de Berlin, sous le nom de G. semiserrata, auquel 
M. Elotzsch joint comme synonyme celui deperristens. Si d'un 
cAt^ je n'ai pas un doute que cette plante est le vrai 6. semp- 
urratOf je trouve d'autre part entr'elle et ce que je crois £tre 
le O. persUtem dea differences que je rais signaler, en langage 
technique, sans £tre moi-m^me persuade de leur Constance 
oa de leur yaleur sp^cifique. 

G* persittenSf ex speciminibus in prov. Minaa Oerae$j a CI. 
Langidoffff et a cL Clau$emo lectis ; folia oblonga, crassa, 
S-4 polL longa, supra basim obtusiuscule serrata, nervo 
medio rubente, lateralibus subtus nullis ; nuni floriferi 
crassi ajuce lapsu perularum profunde annulati. 
0« aemiserratai Mart, et Nees, ex specim. herb. Berolin, a 
CL [Klotzsch nominato ; — partibus omnibus prescedente 
gncilior : folia vix 2 polL longa, minus crassa, ab apice 
infira medium argute serrata, nervo medio concolore, late- 
ralibus nervulisque reticulatis utrinque tenuiter promi^ 
nolis. 
Inflorescentia et flores in utraque plane consimiles. 

45. O. ctutane^^Ua, DC. 1. c. tab. 11. 

Hab* Frequens in campis prov. iSnas novoi et in parte 
ooddentali prov. Mifuis Geraes qua didtur Certdo; nee 
non adripas fluminis dicti JZto FisriuimOfA. St. Hil.ilfifuu 
Geraes, CJaussen. Piauhy; Gardner, n« 2510, in herb. 
Hook. 

46. G. iUeifolia, DC. 1. c. tab. 418. 
Hab. In insula 8. Domingo, DC. 



16 8UU LE GENRE GODOYA. 

47 O. Umgifolia, DC. 1. c. tab. 10. 
Hab. In GuadalupOf DC. 

48. G.floribunda, A. St. Hil. fl. Bras. mend. 1, p. 64. 
Hab. In campis altis (vulgo Chapadas) partium prov. Minos 

Geraes quae dicuntur Minaa novas et Distrito dos Diamanies, 
prssertim prope pagos MUhoverde, Rio Manso et 8. Jodo, 
A. St. Hil. ; in montibus dictis Serro do Frio, Crordn. Bras, 
n. 4489, in herb. Hook. 

49. G. Claussemif nov. sp. 

O. glaberrima ; foliis confertis^ erecto-imbricatis^ subsessili- 
bu8 oblongis, utrinque acutis, argute serratis^ ooriaceis, 
nitidis ; nervis tenuibus parallele arcuatis utrinque promi- 
nulis ; paniculee terminalis ramis strictis, elongatis, racemi- 
formibus ; pedicellis alabastro ovato acuto subaequalibus ; 
antheris sessilibus, undulato-rugosis. 

Ramus unicus adest simplex^ rigidus, foliis erectis tectus, 
cortice non suberoso, sub epidermide cinerascente partim 
detersa, fulvo. Folia fere Castanea sed minora^ 2-3 poU. 
longa, 10-15 lin. lata, faciebus subconcoloria nervus pri- 
marius latiusculus, utrinque prominulus ; secundarii crebri^ 
versus marginem folii inter se vix connexi, venis tenuibus 
intertexti ; paniculee vix semipedalis rami angulati, ebrac- 
teati, subglaucescentes ; sepala-ovato lanceolata^ 2^-3 lin. 
longa, obtusiuscula, interiora margine late scariosa ; petala 
calyce paulo longiora. 

Hab. In prov. Minos Geraes ; Claussen, in herb. Hook. 
Obs. Les dents assez profondes des feuilles et le d^aut 

de bract^s et de stip^es sur les branches fleuries feront 

distinguer cette espice de la pr^c&lente. Ses feuilles presque 

sessiles et dresses lui donnent un aspect tr^s di£f(£rent 

de celui du O. costanentfoUoy DC. 

50. G. con/ertiflara, Pohl, pi. Bras. 2, p. 117, tab. l79. 
6. lanceolata, Pohlf L c. tab. 178 ? 

Hab. in campis provincis Goyaz, PoU; prope San Do* 
mingos, Gardn. herb. Bras. n. 4107 ; prope Natividade, 
Gardn. n. 3081, in herb. Hook. 



8UH LR eSNRB OODOYA. IJ 

Oirs. Je croirais que cette esp^ce est la m^me que le G. 
humiliSf A. St. Hi}. si les nervures de celle-ci n'^taient d^rites 
comme ti^s peu saillantes, tandis qu'elies le sont d'une 
manidre asses remarquable sur les ^chantillons que je rap« 
porte a I'esp^oe de M. Pohl, 

51. 6. Aumilis, A. St Hil. fl. Bras, men 1, p. 66. 

Hab. In BrasiHee campis herbidis arboribus tortuosis in- 
tersitis baud infrequeus, praasertim prope urbem Paracatu, 
prov, Mmas Geraes, et in parte australi provinciee Goyaz, 
A. St. Hil. 

52. G. nana, A. St. Hil L c. p. 66, tab. 12. 

Hab. In campis herbidis prope pagum ForinAa Podre, in 
parte occidental! prov. Minos Geraes, baud procul a finibus 
provinciffi S. Pauli, A. St. Hii. 

53. G. pubescenSj A. St. Hil. et Tul. in ann. des sc. nat. 
s6p. 2, vol 17, p. 137. 

Hab. In provincia Minas Geraes. 

54. G. subvetutinoj no v. sp. 

O. tota adpresse lutescenti-^velutina ; foliis ellipticis, basi 
complicata in petiolum brevissimum ailgustatis, apice ob- 
tiisisy margine integerrimo insigniter revolutis ; nenris se- 
cundariis supra obsolete, subtus valde prominentibus reti- 
cnlo nenrulorum densissimo intertextis; racemis subsim- 
plicibus, longiusculis, nunc axillaribus, seepius in panicu- 
lam terminalem ooUectis ; pedicellis flori subeequalibus ; 
antberis rugosis calyce parum brevioribus. 

Arbor humilis, Gardn. Rami crebri, patentes, novelli velu- 
tini ; folia exacte elltptica, apice obtusiusoulo mucronulata, 
coriacea, cinnamomeo-Iutescentia : stipulee (foliorum ju- 
niorum) lineari-subulatee, acutissimce, 2^ lin. longs, ca- 
duca ; pedicelli teretes, 2^ lin. longi. 

Fl. Aug. 

Hab. In collibus siccis prope Paranagoa^ provinc. Piauhy-^^ 
Gardn. herb. Bras. n. 2513. 
Obs. Cette esp^ce se rapproche par ses caract^res des 

G. nana et ole^olia, mais elle est tr^s distincte de toutes deux. 

VOL. VI. c 



18 • SUB LB GBNBB GODOYA. 

55. O. brachyandrat nov. sp. 

6. minutissime puberula ; foliis brevissime petiolatis, ovatisy 
T. oblongo-ellipticis, obsolete serrulatis v. subintegris, co- 
riaceis^ viridi-lutescentibus ; nervis secundariis arcuatis; 
paniculee terminalis ramis nunc confertis, abbreviatis, nunc 
elongatis racemiformibus, pedicellis flore sublongioribus ; 
calycibus pube cinnamomeo-castanea indutis ; floribus par- 
Tis; antheris plane sessilibus, rugulosis, vix 2 lin. longis. 
var. a. ovata. 

Frutex 6-8 pedalis, foliis subsessilibus, ovatis^ basi subcorda- 
tis ; panicula conferta. Folia li-2 poll, longa, 15 lin. lata. 
/3. intermedia. 

Frutex 2^ pedalis^ foliis ovato-lanceolatis, basi obtusis ; pa- 
nicula minus conferta. 
y. elliptica. 
Frut. 6 ped.^ foliis oblongo-ellipticis^ utrinque subacutius- 

culis ; ramis paniculee elongatis. 
Hab. Var. a. in montibus dictis Serra do Mato Grosso,pTOY. 
Pemambuco, — Crordn. n. 2805 ; /3. in collibus aridis are- 
nosis districtus Bio Preto, prov. PemambucOf — Gardn. n. 
- 2807 ; y. ad Paranagoa^ et prope Craio^ prov. Piauhy — 
Gardn. n. 2512 et 1515. 

Au milieu des variations de forme de ses feuilles^ cette 
espice conserve constamment son €corce fendill^ en long, 
la teinte mate que communique k son feuillage et ii son in- 
florescence un duvet d'un vert-jaunfitre ou de couleur 
canelle, et ses fleurs, dont les anth^res tout-a-&it sessiles 
persistent apr&s la chftte du calice, asses long-temps pour qu'on 
remarque leur peu de longueur. On risque peut-^tre de la 
oonfondre avec le 6. pubescens, A. St. HiL et TuL ; mais 
celle-d k ^aquelle je crois pouvoir rapporter le n. 4489 
de la collection de M. Gardner, a des nervures beaucoup 
plus longues. 
56. O. okmfolia^ A. St Hil. pi. rem. Bras, et F^. 1, p. 24« 

tab. 9. 
Hab. Frequens in dumetis Brasilice vulgo Carroicoa^ pr»- 
serdm prope pagum & Joio, in parte boreali provinciie 



8UR LB GBNRB GODOYA. 19 

Minas Geraes quee dicitur Mina^navasy A. St. Hil. In pro- 
Tine Goyaz — Gardn. herb. Bras. n. 2810. 

57. 6. ovoBb, Pobl, pi. Bras. 2, tab. 180. 

Hab. In campis inter arbores humiles circa Fa;sendade Dona 

Severtiuh in parte septentrionali capitaniee GoyaZj — Pohl, 

Gardn. n. 3635. 
Var. glabrata ; in prov. Goyaz, Gardn. herb. Bras. n« 3082 et 

4106. 

Obs. Cette espece est tr^s facile a reconnattre ii ses ra- 
meaux sub6reux dont I'^piderme se d^truit de bonne heure ; 
i ses feuilles sessiles reticul^es, et a ses calices presque tou- 
jours couverts d'une couche pulv€rulente. Ses feuilles sont 
tantdt aigu^s, tantdt obtuses ; le plus souvent pubescentes^ 
d'autres fois glabres comme dans les ^chantilloos de M. 
Ghirdner. 

58. G. nfirotfo, A. St. Hil. fl. Bras. mer. 1^ p. 62. 

Hab. In campis herbidis prope dvitatem Croyaz s. VUla 
Boa^ baud iufrequens, A. S. H. 

59. Qi.glatuct9C€n»^\. St. Hil. fl. Bras, merid. 1, p. 68, tab. 18. 
Hab. In campis herbosis partis occidentalis provinc. Mimas 

Geraes, quas dicitur Certdo do Rio de S. Francisco, A. St. 
Hil. Serra da Batalha, Rio Preto, prov. Pemambuco, — 
Gardn. herb. Bras. n. 2809. 

60. G. rotundifoUa, Gardn^ in Field, sert. tab. 34. 

Hab. In sabulosis aridis circa Bahiam, Saltzm.^ Blanchet, n. 
1840. 

61. Q.parvifoUa, A. St. Hil. fl. Bras, merid. 1, p. 65. 
Hab. In eampis herbidis partis occid. prov* Minas Geraes 

yulgo dictee Cerido do Rio de S. Francisco, pceecipue prope 
pagura Curaqdo de Jesus, A. St. HiL 

62. G. Blanchetiana, nov. sp. 

6. ramulis azique inflorescentiee pubescentibus ; foliis parvis, 
uvalibua, basi obtusissimis v. subcordatis, apicem versus 
acutiusculum v. obtusatum ssepius paucidentatis^ cceterum 
integris, planis ; venulis utrinque impressis, subobsoletis ; 
paniculis terminalibus brevibus; calycibus glaberrimis, 
petalis obovatis parum brevioribus ; antheris transverse ru- 
gulosis. c 2 



20 SCR LE GENRE GODOYA. 

Frutex verosimiliter dumosus, ramosissimus : rami glabri 

tortuosi, cinerei ; ramuli pube brevissima rufidula induti ; 

folia vix I poll, longa, 8-10 iin. lata; petiolus H lin. 

longus, supra sulcatas, rubescens ; nervus primarius supra 

prominulus, subtus impressus^ subrubescens ; paniculee vix 

2 poll, long®, parum ramosee ; pedicelli 6 lin. longi, minu- 

tissime puberuli; flores expansi diamet. circit. 7-8 lii^* 

Obs. Cette espece parait Stre voisine du G. /lam/b/ta, 

dont elle se distinguera sans peine par ses feuilles, qui 

n'offrent pas m^me une tendance a se rouler sur les bords^ 

par ses petioles plus longs^ et ses calices tout-ft-fait glabres. 

63. 6. rufidula, nov. sp, 

G. ramosissima ; ramulis inflorescentiaque minute velutino- 
puberulis; foliis parvis, ovato-oblongis, basi obtusis y. 
acutiusculisy supra medium ad apicem argute serratis, 
coriaceis^ planis^ subaveniis^ siccitate rufidulis, nitidis ; 
paniculis terminalibus, brevibus, parum ramosis ; calycibus 
dedduis ; baccis 3-4 (immaturis) ovoideis, gynobasi valde 
incrassatae affixis. 

Frutex habitu prsecedentis, circiter 8-pedalis, rami crebri, 
tortuosi, cinerei; stipulse e basi latiuscula cuspidatee 
petiolo 1-1^ lin. longo^ folio concolori subaequales; 
nervus primarius supra prominulus, subtus impressus; 
secundarii tenuissimi, arcuati, utrinque immersi, vix con- 
spicui. 

Hab, Incollibus siccis dumetosis, prope Paranagoa, infre- 
quens, Gardn, herb. Bras. n. 2509. 

64. G. vaccimoideg, A. St. Hil. et Tul. in ann. des sc. nat. 
ser. 2, vol. I7f p- 137- 

Hab. In montibus Organensibus prope Rio de Janeiroy 
Guillem. — Gardn. n. 5691 ; crescit etiam in prov. S. Pauli 
ex A. St. Hil. et Tul. 

65. G. cassinafolia^ DC. in ann. dumus. vol. 17> tab. 18. 
Hab. In Brasilia, DC. in prov. Bahiensis Serra Jacobina^ 

Blanch, n. 3140 ; Pemambuco,— Gardn. n. 2807 ? 

Obs. Siy comme je le crois^ le n. 2807 de la collection de 
M. Gardner se rapporte i cette espece, ses feuilles peuveut 
^fTA Annmin^es et aiguSs, au lieu d'etre trfes obtuses comme 



SUR LB GENRE GODOYA. 21 

dans les ^chantUlons de M. Blanchet, et ceux qu'a figures 
De CandoUe. Lear nervure moyenne est toujours rou- 
gefttre. 

66. 6. aguaiicaj H. B. E. nov. gen. et sp. 6, p. 14. 
Hab. Ad Orinocum prope Javitam; H..B. 

67. 6. SchomburgkU, nov. sp. 

G. glaberrima ; foliis oblongis, acute cuspidatis, basi acuta in 
petiolum breyem attenuatis, argute serratis, coriaceis^ mi- 
nute reticulatis : racemo terminali^ simplici, densifloro ; 
floribus geminatis y. tematis, majusculis ; calycibus nigres- 
centibus, pedicellis subsqualibus. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa, 1-1^ poll, lata^ exsiccatione fasces- 
centia, nervo medio utrinque prominulo, lateralibus vix 
manifestis, reticulo nervulorum denso utrinque parum con- 
spicuo. 

Had. In Guyana Anglica^ ad fluvium Berlncey leg. cl. Schomb^ 
ann. 1837 ; in Demerara, — Dr. Hancock, — Dr. Ntchoborif in 
herb. Hook. 
Obs. Cette esp^ce est tres voisine de la suivante^ qui s'en 

distinguera surtout par ses feuilles tr^s entieres. 

68. G. grandiflora, DC. 1. c. tab. I7. 
Has. In Guyana ad Bio Negro, DC. 

Sp. non satis nota. 

69. G. veriiciUaia, Fl. Flum. vol. 5, tab. 89, (sub Ochna). 
Hab. In Brasilia. 

Obs. Cette remarquable espece, qui parait tr^s distincte 
de toutes celles que j'ai ^num^r^es, doit probablement se 
placer pr^s du G. suaveolens et du G. Miersiana, (sup. n. 17 
et 18). J'ai d^crit plus haut le G. stipulacea figur^ sous le 
nom d'OcAna stipulata dans le Flora FluminensU : VOchna 
Jabotapiia du m^me ouvrage est ^videmment le G. parvifiora. 
Quant aux autres esp^ces du m^me ouvrage que je n'ai pu 
identifier avec les ^chantillons que j'ai sous les yeux, il est 
prudent d'attendre qu'elles aient re9u cette sanction, avant de 
les admettre dans un tableau comparatif de la distribution 
g^raphique du genre. 



22 BUR LB GBNBE GODOYA. 

Apres ces details descriptifB dont les r^saltats peuvent 
seuls faire pardonner Paridit^, nous passons h considerer les 
OchnacieSf d'abord^ comme groupe distribu^ sur divers 
points du globe, et pais, comme province circonscrite de 
cette carte d'affinit^s dont il est permis de r^ver I'existence, 
quoique ses pdles et ses cercles restent encore k fixer. 

Toutes les Ochnacfes capsulaires ou Luxemburgi^es ap- 
partiennent aux regions tropicales de PAm^rique du Sud. 
Les ^l^gants Luxemburgia fournissent, suivant M. Aug. de 
St. Hilaire, un des traits caract^ristiques de cette remar- 
quable flore qui couronne les parties ^levees de la province 
de Minas Geraes^ et qui s^pare la region des bois vierges de 
celle des pays d^couverts, sans ^tablir un passage entre leurs 
vegetations si diff6rentes. La seule esp^ce de Luxemburgia 
qui sorte de cette region est le L. cUiosa, Mart.^ qui crott 
^galement dans la province des Mines et sur les montagnes 
des Orgues, dans le voisinage de Bio de Janeiro. 

Le Blastemanthus {Oodoya gemtMflora^ Mart, et Zucc.) 
observe d'abord par M. Martins sur les rives du fleuve 
des Amazones^ existe dans la collection de M. Schomburgk^ 
tr^s probablement du Bio Negro. 

Le Perou et la Nouvelle Grenade se partageraient en 
egales parts les Cespedesia et les Godoya, si Ton admettait 
comme genre distinct notre Godoya k feuilles pinnees. Tons 
Bont de grands arbres qui font I'omement des lieux ou ils 
croissent et fournissent aux usages des habitants un bois 
predeux par sa durete. 

Isoie par ses caract^res des Luxemburgiees dont il pos- 
sfede les traits exterieurs, VEuthemis nous transporte au 
milieu de la v^tation luxuriante de la Peninsule Malayenne 
et des lies adjacentes. Ses deux esp^ces sont, avec deux 
Gomphiay les seuls repr^sentants de la famille des Ocbnacees, 
dans cette riche region de la flore Asiatique. 

L'ancien monde est la patrie exclusive des Ochna. Des 
dix-huit esp^ces connues, cinq'habitent la pointe australe 
de PAirique^ assez loin hors du tropique pour que deux 
d'entr'elles soient comprises dans les limites de la colonie da 



SUR I<S OBNRB OODOYA. 25 

Cap;* Madagascar en possede deux; Pile de France une 
settle; nn autre croit k Sierra Leone; Pespece du S^n^al 
existe, suivant MM. Ouillemin et Perrottet, dans les col- 
lections de Palisot de Beauvois, probablement d'Oware et 
de Benin ; celle que Forskal observa dans I'Arabie heureuse 
ressemble beaucoup k 1*0. airopurpurea du Cap ; Ceylan a 
deux esp^oes qui lui sont propres ; la P^ninsule de Tlnde en 
a foumi cinq dans sa region chaude, tandis qu'au pied de la 
cbalne qui en forme la barri^re septentrionale,!' OeAna/wmt/a, 
par ses proportions naines, annonce Taction d'un climat 
moins chaud, et plus encore la tendance qu'ont toutes les 
plantes d'une r^on donn^e vers une certaine uniformity 
de T^^tation, dont les causes complexes ^chappent k tout 
calcttl partiel. 

Un point de la v^g^tation des Ochna qui m^rite d'etre 
rappel^ c'est que plusieurs esp^ces des pays chauds se 
d^pouillent chaque ann^e de leurs feuilles, et que les fleurs^ 
soit qu'elles pr^c^dent ou accoropagnent les jeunes pousses, 
naisflent toujours de bourgeons s^par6s« Beaucoup de 
Wg^taux des Tropiques pr^sentent le m£me ph^nom^ne: 
c'est & ce d^pouillement complet que certains bois du Br^sil, 
les CaiinffOSy doivent leur caract^re particulier^ et, comme les 
phases de v^g^tation provoqu^es par des causes g^n^rales, 
influencent d'une mani^re presque uniforme les organismes 
les plus diflf4£rents, il serait bien k d^sirer qu'on eut des 
donn^ positives sur la proportion d'espftces et de genres 
que chaque ordre naturel foumit k ces associations. Plus 
pi^deuses encore, mais plus difficiles k obtenir seraient des 
obserrations comparatives sur la liaison qui existe entre les 
phases de la v^g^tation et Tinfluence combin^e du sol, du 
climat, des formes organiques, dans des contr^es situ^ 
sous la m£me latitude, mais sous des m^ridiens diffifrents. 

Le genre Oonq^Ma, qui, a raison du nombre de ses espices, 

* C'Mt par inadvertance que rOehm Dtlagoenni k 6i6 indiqu^ ci-deasus 
(p. 655)y comme croiaeant dans cea limitea. 



'24 SUR LE OBNRE OODOTA. 

forme le noyau central de sa tribu, est commun aux parties 
cbaudes des deux mondes. La seule espece qui croisse hors 
des Tropiquesy est le Gomphia pulchelia de Pile Ste. Catherine ; 
mais cet empi^tement du genre bors de ses limites est plus 
apparent que reel ; car les lignes qui d^finissent Taguement 
des vegetations limitropbes sont loin de co'incider avec les 
divisions astronomiques de la sphere, et Tile de Ste. Cathe- 
rine par exemple, quoique situ^e entre les 27^me et 28^me 
degr^s de latitude sud, trop pres de la cdte du Br^sil pour 
avoir la vegetation anomale des iles perdues loin des conti- 
nents, possMe une flore d^un caract^re enti^rement tropi- 
cal. 

Le caract^re des stipules intraaxillaires et soud^es unit 
dans une section naturelle tons les Gomphia de I'ancien 
continent. Des quatorze especes connues^ sept habitent 
FAfrique occidentale; quatre Madagascar; une espece re- 
marquable est propre & Sumatra; une autre (douteuse quant 
au genre) vient de Tile Penang, sur la cdte ouest de la 
Peninsule Malay enne; enfin, le Gomphia anyustifoUa, Vabl, qui 
n'est pas rare k Ceylon, et sur deux cdtes de la Peninsule de 
I'Inde, se retrouve m6me dans les lies Philippines. C'est un fait 
digne de remarque qu'aucune espece d'Ochnacde n'ait encore 
6t6 signaiee k Java^ dont la vegetation est d'ailleurs si sem- 
blable & celle des ties adjacentes. 

Les Gomphia k stipules libres s'etendent dans le nouveau 
monde depuis les parties cbaudes da Mexique, d'oti Pon 
connait deux especes, et les Indes Occidentales, dont les 
lies en ont offert buit, jusqu'a Tile St. Catherine, oii le 
Gomphia pulcheUa ferme leur marche vers le sud. Abstrac- 
tion faite du Mexique et des Ues, il reste au continent 
Americain quarante-et-quatre especes de Gomphia, et, sans 
aucun doute, ce cbiffre est loin d'en representer le nombre reel. 
Tels qu'ils sont pourtant, les resultats numeriquea de nos 
recberches qui nous permettent de saisir quelques faits remar- 
quables dans la distribution du genre : d'abord, son absence 
absolue dans la flore du Perou ; sa rarete dans celle de la Nou- 



SUR LE GENRE OODOYA. 25 

▼elle Grenade, d'oi!l M. de Humboldt seal a rapport^ une 
esp^ce: et, tandis que dans les regions peu explores qui 
s'etendent vers le nord, entre le fleuve des Amazones, les 
Andes de la Colombie et I'Oc^an, huit esp^ces ont 6t6 
obsenreeS) le Br^il k lui seal en a fourni quatre fois ce 
nombre. II est vrai que pour donner k ce calcul un int^r^t 
tres r^el, il faudrait Fappuyer sur des limites moins arbi- 
traires que celles des divisions politiques : mais un tel degr^ 
de perfection sera long-temps le but et non I'apanage 
de la science ; et bien long-temps le zele et la patience des 
naturalistes s'exercerontsur des calculs approximatifs, au lieu 
de d^dttire les consequences de principes fix^s et de donnees 
nuoi^riques completes. 

La grande proportion de Gamphia que renferme la flore 
de fir&il se con9oit, d'un cdt^, par la vaste ^tendue de 
son domaine, mais plus encore par la vegetation vari^e 
qui en couvre la surface et dont chaque type, r^clamant 
d'ordinaire quelques especes de chaque grand genre^ en 
modifie I'apparence ext^rieure, sans efiacer les traits qui 
les rattachent k leurs families respectives. Les for^ts vierges 
ont leurs GompUa k tronc droit et souvent eianc^; les 
especes des Carrascotf^ ne sont plus que des buissons nivel^s 
aux proportions de ces for^ts naines : d'autres especes fi- 
gurent parmi ces arbustes rabougris et tortueux, k ^corce 
Bub^reuse et le plus souvent rougeatre, qui sont clairsem^s 
dans les compos du CertZo du Rio San Francisco et de la 
province de Goyaz } c'est encore a la flore des campos qu'ap- 
partiennent ces especes de Gomphia dont les tiges simples, 
droites et roides^ s'^I^vent & peine de quelques pieds d'un 
caudex presque souterrain. 

* C'Mt le] nom qu'on donne au Br^sil k des sortes de (ortta naines 
fona^es d'arbrisseauz de trois ou^quatre pieds tr^s serr^s les uns contre 
lee antres. Ce genre de y^^tation caract^rise surtout les plateaux ^lev^s 
dela chatne de montagnes qui traverse la province des Mines. II occupe 
tow place importante dans les tableaux qu'ont trac^ de cette province d'un 
cdt^ M. Aug. St. Hilaire, et de Tautre MM. Martius et Spix. 





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BUB LB OBNBE GODOYA. 27 

D^montrer, comme le fit M. Atig. do St Hilaire, que 
la pr^tendue coincidence carpologique des Simaroub^es et 
des Ochnac^s repose sur une erreur d'observation, c'^tait, 
dans le fidt, rompre le seul lien qui semblait unir ces families, 
et laisser toute leur importance aux diff(£renc6s que De 
CandoUe a pris soin de signaler entre les deux. Mais, dans 
ce cas, comme dans mille autres, I'influence du prdjug^ 
a pr6valu sur P^vidence la plus claire,en sorte que le premier 
pas k faire vers la recherche des vrais rapports des Ochna- 
c^, c'est de sortir du cercle oii une sorte de fatality 
les a fix^es jusqu'^ ce moment. Laissant done les Sima- 
roub^es k la place que I'opinion presque unanime leur donne^ 
dans la mfime dasse que les Diosm^es et les Meliacees, 
il s'agit de saisir chez les Ochnac^es^ non pas des caract^res 
de detail dont les analogues se retrouvent chez toutes 
les classes, mais ce concensus de fades, de propri^t^s et 
d'organisation qui resume la constitution des groupes et 
trabit presque toujours leurs tendances naturelles. 

Et d'abord, par les deux premiers points le contact le plus 
intime s'^tablit entre les Ochna et les Erythroxylees. M^mes 
rameaux comprim^s, k bois dur, astringent, i ^piderme cribl^ 
de lenticelles saillantes; feuilles souvent caduques, m^me 
chez des especes tropicales ; stipules scarieuses soud^es deux 
i deux k I'aisselle des feuilles, et, souvent, k T^tat d*^cailles 
gemmaires, persistant le long des rameaux en deux series 
imbriqufes ; pMicelles uniflores naissant parfois de la partie 
d^nud^ des branches; si tant de points communs n'ont 
aucun poids dans la balance des affinit^s, on doit cesser 
de regarder Pinflorescenoe comme un caract&re essentiel 
des Ombellif^res, I'amertume comme le plus constant de 
oeuz dea Simaroub^s; il faut renoncer i ces signes ex- 
t^rieurs parce qu'ils sont frappants, et que par eux, Linn^ 
et Jussieu ont ^vit^ dans la pratique les fautes oOi devait 
les conduire une adhesion servile k certaines id^s pr6- 
oon^ues. 

lyautre part, il suffit de rapprocher VElvasia du Cah- 
phjfllum, pour constater la liaison ^troite des Ochnao^es 



28 RUB LB OBNBB OOBOYA. 

et des Gattif^res. Si dee feuilles altemes et stipul^es font 
distinguer sans peine le premier genre, ses fleurs seules, au 
contndre, ni61^es a celles d'un Cahphyllum^ pourraient d^fier 
le tact da botaniste, qui ne chercberait pas dans I'ovaire et 
la direction des ovules le seul caractere qui les distingue 
de toutes celles des CalophjUees. Encore cette difference 
est-elle peu importante, puisqu'elle existe au mdme degr^ 
entre l'£lvasia et les autres genres de la section dont il 
fait partie: en sorte que les variations de nombre et de 
direction des ovules suivant chez les Ochnac^es et les Gutti- 
f^res deux echelles dont les degr^s se correspondent, mul- 
tiplient les points de contact de ces deux groupes en 
opposant k la section des Clusi^es celles des Ochnac^es 
capsulaires, aux Calophyll^es a ovules d^finis et dresses da 
fond d'une loge unique, les Gomphi^es a loges monospermes 
et a ovules ascendants. 

II est un remarquable genre, le Lophira de Sierra Leone, 
qui, au facies, au bois astringent, aux feuilles fermes et reti- 
cul^es, aux p^dicelles articul^s des Ochnac^es, joint les fleurs, 
le fruit uniloculaire, les ovules dresses et Tembryon sans 
p^risperme des Cahphyllmn; tandis que les pieces de son 
calice d^velopp^es sous Ic fruit d^une mani^re tr^s in^gale 
ont fait na!tre Tidde de ses rapports avec les Dipt^rocarp^es. 
Dans le fait, il serait ^alement anomal dans les trois fa- 
milies auxquellesil emprunte ses caracteres les plus frappants, 
puisque ses styles seuls ne trouvent leurs analogues dans 
auoune d'elles. J'esp^re ^reprendre ce sujet avec detail en 
faisant conna!tre la structure excentrique et jusqu'ici pea 
comprise du curieux genre Anciatrocladus^ Wall. 

L'union immediate des Gomphi^es et des Luxembur- 
gi^es polyspermes, n'affaiblit en rien Taffinit^ de za 
demi^res avec les ^l^gants Lamradia, Au contraire, les 
rapports directs qu'un ingenieux botaniste* a si bien saisis 
entre ces plantes sont confirm^ par lear tendance commune 
vers un nouveau groupe dont les ^iments restent epars et 

•M.Aug, de St. HiL 



SUR LE GENRE OODOTA. 29 

que je ne saurais d^finir ici sans anticiper d'une mani^re 
incomplete les conclusions d'un prochain travail. II me 
suffira de citer parmi les genres d^crits de ce nouveau groupe 
{Ijnonanihea) Vlxionanihes, Jack (EmmenanthtuSy J Hook, et 
Am. GordonuBf «p. Roxb.) ; et VOchtocownus, Benth. 

Ce qui manquait ^ Linne pour donner de ses Ordines 
naiurales autre chose qu*une esquisse inachevde, ce que 
Jussieu a remplao^ mille fois par un tact merveilleux et en 
quelque sorte instinctif, c'^tait la connaissance d'un iiombre 
de plantes suffisant pour combler d'immenses lacunes dans 
le champ que la nature leur ouvrait. Une telle excuse, quoi- 
que plus faible de jour en jour, restera long-temps aux 
erreurs de cette partie de la science. Hier, des feuiUes 
simples semUaient ^tre un caractdre essentiel des Ochnac^es; 
aujourd'hui les feuilles pinnies du Godoya splendida^ dirigent 
notre attention vers des families qu'on aurait ^ peine song^ a 
rapprocherdeses congen^res. La ressemblance frappante deces 
feuilles avec celles de plusieurs Swartzides (le Zollemiay Mart., 
par exemple) rappelle tout d'un coup d^autres coincidences 
entre les Ochnac^es et le groupe entier des L^gumineuses. 
L'excentricit^ des ovaires,les ^tamines unilat^rales et souvent 
en partie st^riles, les antheres transversalement ridges et 
ouvertes au sommet par des pores, les bract^es et stipules 
scarieuses et finement strides, tant de points communs a des 
Ocbnac^ et des Cassia, trahissent une affinity que d'autres 
genres Yont rendre plus claire, tout en prouvant qu'elle n'est 
pcu imm^iate. 

Admettant, sur des Evidences bien reconnues, la liaison 
^troite des Leguroineuses et des Connarac^es, un seul chainon 
pent f^ la rigueur suffire pour rattacher ces derni&res aux 
GarnpUa. 11 nous est foumi par un genre nouveau,* dont je 
legrette de ne pouvoir illustrer par une figure les remar- 

• RioiosTACHYs, gen. nov. 
Ctlyi quinquepartitUB, laciniis oblongis, membranaceis, coloratia, aestiva- 
tioac imbricatis. Petala 5, liseari-oblonga, tenera, lutea. Stamina 10, 
•ubaqualia, sub disci depressi margine lO-undulato inserta, basi arti- 
culata. Filamenta subulate ; antbene parvie, oblongee, biloculares. 



so BUR LB GENRE OODOTA. 

quables caract^res. C'est un arbre du Mexiqae, avec les 
feuilles d'un Sapindua^ et des fleurs qui rappellent autant 
celles d'un Gomphia par leur aspect, que celles du Suriana 
par leur structure. En attendant^ que la connaissance de 
ses graines fixe tous les doutes sur sa place, je le placerais 

loculis rima lateral! debiscentibus. Ovaria 2, glaberrima, singula supra 
tuberculum elevatum albidum inseita, subglobosa, antice versus 
medium stylifera. Styli liberi stigmate capitato terminati. Ovula in 
ovario quoque 9, versus styli insertionem peritrope affixa, coUateralia, 
amphitropa> micropyle infera i Fruetus .... 

Arbor Mezicana, foliis aliemis, imparipiDoatis, foliolis 9-11 alterais, 
breve petiolatisy oblongis, cuspidatis, margine revolutis, subtus ele- 
vato-nervosis, rachi inter foliola anguste alata; stipulis semi-ovatis, 
brevibus, subdistinctis, intraaxillaribus ; paniculse terminalis, vast«» 
ramis distichis* patentibus, strictie, tertiariis spidformibua, conferte 
squamato-bracteatis ; bracteis parWs, ovatis, concavis, bracteolas 2 in 
axilla foventibus, pedicello duplo brevioribus; floribus eas Gomphianm 
referentibus. 

Species unica : Rigiostachys bracteaia* 

Has. in montibus ditionis Oaxacanae, versus mare Pacificum^ Cfaleotii, 
n. 7144y in herb. Hook, Nom.vemacul. Corazon bamto, ex Galeotti. 

Rami cylindiid, sub foliis lineis tribua parum elevatis e lateribus et dorso 
petioli decurrentibus angulati : epidermide brunnea, lenticellis crebris, 
punctiformibuSf ei concoloribus ezasperata. Folia (suprema) respectu 
paniculse brevia ; racbis communis 3-4 poUicaris; foliola oblonga, lf^3 
poU. longa, subdimidio lata, baai subsequalia, subobtusa, apice saepius 
acuminata^ margine integro, revoluto, obsoletissime nndulata, char- 
tacea, sicca fragilia, supra pube brevissima, tactu tantum perceptibili 
induta, subtus imprimis secus reticulum nervorum venarumqne ele- 
vatum puberula et intra nervos granulis minutissimis albidis crebre 
conspersa. Stipule brevissimae, in axilla petioli semi-conditae, gem- 
mulam eis parum longiorem stipantes. Panicula sesquipedalis, axi 
pfimario hinc iltinc ramos paucos patentee, iterum ramuliferos distiche 
exserents, apice in racemulos spiciformes confertiuscule divieo. Rm- 
cemi floridi 1-3 pollicares, stricki, inter flores subflexuosi ; bracteas 
parm, semi-amplectentee, ovatae, concavae, scariosae, margine subfim- 
briolats, dorso cinereo-pubescentes ; bracteolae 2 bracteie subcon- 
Ibrmee, in ejusdem axilla sessiles. Pedicelli vix S tin. longi, glaber- 
rimi ; calyx verodmiliter perustens, laciniis basi marginibus parum 
ifflbricatis, extus sub apice puberulis, brunneis, intus glabris, vixidi- 
flaveacentibut ; petala calice subduplo longiora* 2i-3 tin, looga, vix 
1 lin lata, aicat genitalia, glabenima. Flores odori flavi. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. SI 

pr^ du Suriana, comme un lien dft oonnnion entre les 
Connaracees et lea Ocknao^es. 

En r^sumd, le tsbkav des affinit^s des Ochnac^es, s'il 
m'^tait poanble de le tracer ici par des lignes, nous pr&en- 
terait gfonp^ sur lears limites, dans an ordre &-peu-pr^s 
OTVUIaire, les Malpighiac6es, les Erythroxyl^es, les Ixionan* 
ibees, les Temstromiac^es, les Guttif^res, le LopMra^ les 
Sauvagesi^s, le Suriana et le remarquable Bigiostctchya. Sur 
un second plan, du odte du Suriana seraient les L^gumineuses 
et des Connaracees ; et li^ aux Temstromiac^es par une 
affinity long-temps m^connue les genres qui se groupent 
autour du DiUefda et du Sauraiya. 



BOTANZOAI. INFORMATION. 



Thorba ramos^ssima, Borj ; found in the Thames. 

This beautiful and highly curious fresh-water Alga^ a 
native of the Adour and the Seine, in France, had hitherto, 
and only in Mr. Harvey's admirable Manual of British Algte, 
been admitted into the British Flora, as a native of a pool in 
a bog^ in the county of Donegal mountains, going from Letter- 
kenny to Dunfanaghy, *^ on the authority of a note in the 
late Mr. Templeton's MSS. whose well-known accuracy 
leaves no room to doubt his correctness in this instance, 
though he has not preserved a specimen in his Herbarium.^' 
Even Mr. Harvey had seen no British specimen. It was 
therefore to my great satisfaction that one of our many gar- 
deners of Kew who take an interest in scientific Botany, and are 
there sure to be encouraged in such pursuits, Wm. Mc. Ivor, 
brought to me such a mass of this plant from the Thames^ 
as clearly shows that it must grow there in immense 
quantities. Its habitat is the bed of the river, above 
Walton bridge, at low water exposed to view abundant- 



32 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

If, and when covered with clear water, showing itself as a 
▼ast gelatinoas mass^ of a purplish-black colour, yet ex- 
hibiting its filamentous internal structure in the same way 
as the Batrachosperma do, when seen with the naked eye. 
Some of the specimens were found to attain a length of 4 feet* 
Of all our fresh-water Alga^ none, as is well known by conti- 
nental specimens in our collections, make such beautiful 
specimens for the Herbarium, when neatly laid out on 
white paper: nor can any be more elegant among the 
marine Algm : even the colour improves in drying, becoming 
an intense purple, and giving out in desiccation a red- 
purple stain to the paper. The largest sized paper is, 
however, hardly big enough to receive the finest speci- 
mens, with their innumerable ramifications, which in them- 
selves are some feet long. Not only does the paper, on 
which they are preserved, but water, where the specimens are 
allowed to remain, receive a violet tinge; and linen, and 
cotton and silk, steeped in this fluid, become more or less 
deeply impregnated with it: but the colour, like that of 
many vegetable dyes, is very fugacious. A full history 
of this plant, and its chemical analysis, are given by Bory de 
St. Vincent, in the 12th vol. of the Annales du Musie, where 
the genus is first described, and named in honour of its 
discoverer, M. le Docteur Thore, a naturalist of Dax, and 
author of a Flora of the D6partement des Landes. In that 
memoir it is observed, as the result of the chemical analysis : 
" On voit par ces diverses experiences, combien le Thorea 
se rapproche des plantes qu'on a nomme animalisieSf par le 
rapport des principes qui les constituent, avec ceux des 
6tres plus parfaits. Quant a Pemploi qu'on pourrait faire 
de la fdcule, il est facile ; les peintres ont trouvd sa couche 
plus fine et plus brillante que celle des violets obtenus par 
d'autres proc^dds ; mais je doute que cette belle couleur fdt 
trfes-durable, & cause de Taction que Poxygene doit exercer 
sur elle, comme le d^montre Pune des experiences que nous 
avons rapport^s.'* 



BOTANICAL INFO&MATION. 33 



GUTTA PSRGHA. 

This is a vegetable substance, which though only 
known to Europeans for a few years, is now extensively 
used in the arts for various purposes, as a substitute 
for Caoutchouc, because it has the valuable property of 
dissolving without being volcanized. But while thus fre* 
quently employed, and constituting an important article of 
commerce, the plant which produces it was unknown, until, 
by a lucky accident, during the residence of Mr. Thos. 
Lobb in Singapore^ where he has been (and in other Malay 
islands) employed in a botanical mission by Mr. Veitch of 
Exeter, he detected this plant and sent home numerous 
specimens, which prove it to be a new sapotaceous Plant, 
of which a figure and description will shortly appear in 
this Journal, under the name of Bassia ? Hook. Accom- 
panying numerous well dried specimens,* (though unfor- 
tunately without corollas), Mr. Lobb judiciously sent small 
sections of the wood, which is peculiarly soft, fibrous and 
spongy, pale-coloured, and traversed by longitudinal re- 
ceptacles or reservoirs, filled with the gam, forming ebony- 
black lines. 

It appears that a gentleman, Dr. Montgomerie, was the 
person who first brought the Outta Percha into public notice. 
He writes thus, in the Magazine of Science, 1845, ^* I may 
not chum the actual discovuby of Chdta Percha^ for though 
quite unknown to Europeans, a few inhabitants of certain 
parts of the Malayan forests were acquainted with it. Many, 
however, of their neighbours, residing in the adjacent native 
villages, had never heard of it; and the use to which it 
applied was very trifling, for I could oAly ascertain that 



* These form a continuation of those beautiful sets of plants, of which 
the earlier ones were sent on sale, from Java, and announced at p. 198 of 
vol. 6 of this Journal, and of which the catalogue of names was published 
at p. 346 of the same volume. The names of the forthcoming ones will 
soon appear in the present Journal. 

VOL. VI. D 



S4 BOTANICAL INFOBIIATION. 

it was occasionally employed to make handles for parangs, 
(or wood-choppers), instead of wood or bufialo horn. So 
long ago as 1822, when I was assistant-surgeon at Singapore, 
I was told of Gutta Percha, in connexion with caoutchouc ; 
and some very fine specimens were brought to me. There 
are three varieties of this substance, Guiia Girek^ GuUa 
Tubariy and Ouita Percha. I may here mention that the 
latter name is often erroneously pronounced in England. The 
ch is sounded by the Malayans like those letters in our 
wotA perch (a fish). And attention to this point is of some 
importance ; for if our countrymen were to ask the natives for 
ChUta Perca, they would probably be told, that such a sub- 
stance was unknown, while plenty of GtUta Percha might be 
procured by pronouncing the word oorrectiy. The name 
is pure Malayan ; Gutta meaning the gum^ or concrete juice 
of the plant, and Percha the particular tree from which it is 
obtained. I could not help thinking that the tree itself 
must exist in Sumatra, and perhaps derive its name firom 
thence, the Malayan name for Sumatra being Ptih Percha ; 
but though the Straits of Malacca are situated only one 
degree to the north of Singapore, I could not find that the 
substance has ever been heard of there or in Sumatra. 

''But to return to the period when I first noticed the 
Parang handle that was made of Gidta Percha ; — my curiosity 
being excited by the novelty of the material, I questioned 
the workman, a Malay woodsman, in whose possession I saw 
itf and heard that the material of which it was framed could 
be moulded into any other form, by dipping it into boiling 
water till it was heated through, when it became plastic 
as clay, regaining when cold its original hardness and ri- 
gidity.*' 

Dr. Montgomerie goes on to say that he purchased the 
Parang handle, and sent for more of the substance, and that 
on instituting experiments, he ascertained that Gutta Percha 
was likely to prove a most valuable material for making 
those parts of surgical instruments which had hitherto been 
formed of caoutchouc, the latter having the inconvenience of 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 35 

being easily injured by damp and hot weather in the Tropics. 
The Medical Board of Calcutta highly approved of Dr. M.'s 
suggestion^ and the Society of Arts in London awarded him 
its Gold Medal for the discovery, 

Illiiess prevented Dr. M. at that period from visiting 
the forests where the tiree grows. He, however, ascer- 
tained firom the nativea Aat the Percha is one of their 
largest trees, attaining a diameter of 3 or 4 feet, that its 
wood is of no value as timber, but . that a concrete and 
edible oil, used by tiie natives with Aeir food, is obtainable 
from the fruit. In many parts of the island of Singapore 
and in die forests of Jobore, at the extremity of the Malayan 
peninsula, the tree is found : it was also said to grow at Coti, 
on the south«eastem ooast of Borneo, and Dr. Montgomerie 
aooordingly addressed his inquiries to the celebrated Mi'. 
Brooke, resident at Sarawak* and was assured by that 
gentkman that ib inhabits ^commonly the woods l^ere also, 
and is called NuUq by the people, who are not, however, 
aoquunted with the piopertiies of the sap. Tie tree is often 
6 feet in diameter at Sftnrwak, and is believed by Mr. Brooke 
to be plentiful all ov^r Borneo, and probably on the thou- 
sand idands that duster to the south of the Straits qf 
Singapore. Its frequency is proved by the circumstance 
that several hundred tons of th^ Ouiia Percha have been 
annually exported from Singapore since 1842, when the 
snbstanoe first came into notice. There is reason, however, 
to fear that the supply must shortly decrease, and the price 
be raised^ from the wasteful mode in which the natives 
collect it, often sacrificing a noble tree, of probably from 50 
to 100 years growth, for the sake of 20 or 30 lbs. of 
gum, which is the largest quantity janj one trunk ever 
affords. The juice might, in all likelihood, be obtained from 
the Percha^ as from other trees, by tapping, and thus 
procuring a smaller portion for several successive years ; but 
this process is too slow for the Malayans, and is also 
the less likely to be adopted because the forests are common 
property. The people fell the tree, strip off its bark and 

u 2 



36 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

collect its milky juice in a trough formed of the hollow stem 
of the plantain leaf, when being exposed to the air, it soon 
coagulates. 

Dr. Montgomerie suggests, among the less immediately 
obvious uses to which Gutta Percha is applicable, that 
of making raised type for the blind, and embossed maps 
for the same unfortunate beings: it takes a dear, sharp 
impression, and is also tough and durable: he thinks it 
would likewise be found serviceable in stopping decayed 
teeth. 

In the abstract of the new Patents, given in the October 
Number of the Magazine of Science and the Arts, we notice 
that C. Hancock, Esq., has taken out a patent for improving 
the manufiicture of Gutta Percha. He suggests several me- 
thods of purifying the substance, which generally comes 
home much mixed with extraneous matter: — ^it may be 
dissolved by heat and strained ; or passed through a screw- 
press; or melted by the addition of rectified oil of 
turpentine, and after filtering through flannel or felt, the 
solvent may be evaporated. In every case, the Gutta Percha 
should form a residuum, of the consistency of dough or 
putty, this plastic state being gained by the maintenance 
of a suitable temperature during the above process. 

Mr. Hancock would combine Gutta Percha with Caout- 
chouc^ and a substance called Jintawan, (we have no due 
as to what this ^^jintawan" may be), in order to form 
an elastic material, impervious to water; varying the pro- 
portions according to the greater or less degree of hardness 
or of elastidty required. For making elastic bands, a com- 
pound is used, where 50 parts of Gutta Percha are combined 
with 24 of '* jintawan," 20 of caoutchouc, and 6 of orpi- 
ment or sulphuret. From a mixture of these, Mr. Han- 
cock also prepares a light porous and spongy material* 
suited for stuffing or forming the seats of chairs, cushions, 
matrasses, saddles, &c. ; likewise, springs of clocks, clasps, 
belts, garters and string. Wherever the requisite is flexi- 
bility and elasticity, then the quantity of Gutta Percha 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 37 

should be diminished: — and increased where firmness is 
wanted. By prolonging the process, much hardness may 
be acquired, and moulds and balls of Chdta Percha will 
bear turning in the lathe, like wood or ivory. The material 
ia also applicable to useful and ornamental purposes, 
as picture-frames, door-handles, walking-sticks, chessmen, 
handles of swords and knives, buttons, combs, flutes, &c. &c. 

By the admixture of sulphuric acid, or of a tenth or larger 
part of vegetable wax or tallow, any degree of solubiUty, 
pliancy and softness may be acquired : or the composition 
may be used as varnish, to cover other materials, conceal- 
ing any odour, and imparting a surface, impervious to 
water. In printing and painting of silk or cotton, it seems 
applicable to many uses, for it amalgamates readily with 
colours ; when interposed between two thin sheets of gold 
leaf or tin foil, it combines them firmly in one. 

Numerous are the purposes to which Mr. Hancock pro- 
poses applying the Gvita Percha -, but the above-named may 
suffice for our readers. 



BouROBAu's Canary Island Plants. 

A second series of this most interesting collection has been 
issued^ and we would strongly uige those who desire to 
possess them to make an early application (we believe 
Mr. Heward^ Toung Street, Kensington, is willing to 
undertake this commission); for, such fine specimens, so 
authentically named, and from a country whence it is 
difficult to obtain plants, cannot fail to be much in 
demand. 

M. Bourgeau has himself returned from the Canaries to 
Piftris with his last collections, and presented a packet of 
Canary Island seeds to the Royal Gardens of Kew. We hope 
he will visit some other equally interesting country and 
benefit science I.7 l)is future collections. 



38 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

Subscription towards a Botofdcal and General Natural- 
kistory-Joumey to Bosnia. 

" This journey, under the general direction of M. von Tom- 
masini, President of the Magistracy of Trieste, is undertaken 
by Dr. Otto Sendtner, known by his papers on Brazilian 
Solanace€B and other botanical works^ who will leave Munich 
in Jan. 1847* Well prepared by previous journeys in countries 
adjoining Bosnia, and acquainted with the general physi- 
cal character of this province^ provided with political pro- 
tection afforded by a peculiar concurrence of circumstances,he 
purposes, should he continue to enjoy his present strong health 
to remain a year at least in Bosnia, and devote himself to 
making collections in the three main branches of natural 
history, especially Botany. 

To defray the expences of the undertaking he invites 
Naturalists, Collectors and Directors of Museums to join in 
a subscription in shares on the following conditions : 

Each share to be 50 florins, Austrian Convention money, 
(rather more than j£5, sterling). The payment to be made to 
President Mucins von Tommasini at Trieste, either on an- 
nouncing the subscription, or at the latest within six months 
after the departure of the traveller. 

Mr, Sendtner engages to supply to each subscriber 
from JQO to 800 species of plants, in fine and well-dried 
specimens ; or a proportionate share in the collections which 
will be made of minerals, petrifactions, shells, insects, or other 
objects of Natural History. The collections will be sent 
from Trieste, either all at once at the close of the journey, 
or in portions as opportunities may occur. 

Communications to be addressed till Christmas of the 
present year, post paid, to Dr. Otto Sendtner, Royal Botani- 
cal Garden at Munich.'^ 



Bosnia has never yet been visited by Botanists, and from 
the height of its mountains and geographical position, 
promises a rich harvest. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 39 



Sib Thos. Mitghbll's progress on an Expedition to 
discover a route to the Gtdph of Carpentaria. 

The Botanist in the above-mentioned Expedition, Mr. 
Stephenson,* thus writes to one of his friends in England 
from — 

TheCamp» 

Baloon River. 
April 26, 1846. 

'* An opportunity having occurred to enable me to send to 
Sydney, I embrace it to forward you the pleasing intelli- 
gence that we are now far beyond the boundary of European 
inhabitants, all in good health, with cheering prospects of 
success in this arduous expedition. Sir Thos. Mitchell is 
gone with a small party, to look for a direct route to the 
Gulph of Carpentaria, and since he left, a dispatch has 
been sent him, which arrived here but yesterday, to inform 
him that Dr. Leichardt had arrived at Port Essington and 
returned to Sydney. We are now on the banks of a 
splendid river, called the Baloon, not at present a running 
stream, on account of the great drought, but it has left self- 
evident marks of enormous floods, wrecks remaining on the 
branches of trees, full 30 feet above the present level of the 
water. The river consists at this time of long reaches, as 
wide as the Thames above the bridges, two or three miles 
in length, full of fish, and covered with numbers of wild 
fowl, but nothing new of the latter has been discovered. 
We have had exceedingly hot weather, the thermometer 
as high as 177i^ Fahr., and now, although the begin- 
ning of winter, it is 104® Fahr. Every thing is burnt 
up, and hardly any insects are to be seen, except a few 

* Mr. Stephenson formerly made considerable coUectioDB of plants in 
New Zealandf and is likely to render much service to science during the 
prasenl journey. A list of his New Zealand plants was published by Dr. 
Jfoeeph Hooker in the 3rd volume of this Journal, p. 411. 



40 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

LibelbiHda and small Papilionida* I have procured one 
specimen of Buprestis, a most splendid thing, the only 
one found, about If inches long, its general colours blacky with 
corrugations filled with brilliant green, and two large gold 
spots, one on each elytron. I have also taken some in- 
teresting CarabitUB. Although the dry bed of the river 
is fine sand, I have not seen a single Cicindela, and, in 
short, insects at this arid season are very rare. 

^Plants in flower are also scarce for the same reason, 
but, when rain falls, we shall be in a rich field for these 
interesting objects. Our latitude is now 28^ 1' 30'^ south, 
and our future route is quite undecided.^ 



Mr. Purdib's appoiniment to the Botanic Garden of 
Trinidad. 

Our readers who have taken an interest in the botanical 
excursions of Mr. Purdie in Tropical America, of which 
those in Jamaica have been in part published in the Srd 
and 4th volume of this Journal, will be glad to hear that 
he has terminated his mission on behalf of the Royal Gardens 
of Kew, after having visited a considerable portion, and 
especially the high mountains, of New Granada ; and his 
merits are rewarded in his appointment, by the Colonial 
Office, to the charge of the Botanic Garden of Trinidad, 
vacant by the death of Mr. Lockhart.* His travels in 
New Granada have proved eminently successful ; they 
extended from Santa Martha to Bogota, besides various de- 
tours in his journeys from, and return to, the coast : and the 
further account of his Mission will be given in this Journal 

* Mr. Lockhart, as is generally known, was one of the few survivora 
of the Expedition to explore the Congo, under Captain Tuckey ; he was 
Ciardener and Botanist on that occasion. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 41 

as soon as he will have had leisure to copy out his notes. In 
the mean time, extracts from his letters more especially 
bearing upon his collections for cultivation are given in the 
supplementary matter to the ** Botanical Magazine.'^ 



Extract of a Letter from Mr. Gardner, dated Royal 
Gardens^ Peradenia^ Ceylon^ September IS, 1846. 

*^ My last letter to you was very short, being hur- 
riedly written, amid the confusion of preparations for my 
visit to the northern parts of the island, and I have had 
no leisure since. Tou will be glad to know that the 
trip was a most interesting one to me, and in every res- 
pect very pleasant. Our party was not large, consisting 
of the Bishop and his lady, the Chief Justice and his 
lady, with whom I went as a guest, and the Queen's Advocate, 
Mr. Buller, a brother to the present Judge Advocate. On 
the evening of the second day after we left Kandy, we 
arrived at Point Pedro, the northernmost point of the 
island, and thence proceeded by coach about 21 miles to 
Jaffna, the old Jaffnapatam. There the Court sat three 
weeks, which afforded me time for considerable botanical 
collections. Besides numerous shorter excursions, I made 
one upwards of 60 miles into the interior, which occupied 
ten days, and was most successful. The country is flat 
and sandy, reminding me much of the Pernambuco and 
Cear£ Country, the resemblance being increased by the 
forests of Borassua flabeU\formiSy which take the place of the 
Camabyba palm of Brazil. Thorny Acaciaa are abundant, 
and some fine Casrias. I was quite delighted to find Azima 
ietracantha in the greatest plenty, as well as Salvadora Per- 
iiea^ the true Mustard-tree of Scripture. I do not believe 
that either here or at the other places visited I have picked 
up much that is new, but I have added several hundred 
of Malabar and Coromandel plants to the Ceylon Flora. 



42 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

The ground was almost entirely untrodden. At Trincomalee 
we remained about a week, where^ except some five species 
of Rhigqpkora and a number of other littoral plants, I 
did not add very largely to my stock. There had been 
scarcely any rain for nine months. At first sight I was 
disappointed with Trincomalee, having heard it compared to 
the Bay of Rio de Janeiro, which it in no way resembles : 
none of the hills around rising mure than 100 feet. The 
view, however, from the Flagsta£f, overlooking the bay and 
its islands, is very pretty. At Batacalva we stayed five 
days, and I was more successful than at Trincomalee. 
There we saw two of the savages who inhabit the interior of 
the island — Vidahs. They always go about with bows and 
arrows, with which they are very expert marksmen. On our 
return to the east coast, we were obliged to remain nearly a 
day at Pomben Pass (Adam's Bridge) for the tide, and to kill 
time, we landed on the Island of Ramisseram, and saw the 
far-famed Hindoo temple there. At Calpentyne we spent 
about five days, but I did not meet with much novelty. 
Our run down to Colombo was very rough, and the steamer 
being small, we were all more or less sea-sick. At Colombo 
I remained to botanize a little. I have not yet unpacked 
my collections, so I cannot say how many species there may 
be altogether, but I suppose from 800 to 1000. 

^^lllh October. Since my return from Jaffna I have 
worked up another paper for our Journal, principally on the 
TemircemiaceiB. I have united the Frezufraa of South 
America to the Euryat of India, there being no character by 
which to distinguish them. I have also given a detailed 
description of the Trickopus Ceylamcm of Gsertner, the Tri* 
chopodium of Lindley, and for reasons assigned, have removed 
it from Aristohchiacem to Taccacea. It is a curious plant, 
having the habit of Anthurium {Oroniiacets), the male organs 
of Tiicca and the fruit of Asarwn.^* 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 43 



ATolet of a Coniinenial TouTj in the summer and autumn of 
1846; extracted from kttere addressed to the Editor by a 
boiamealfHend. r> j^ ^^^. 4..U. 

{Coniimtdfrfm Page 534, Vol. V.) 

Moscow, September 1, 1846. 

Among the Petereburgh botanists I believe I omitted in 
my last letter to mention Dr. Weinmann, Director of the 
PiSTloTsky gardens^ who has been studying a good deal the 
Crjrptpgamia of Russia, and has lately published a syllabus 
of Russian mosses, besides some occasional articles on 
garden plants^ which he cultivates with great zeal. I was 
much pleased with his acquaintance, which I made at Pav- 
knraky the day before we left St. Petersbnrgh. The Moscow 
ooUections in Natural History suffer from the rivalry of the 
new capital, which of course gets much more support from 
Government; yet there are some zealous botanists here, and 
an active publishing Natural History Society, whose '' Bulle- 
tin'' 18 well known to you. The principal herbaria are those 
of the Sod^ des Naturalistes, and of the University, both 
in the same building, and about to be united. They consist 
chiefly of Ehrhart's herbarium, perhaps not quite com- 
plete, Hofiinann's (the Umbelliferous writer) of about 8000 
species, Trinius' general herbarium of about 5000 ; all are 
in good preservation, in bundles enclosed in pasteboard boxes, 
and these again deposited on the shelves of the presses : 
and, amongst modem plants, besides a number of miscel- 
laneous parcels received from correspondents, the very rich 
Rosso^Asiatic and Kiighis collections of Karelin-— a rival to 
Turcaaninoff's in the number and beauty of the specimens. 
Besides other ooUections, Mr. Richter, the librarian of the 
Imperial University library, has a private herbarium of his 
own, very rich in Russian plants, and containing also a general 
eoDecdon. There are besides some small Russian herbaria, 
made by private individuals, and a small collection dried 



44 BOTANIOAIi INFORMATION. 

by that extraordinary universal and indefatigable man, Peter 
tbe Great ; but unluckily the absence of the person having the 
key of it, prevented my seeing it. The most active, intelligent, 
zealously working botanist here is, without doubt, Mr. Richter, 
who has determined and prepared for distribution Karelin's 
plants : a number of parceb of these have been already 
sent to various botanists, and others are ready to be given 
in exchange. 

Mr. Karelin himself is very highly spoken of by those who 
know him here and by a friend of his I met at Nijni, but I 
have tmfortunately not been able to find him. He has a 
great deal of business on hand, has changed his residence, 
and Moscow is so large for its population (seven miles 
long, and four to five miles from barrier to barrier), and the 
pavement so bad, that it is a hopeless task to seek out those 
whose exact address is unknown ; his companion, Mr. Kiriloff, 
who met with a melancholy death from illness in a small 
village, hundreds of miles from any one who knew anything 
of him, is much regretted. 

The Professor of Botany, and Director of the Bota- 
nical Garden, is Mr. Alexander Fischer, son of Mr. Fischer 
the geologist and zoologist. I have had great pleasure 
in again seeing the father, to whom I was introduced at 
Hamburgh, in 1830. He is now growing old and rather 
feeble, but very well, and as zealous as ever about the 
petri&ctiuns of tbe Government of Moscow and Russia 
generally. Mr. Alexander Fischer is said to be a man of 
great scientific attainments, though not much of a working 
botanist. A microscope of his invention, for which a medal 
was awarded to him at Paris, and of which an account 
is published in the Bulletin of the Soci^t^ des Naturalistes 
de Moscow, is spoken of as a very important improvement 
in principle applicable with great advantage to telescopes, 
but I am not sufficiently acquainted with the subject to 
judge of it. 

In a letter from Zuccarini, he gives me the following 
names for some of Fortune's Chinese plants. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 45 

A 82 Astragalus lotoides, Lam. 

A 57 Rosa raultiflora. Thumb, var. villosior. 

A 75 Spiraea crenata, Sieb. et Zucc^ 

A 35 Spiraa Reevesii — S. Chamsdrys, TTiunb. 

A 63 Platycarya strobilacea, Sieb. et Zucc. 

A S»8 Moslea, an M. barbata, Br.? 

A 90 Pittosporom Tobira, Ait. 

A 33 Elaowua. 

A 10 Stillingia sebifera, Mich. 

A 28 Hovenia dulcis, TTiunb. 

A 58 Hibiscus Syriacus, Linn. 

A 21 Anemone Japonica^ Sieb. et Zucc. 

A 86 Clematis apiifolia, DC. 

A 14 ^ paniculata, JJumb, F 

A 89 ,, tritemata^ DC. 

A 31 Akebia quinata, Decaiene. 

A 42 Hydrangea, ab omnibus japonicis diversa. 

A 74 Hamamelidees gen. nov. 

A 2 Comus^ affinis C. brachypodae, C. A. M. (C. san- 

guinea, Thumb^ 
A 101 Vitis Japonica, Tkunb. 
A 9 Panax ricinoides, Sieb. et Zuee. 
A 103 Tamarix Chinensis* 
A 92 Vaocinium bracteatum, TTiunb. 
A 45 Clerodendron tricbotomum, TTiunb. 
A 94 Callicarpa Japonica, Thunb. 
A 90 Melissa Clinopodium^ Benth. 
A 91 Prunella vulgaris, L. 
A 87 Metaplexis Stauntoni, Br. 
A 84 Oenus novum, affine Omo. 
A 1 Viburnum dilatatum, Thunb. 
A 81 „ cuspidatum, Thunb. P 
A 48 „ tomentOBum, TTiunb. 
A 43 Videtur Patrinia parviflora, Sieb. et Zucc. 
A 15 Daphne Genkeva, Sieb. et Zucc. 
A 16 Cryptomeria Japonica, Don. 



46 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

A 71 Smilax China, Tkunb. 
46 Lespedesa argj^ea, Sieb. et Zucc. 
163 Rubus parvifolias, L. — IL triphyllus^ T%unb. 
41 Bradleia Sinaica — a. B. obovata, Sieb et Zucc. 

diveraa, sed eid. affinis. 
80 Rottlera, a R. Japonica diveraa. 

135 Heisingera TBcemosa, Sieb. et ZucCn 
JOS Thea Bohea, L. 

35 Aconitum Smense, 8M. 
51 Clematis panienkta^ Thufdf. 
f)i ^ triternaU, DC. 
29 Jastida Japonica, Thunb. 
109 Gerardia Japonica, Thunb. (non Pterostigoia.) 

136 Mastacanthus vvrosim. fiarbula Sinensis, luour. 

a sp. japonica diversum. 
168 Scutellaria- Indica. 

82 Salvia Japonica, Tkunb. (S. Fortuni, Benth.) 
130 Stadce Fortuni, Lmdl. a S. Japonica ? diversa. 
112 Tripolium vulgare, Net$. 
159 Edgeworthia papyrifera, Sieb, et Zucc, 

99 Androp<^on.GoTringu, Steud. 

12 Gymnottiiiz Japonica, Ktmik 
148 Amaryllis Samiensis, Lin. 
120 Eriocaulon, a japonicia diversuiu. 

CooBtantinople, October 19* 1846. 

Since I last wrote, from Moscow, I have not seen a great 
deal in the way of botanical collections, aUhongh there cer- 
tainly are botanists in the South of Russia, who have 
earned for themselves an European reputation. At Kieff I 
passed some days with Professor Trautvetter, attached to the 
University lately established there by the union of the colleges 
of Kremeniez and Wilna. It is a fine and large building, 
where a good nucleus haa already been formed for collections 
and museums in various departments. The botanical de- 
partment is under Professor Trautvetter, who has laid out 



BOTANICAL INFOaMATiOM* 47 

an extensive Botanical Garden, and is now building a range 
of plant-hoosea. As the oommencement of a Museum^ and 
that a good one, they have purchased the herbarium of the 
late Professor Besser, rich in plants of Volhynia, Podolia, and 
Little-Russia especially, and next to them in Russian and ia 
European plants, but containing also a considerable number 
of exotic plants obtained by Besser by means of an active 
correspondence. This herbarium is now being arranged in 
cabinets well adapted for the purpose, but upon paper, to my 
mind, of far too large a sise. Professor Trautvetter himself 
has a private herbarium, but which chiefly consists of Little 
Russian, and especially Kieff plants ; and he is now engaged. 
in finishing a Flora of the Government of Kieff. He has also 
published a great number of short papers in the Moscow and 
Petersburgh Bulletins on isolated botanical subjects, is now 
preparing for publication the plants of Meddendorp's expedi- 
tion to Arctic Russia, and is continuing his Icones Floro 
Rossicflft, a small quarto work^ with very good outline plates 
of Russian plants. 

Charkoff is another University town, between Moscow and 
Odessa, lying on the direct road, which we left for the 
purpose of seeing Kieff and Professor Trautvetter. The 
Professor of Botany for Charkoff is Mr. Tchemaieff, who, 
I am told, has herborized much in the neighbourhood of 
Charkoff; but is now more engaged with cryptogamic 
plants, especially Fungi. I regret not having met with 
him. 

At Odessa, a flourishing town of eighty thousand inhabi- 
tanta, although there is a large College, the Richelieu Lyceum, 
which is almost an university, a Professor of Botany, and a 
so-called Botanic Garden of two hundred English acres, yet 
there is neither botanical library nor collections. The 
Botanical Garden is, in fact, a nursery made on the steppe,.for. 
the purpose of at once setting the example of planting the. 
steppe, and affording means for others to follow it. They are 
now, however, about to lay out a small part of it in a purely 
botanical collection, or Ecole de Boianigue. The Professor, 



48 BOTAKICAL INPO&MATIOX. 

Dr. Nordmann, resides there. He is a most sealous natu- 
ralisty a native of Finland, who travelled with DemidoflPs party 
in the Crimea, undertaking the soological, and especially 
ichthjological department. He has devoted a good deal of 
time to geology, and made considerable palieosoological 
collections, especially of fossil shells, &c., in the Crimea, 
and has within the last few weeks discovered some rich 
depots of fossil bones of Mammiferae in the neighbourhood of 
Odessa. In Botany he has made very coipplete collections 
of the Odessa Flora, which he is about to publish, after having 
submitted a set of the plants to Grisebach's examination, 
and has gathered much in the Caucasus and the Crimea, 
which he has visited fourteen times. I made an interest- 
ing herborisation with him on the sea coast, near Odessa, 
where we found on the 7th of October, between twenty and 
thirty good plants still in flower, exclusive of common things 
which I did not think worth gathering. 

In the Crimea, I, to my very great regret, missed the 
patriarch of South Russian Botany, your correspondent M. de 
Steven, of whom every one speaks so highly. When I passed 
through Sympheropol, he was absent for a short time at 
Ekaterinostaff. Notwithstanding his age, he is said to be 
zealous as ever in the cause of botany, and his knowledge of 
Crimean and South Russian plants to be as intimate as his 
collection is extensive. 

The Botanical Ghirden of Nikita on the south coast of 
the Crimea, under the direction of M. Hartweiss, is much 
more horticultural than botanical, the object being not 
that of instruction for an university or medical school, but 
the dissemination and the encouraging the planting of trees 
and shrubs which may be usefully grown on the south coast. 
There are, therefore, no botanical collections attached to 
it, nor has the Director means of devoting himself to Botany 
as a science. 

Poor Turczaninoff is now established with his collecdon at 
Taganrog, which was unfortunately too far for me to attempt 
paying him a visit. On his arrival at Taganrog not only had 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 49 

he the miflfortune to lose the two friends, for whose sake he 
came to settle there, but in a fall down stairs, he met with 
injuries which disabled him for months from pursuing the 
science to which he is devoted, and from which I am told 
be has but little hopes of recovering completely. He is now, 
however, it is said, able again to work in his herbarium, 
which is very extensive and which he is still anxious to 
enlarge. I have also heard that he thinks of moving to 
Perm, where he has relatives — an immense journey for 
him, in his state of health, and with his large collec- 
tiona. 

With regard to my own herborising I have had but very little 
opportunity. As far as Kieff I saw next to nothing worth 
picking up, and further on every thing was past flower, 
and so dried up as scarcely to be recognised, excepting a few 
Steppe Chenopodiace^s, Besides, travelling in Russia, when 
Botany is not the special or sole ol)ject, is not suited for 
collecting. The long distances to be got over without any 
accommodation, makes one ill-disposed to stop the gallop 
of the post-horses in the middle of a stage to pick up a 
flower ; and although, when you reach the end of the stage, 
they are so long changing horses, that in any other country 
you might explore a good deal by walking on, yet the Rus- 
sian stations are generally villages, built on the Russian plan 
with an utter contempt of space, so that it takes the whole 
time to get beyond the houses. Besides the little excur- 
sion near Odessa, I made a small collection on the south 
cotst of the Crimea; but even there every thing was so 
burnt up, that I did not think it worth while spending much 
time in searching after plants. 

Here, at Constantinople, in the course of excursions to 
places in the neighbourhood celebrated for their beauty, I 
have found several plants that pleased me, because belonging 
to that Levant Flora, which I only knew in the herbarium ; 
but very little is still in flower, and the really rich 
country commences at Broussa, and on the range of the 
Olympus. That mountain is visible firom hence, and is one 

VOL. VI. B 



50 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

of the lions much virited by travellera from Constantiiiople. 
We are, however, just too late ; those who returned as we 
arrived, reported it to be getting so cold and wet, that 
I did not venture to go, especially as we have not much 
time to spare. 

Mr. No^ who resided formerly at Fiume, and of whose 
plants from the Littonde, I believe you possess a set, is now 
settled here. He came originally on a mission to collect 
plants for the private herbarium of the King of Saxony^ 
and at his Majesty's recommendation, was afterwards ap- 
pointed by the Sultan, Professor of Botany and Director of 
the Botanic Garden, at the new College of Galata-Serai. 
The present Sultan takes great interest in this college or 
university ; attends himself the annual disputetions for 
degrees, and often himself proposes the questions to the 
students. The college is a considerable set of buildings at 
the upper end of Pera, and besides the lecture room and 
apartments for some of the officials, contains a dispensary, a 
clinical hospital, a library and museum. In one room where 
the disputations are held, is a considerable number of philo- 
sophical instruments, and two other apartments are devoted 
to natural history. These, besides a small general collection 
received from France, and some anatomical preparations 
from Italy, contain already a good commencement of Turkish 
productions, made chiefly by Mr. No£, who has the 
management of all the natural history. In the zoological 
department are good specimens of some of the fine fishes of 
these seas ; among the geological and mineralogical speci- 
mens are several of the different kinds of coal from Rumelia, 
and some good pieces of fossil woods, as well as gold recently 
found by No^ on the Olympus. The herbarium is but 
just commenced, from specimens collected by No^ in a 
journey made with the Sultan to the Balkan Kama and 
that neighbourhood, and during his own residence this 
autumn in the Olympus. No^ has also sets of Rumelian 
and Olympus plants for sale ; I have taken a set, but you 
are already so rich in the Flora of this country, that I do 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 51 

not think you would find one species which you have not 
already. 

Florence, November 27, 1846. 

Shortly after I last wrote to you we came direct by steam- 
boat firom Constantinople to Trieste, where we landed on the 
9th of this month, the first day of a violent gale from the 
north, which lasted several days, followed by frost and 
putting an end to all out-door botanising for this year. At 
Trieste we found our friend, Mr. Tommasini, risen in point 
of worldly station, being now President of the Magistracy of 
Trieste, but at the same time more taken up with official 
business, and consequently with less leisure for Botany. He 
has, however, much increased his herbarium; that of his 
own peculiar region, the Littorale and adjacent mountains, 
and Istria, is very complete in species, specimens and stations, 
and is such as the writer of a local Flora ought to possess ; 
he has also added considerably to his general collection, 
especially from those parts of Europe allied to his own coun- 
try in their Flora. He is now taking measures for an expe- 
dition next season into Bosnia by Sendtner, (author of 
papers on Brazilian Solanea, &c., written at Munich), the 
expenoes to be defrayed by subscribers to the plants he will 
collect.* The mountains of Bosnia, from their height and 
situation, are probably rich, they have never been visited, 
and the political state of the country happens to afford at 
this^ moment some peculiar facilities. As soon as the arrange- 
ments are completed, I will communicate them to you. 
Dr. BiacoUette at Trieste still continues to increase the 
number of native plants in the Botanic Gardens of which he 
has the management, and he has lately had a green and hot- 
house built. He has also published an account of his Bota- 
nical tour, some years since with the King of Saxony in 
Dalmatia and Montenegro, and a Botanical tour on the 
Schauberg. 

At Venice, the only trace of Botany I could find was the 

• See page 3S. 

E 2 



52 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

Botanical Garden ; which, though small, is very well kept 
by. Ruchinger^ father and son ; bat I could learn nothing of 
any herbarium or botanical amateur in the place. 

I was much disappointed at Pkdoa not meeting with 
Dr. Visiani, who was accidentally absent. Since I last saw 
him nine years since, the collection of living plants in the 
garden is very much augmented, and in his house at the 
garden, he has a good commencement of a botanical library 
and museum, founded originally upon that left by the 
former Professor Donati, and Professor Yisiani's own coUec* 
tion, rich especially in Dalmatian and Italian plants, and 
some Egyptian and Oriental collections, which he has pub- 
lished. His Dalmatian Flora, however, makes very slow 
progress. These Herbaria are, like most continental ones, 
tied up in bundles, between pasteboards, the individual 
specimens being loose in double sheets, the bundles, as 
in several old Herbaria, are put into paste-board cases (re- 
sembling gigantic card-cases) and arranged like books on 
shelves. The time it takes to get at a specimen shows that 
the Herbarium is not very frequently consulted. 

Professor Meneghini is continuing his AlgiB of the Adriatic 
and has also lately published a dissertation on Diatamem, 
which he considers should be rejected from the vegetable and 
restored to the animal kingdom. He is preparing for the 
press a course of lectures on Botany. His Herbarium is 
chiefly rich in Algce^ of which he has upwards of two thousand 
species, mostly very numerous, instructive, and well pre- 
served specimens, in excellent order. Two or three other 
amateurs of our science were mentioned to me as residents 
of Padua, and possessing small Herbaria; but my stay 
was not long enough to make acquaintance with them. 

At Bologna I had much pleasure in becoming acquainted 
with the two Professors Bertoloni, father and son. The author 
of the '' Flora Italica'' is as vigorous, active and cheerful 
as if it were his own and not his son's hair, that was now 
commencing to turn grey. They live together in a house 
belonging to the Botanical Garden, a much smaller one 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 53 

with a mach more limited collection than that of Padua, 
but in very good condition. The Museum consists of a 
lai^ge collection of seeds, of a few old Italian Herbaria nearly 
destroyed by time and worms, and of Bertoloni's own 
herbarium. Of this the most important part is the rich 
and beautifully arranged *' Herbarium Florae Italise,'' a very 
extensive authentic collection with every specimen very 
carefully labelled in correspondence with his Flora and other 
works. If all botanical authors were equally careful in pre- 
paring for future consultation the specimens from which they 
had worked, the value of their labours would in general be 
much enhanced and always better appreciated. 

Beitoloni possesses also a general collection ; amongst others 
an extensive one from Alabama received from Dr. Gates,many 
of the plants are now describing in his (Bertoloni's) Miscellanea 
Botanical and one from Mozambique, chiefly officinal plants, 
mostly in excellent specimens belonging to the younger Ber- 
toloni and about to be published. Unfortunately, the want 
of a sufficiently extensive library and general herbarium 
renders the publication of exotic plants at Bologna a diffi- 
cult and not always a satisfactory labour. 

Florence, on the contrary, is remarkably well provided in 
this respect, as well as in many things connected with science, 
literature and art. The private library, formed by the Grand 
Duke, and opened with great liberality to the use of men 
of science, is particularly rich in botanical works, including 
most of the costly works with plates published in England, 
France and Germany. The copy of the Flora Graeca is the 
only complete one in Italy. The herbarium attached to the 
Museum of Natural History in the Grand Ducal Palace is 
rich in South European plants. Amongst exotic ones, it 
contains Raddie's Brazilian plants, and considerable exten- 
sion is now given to it by purchases from modern col- 
lectors and other means. It is being well arranged, under 
the direction of Professor Parlatore, on paper nearly as white 
and as stiff as what we generally use ; but a great deal more 
is consumed, for the specimens are pinned down on half- 



54 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

sheets, and a whole sheet is besides used to enclose each 
species ; the name is placed on the left hand lower comer out- 
side, and the whole done up in bundles between pasteboards 
with leather straps. This arrangement is very neat^ and is 
less objectionable than bundles tied with string; and, where 
frequent and rapid consultation is not so much the objectf 
is one of the best I know ; but I doubt whether anything 
but complete glueing will long preserve specimens that 
are often brought out for examination. Professor Parlatore, 
whom you saw this summer in England, is very eager 
in the promotion of botany here. Besides the direction of 
the herbarium and his lectures, he is at present chiefly oc- 
cupied with botanical anatomy, and is also continuing his 
Flora of Palermo. Professor Targioni-Tozzetti, who lectures 
on botany as well as chemistry at the Academy of Sciences, 
amongst his numerous occupations connected with medicine 
and chemistry, is much devoted to medical botany. The 
botanical articles in the great Diccionario deUe Scienze Na- 
turally now publishing here, taken chiefly from the French 
Dictionary, are by M. Brucalassi, an Academician, and by 
Professor Targioni. There are two Botanical Gardens at 
Florence, the principal, in the Boboli Gardens, is attached to 
the Museum of Natural History in the Grand Ducal Palace 
under Professor Parlatore ; the other, under Professor Targioni, 
is attached to the Academy. 



Mr. Gardnbr's ** Travels tn the Interior of Brazil y prind- 
palfy through the northern provinces emd the Chid and 
Diamond districts^ during the years 1836 — 41.^— Qn^ 
vohune 8vo., with a Mc^ of the Author's routey and a view 
of the Organ Mountains. — Messrs. Beeves, Brothers. 

It would be out of character, in this Journal, to direct 
attention to a work of this kind, simply as a book of Travels; 
but so much of it is occupied by natural history and 
especially botany, that we should hardly stand excused 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 55 

did we not notice it, particularly as being the writing of 
one who has rendered eminent services to the cause of 
science. Of the nature and extent of these Travels a sketch 
will be found in Vol. I, of the Liondon Journal of Botany, 
p. 158. The book, bdeed, is full of information of every 
description ; for we know it was the author's maxim, which 
nothing but necessity could hinder from being carried out, 
^ nulla dies sine linea ;'' and he tells us that the notes from 
which the narrative has been drawn up, were, for the most 
part, on account of the multiplicity of his occupations, written 
during those hours, which, under other circumstances, should 
have been devoted to sleep. The admirer of fine scenery, the 
lover of adventures, the politician, the friend to slavery and 
the abolitionist, but above all the philosopher, and the natu- 
ralist, whether geologist, soologist or botanist, will equally 
gain information and pleasure, but especially the latter, from 
the perusal of this work. The aspect of the vegetation, 
occasioned by the presence of plants of certain forms, is 
particularly described, and we regret that we have no space 
for extracts relating to the palms, the tree-ferns, the climbers 
and the ipgantic trees of the virgin forests. Among the tribes 
of lesser plants, perhaps the Vellozias, with their singular 
dichotomous woody stems and liliaceous flowers, the LychT 
nophoras and the Eriocaulons or Pipeworts, are the most 
remarkable. The student of British Botany is familiar with 
our Eriocauhn aeptanffularCy the only species of Europe, and 
there confined to a few islands of the Hebrides and the west 
of Ireland, (the same plant is found in N. America) ; but, 
this and other species, cultivated with difficulty in our 
gardens, will give but an imperfect idea of the Brazilian Erio- 
caulons. *' When Linnsus/' says Mr. Gardner, '^ published 
the last edition of his Species Plantarum in 17^4, he des- 
cribed only five species ; while from Brazil alone, my Her- 
baritun contains upwards of one hundred. Those small 
plants, quite destitute of stem, with small grass*like leaves 
rising firom the root, and with a single or at most two or 
three flower-stalks each bearing a solitary head of minute 



56 BOTANICAL INFORMATION, 

blossoms, but little resemble our southern species; for 
in Brazil the great number of them are lai^e svffruticose 
plants, often attaining a height of from 4 to 6 feet !, with 
leafy, very much branched stems, each branchlet terminated 
by a large white ball, composed of a vast number of smaller 
heads, placed on peduncles of unequal length. Another 
remarkable circumstance, connected with these strange pro- 
ductions, is the fact, that the greater number of the Brazilian 
species do not inhabit water, after the manner of our native 
British Eriocaulon,but affect the most dry and arid portions 
of mountainous declivities; while many others grow in parched, 
flat, sandy places, which are flooded in the wet season/' 

Between San Romao and the Diamond district, Mr. 
Gardner ascended a low Serra, covered with a stunted, shrubby 
vegetation, to which the inhabitants give the name of Car- 
rascos. Many of the shrubs here belonged to forms that 
were quite new to him, one of the most remarkable being, 
a fine undescribed species of the curious genus LychnophoraJ^ 
belonging to the natural order Campositay and peculiar to the 
mountains of Minas Geraes ; and which, together with the 
Vellozias, give a decided feature to their peculiar vegetation. 
'^ This shrub is about six feet high, with numerous branches 
issuing nearly horizontally from the upper part of the stem, 
each bearing a cluster of narrow leaves about half a foot long. 
The whole plant, with the exception of the upper-sides of 
the leaves, is covered with a dense coat of long brownish wool, 
which, in places where it grows abundantly, is collected by 
the inhabitants to fill their beds and pillows. I afterwards 
met with some other species with leaves so very narrow, that 
at first sight, they resembled the Scotch Fir, the likeness being 
increased by their mode of growth, which is somewhat 
similar.'^ 

Between Ciudade Diamantina and Ouro Preta, our Author 
observed one of the men belonging to a troop of mules 



* So called, from the singularly woolly coating of the stems and under- 
sides of the leaves. — Ed. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 5? 

bringing to the camp a handfull of branches, covered with 
leaves^ with which^ after holding them for some time over 
the fire, to render them crisp, he made a kind of tea 
for himself and his companions. From the fruit Mr. 
Gardner detected that it was a Symphcos^ one species of 
which, the S. Abtonia, Humboldt sUtes is employed for 
making tea in New Grenada, while a closely allied genus 
Visnea {Visnea Mocanera) serves a similar purpose in the 
Canary Islands. The affinity of the genus Symplocos with 
Bwrya, and consequently with the true Tea {Thea), has 
already been noticed by Botanists, and the habit is very 
similar. In many parts of Brazil, however, as in Paraguay, 
Tea, under the name of ConjronAa, is made by the infusion 
of Hex ParayuayensiSj abundant in the woods. During 
the same journey, shortly after leaving Tapanhuacanga, 
the most common tree observed was of the natural family 
of Labiaimy which with us only forms herbaceous plants 
or small shrubs ; here it was the Hyptis membranacea, Benth., 
which attains a height of from 20 to 30 feet, and is the 
largest of the Labiaia in Brazil. 

We shall lastly mention the beautiful and singular Uiri- 
eularia (K nelumbifolia* Gardn.), remarkable no less for 
its lai^e size (2 to 2^ feet high) than for its place of growth. 
Like our Bladder-roots, it is aquatic ; but is only found " grow- 
ing in the water which collects in the hollow bases of the 
leaves of a large TUlandsia, that inhabits abundantly an arid 
rocky part of the Organ Mountains, at an elevation of about 
6000 feet above the level of the sea. Besides the ordinary 
method, by peed, the Utricularia is propagated by runners, 
which it throws out from the base of the flower-stem ; this 
runner is always found directing itself towards the nearest 
TiUandsia, when it inserts its point in the water, and gives 
origin to a new plant, which, in its turn, emits another shoot ; 
in this manner not less than six plants may be seen united, 
each deriving support from the water contained as many 

• See a figure of thie rare plant in Hooker's " Icones Plantarum," 
voL 6. TW)i. 605, 506. 

VOIi. VI. F 



58 BOTANICAL INFORM ATION. 

separate plants of TUUmdaia^ In our Bladder-roots, again, 
there are no leaves; but bladders (as the name implies) 
among the roots, which enable the plant to float and bring its 
blossoms above the snr&ce of the water. In the Brazilian 
species there are the bladdeied roots ; and, besides, peltate 
leaves, 3 inches across, on long footstalks; while the flower- 
stem bears nomerous large porple flowers. 

The volume is well got up by the spirited publishers, 
Messrs. Reeve, Brothers, and is accompanied by a beautiful 
view of the Organ Mountains and a map of the route, highly 
necessary for the information of the reader. 



LiNDLBT^s *^ Orchidacem UndemamJ' 

Dr. Lindley, whose labours in illustrating the Orchidaceous 
plants, both by splendid figures and descriptions, are 
beyond all praise, has here again favoured the botanical 
world with a brochure of twenty-eight pages, describing 
143 species of plants of this family, from the dried spedmens 
collected by Mr. Linden in Columbia and Cuba ; no fewer 
than 77 are wholly new to science, including 3 new Gtenenu 
Of these latter, the most remarkable is Vropedkany lindL; 
having all the character of Cypripedium^ and the habit of 
the East Indian Cypr* insigne ; except that the lip, instead of 
being slipper-shaped, is plane, and the petals are attenuated 
into long tails. 

There are given also some interesting observations on the 
elevation above the sea, and the mean temperature, where 
the species are found : — ^for example, only one species (£/»- 
dendrum frigidum) is found At an elevation of from 12,000 
to 13,000 feet, where the mean temperature is 40o.— Six 
at from 11,000 ; mean temp. 46o.*Thirteen at from 10,000 
to 11,000 feet; mean temp. 49o.— Twenty at from 9,000 
to 10,000 feet; mean temp. 52o. — Nineteen at from 8,000 
to 9,000 feet; mean temp. 56^ — Sixteen at from 7^000 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 5^ 

to 8,000 feefc; mean temp. 59^— Twenty-four from 6,000 to 
7»00Ufeet; mean temp. 62^— Thirty-two at from 5,000 to 
6,000 feet; mean temp. 65^ — Hence, in deeoending, they 
diminish ; for there are but eight species at from 4000 to 
5000 feet; with a mean temperature of eS^.-^Kve at from 
SOOO to 4000 feet; mean temp. 71° ; and only four at from 
2000 to 3000 feet, where the mean temperature is 75°. 

IVofeasor Jamieson, of Quito, detected an Oncidium (O. 
mubigenumj Lindl.) at an elevation of 14^000 feet above the 
kvel of the sea. Mr. Linden remarks that the Epidendrum 
frigidum^ which only grows at a short distance from eternal 
snowj is covered all over, flowers included, with a varnish. 
perhaps intended for its safeguard ; and Dr. Lindley observes 
that all the Epidendra (in this collection) with one exception, 
occur above 5000 feet, and form a continued chain of species 
up to the habitat of E./Hjfidum. 



Cb. Ma&tins : Voyage Botatdgue le long dea cotes septen- 
irionales de la Norvige^ depuis Drontheim jtuqu^au Cap 
Nord. 

This useful brochure, being an extract from the '' Voyages 
en Scandinavie et au Spitzberg de la corvette, la Recherchey** 
commences abruptly, and the objects and motives of the 
voyage are in no way explained. M. Martins appears to have 
been attached to the Expedition as Botanist, and his attention 
to have been especially devoted to the geographical dis- 
tribution of plants and a comparison between the vegetation 
of different countries in the middle and north of Europe : 
and he seems to have made good use of his time 
and to have studied vegetation with great ardour, as con- 
nected with latitude and longitude, elevation above the level 
of the sea, climate, temperature, atmospheric influence, &c. 
Such a work hardly admits of extracts. It will be read with 
interest, and constitutes an important addition to our know- 
ledge of this department of Botany. 

p 2 



60 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 



Georgb Oardnbr ; on the Structure and Affinities of the 
Plants belonging to the Natural Order PoDOSTBMACSiB. 

{From the Calcutta Journal of Natural History.) 

A valuable Memoir on this curious and little-known na- 
tural family : the result of the author's investigations is 
that Podostemacea are nearly allied to Nepenthes, the absence 
of albumen and the connection of the stamens in the latter 
being the chief distinguishing characters* Mr. Gardner 
describes fully all the species that have been detected in 
India, and which belong to two Genera, TVisticha, Thouars, 
and Podostemon, Rich. Until the publication of Dr. Wal- 
lich's Catalogue, 1828, no species was known to exist in the 
East Indies. The above-mentioned Catalogue gives one as 
a native of Sylhet. Ir the year 1835^ another species was 
added by the late Mr. Griffith. In 1845, Mr. Gardner, in 
company with Dr. Wight, detected three new species on 
rocks in rapids in the bed of the Pycarrah River, in the 
Neilgherry Mountains; while in Ceylon, Mr. Gardner has 
added four others: thus no less than ten distinct Indian 
species are described in this work ; and we know that the 
author has distributed to his friends in Europe beautiftd 
specimens of his discoveries. 



Carol. Hbnricus Schultz; on '^ HYPOCHCERiDBiB.'' 

{F)rom the Act. Acad. Nat. Cur.) 

This is an elaborate Memoir on a small group of Cichora« 
ceous Composite, equivalent to the Genus Hypochasris of 
Linneeus ; now divided by the learned Bipontine into Achy^ 
rophoruSy C. H. Sch., 20 species ; Fabera, C. H. Sch., 2 spe* 
cies ; Hypochteris, DC, 7 species ; Piptopogon, Cass., 2 spe- 
cies ; and Seriola^ L., one species. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION* 61 



FiLippo Parlatorb ; " Flora Palrrmitana, oasia Des- 
erizione delie Piante che crescono spontanee nella valle di 
Palermo:' Part I. of Vol. I. 

This Part only includes a portion of the Grasses, but 
enough is done to show that it will add to the fame which the 
learned author has already earned for himself. It is in Latin, 
with some observations in Italian : and the descriptions ap- 
pear to be made carefully from the plants themselves. It would 
seem, however, hardly necessary for the author at p. 127 to 
introduce under Pappophoreacea^ the subtribe '^ Pappophorea, 
$tiffmatibus plumosis baud ehnffaiia/' and then add : ^' Non si 
trovano generi di questa sotto-tribd nelle graminacee di 
Palermo.'^ It reminds one of the chapter in Horrebow's 
History of Iceland " On Timber Trees/* followed by the 
remark ''there are no trees in all Iceland." 



FiLipPO Parlatorb; Monogrcfia delie Fumariee. — Hrenze, 
1844. 

A little volume of rather more than 100 pages, containing 
a very elaborate history of the Fumariea group of Fumariaceaf 
including Fumaria, Bern., Plaiycapnos, Bern., Discocapnos, 
Cham, et Schlecht., and SarcocapnaSy DC. No new Genera, 
nor even species, are added; but the synonomyis worked out 
with g^reat care and the species settled on firmer bases than 
hitherto. 



Tb. F. Lud. Nbes ab Esbnbbck ; Genera Plantamm Flora 
Germamca, iconibue descriptionibusque Ulusirata ; Opus poet 
auciorie mortem T. C. L. Spenner, A. Putterlich et St. 
Endlicher continuatum. 

We have before us as far as Fasc. 24 of this valuable work ; 
which, though ezoellently conducted by the late Dr. T. F. L. 



62 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

Nees Ton Esenbeck, has lost nothing in point of value in the 
hands of the present editors. The plates, with the fall 
analyses of the Genera, many of them drawn by Dr. Putter- 
lich himself, and the descriptions, are executed with as 
much care, and are deserving of the same praise as when we 
noticed them at an earlier period. The two last Fasciculi 
are chiefly devoted to Corolliflor^B and Composita, and we 
shall be happy to see a work so useful, especially to the 
student of European Botany, progressing more rapidly. 



Illustrations q/* South American Plants, by John Miebs, 
F.R.S., F.L.S., &c.— 4to. Part I. 1846, 8 plates. BaiUiere. 

Mr. Miers is too well known as a scientific traveller in South 
America, and by his admirable botanical memoirs in the Lin- 
neean Transactions and elsewhere, to need any commendations 
in this place. He has in the present work brought his fidthful 
pencil into practice, and in this number, the first of a series of 
South American Sotanea, he has executed all the drawings 
and lithographs with great fidelity and effect, accompanied by 
ample analyses. The descriptions, as the preface explains, 
are a reprint, with a few needful alterations, of the Memoir 
on Solanea already given in the last volume of the present 
Journal, to which however are added full descriptions of the 
plates. Plate 1 represents Salpickroa (Periaoma) rhomboidea. 
2. DunaUa lycioides. 3. Ancistrus catdiflorus. 4. HifnerQnihus 
runcinatus and Himeranthus trideniatus. 5* HimeranihHS ero^ 
sus and Jabarosa integr^foUa* 6. Dorystigma caukscens and 
/). squarrosum. 7* TrechoruBtes lacmkUa, 8. Pionandra (Ce- 
ratostemon) floribunda. 

This work is a most important contribution to the Flora of 
South America, and we have much pleasure in being able to 
state that Mr. Miers is preparing a similar Memoir on the 
S. American itfenup^rmoce^. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 63 

Cblobis Boreali-Ambrigana. — TUustratioru qfneWfrare, 
or otherwise interetiinff North American Plants^ se^ 
lecied chiefly from those brought into cultivation at the 
Botamcal Garden of Harvard Universityy by Dr. Asa 
Gray. 4t;o. Decade I. {From the Memoirs of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences ; Vol. IV. New Series). 

We are glad to see that Dr. Oray is following up the pubti- 
cation of the admirable Flora of N. America, the work of him- 
self and Dr.Torrey^ with no less excellent illustrations of the 
rarer plants of the northern portion of the New World. The 
first ** Decade*^ is now before us. The plates are coloured, and 
accompanied by excellent analyse3 » so that, together with 
the accompanying descriptions and remarks, which display 
great botanical research, nothing seems wanting towards 
a complete history of the respective species. The plants 
here given are : 1. Corema (Oakesia, Tuckerman) Comadi, — 
Tackermania, Klotzch ; as this proves to be a congener of 
Bny^etrum aibum^ referred to Corema by Dmi, that name is 
adopted; 2. Schweinitzia pdorata^ EIL (Monotropa, Schwein.) ; 
S. Obolaria Vtrginica, L. ; 4. Gaillardia amblyodon^ Gay ; 
5. Brazoria truncaia^ Engelm. et Gray, (Physostegia, 
fim/^.); 6. Sullivantia OMonis, Torr. et Gr. (Saxifraga? 
Sullivantii, Torr. et Gr.) ; 7. Thermopsis CaroUniana, M. A. 
Curds ; 8. 7%. fraxtfolia, M. A. Curtis, (Baptisia mollis et 
fraxinifolia, Nutt.) ; 9. Th. mollis, M. A. Curtis, (Podalyria 
mollis^ Mx., Baptisia, DC); 10. Gaylussacia ursina, Torr. 
etGr. 



I. SuLLiVANT. — Musci Allbouanibnsis ; sive Spicilegia 
MoscoRUM atque Hbpaticarum quos in itinere a Mary-^ 
land&a usque ad Georyiam per tractus montium, a.d. 
MDCCCXLiii, decerpserunt Asa Grayet fV.Sullivant {inters- 
jectis nonnullis aliunde collectis.) Concimuwit et eaposmt 
W. S. Sullivant. Imp. 4to. Fasc. I. II. 



64 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 



II. SuLLiVANT. — Contributions to the Bryology and 
Hbpaticology of North America ; by William S. 
SuLLivANT, 4to, Part I. {Erom the Memoirs of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences : Vol. III. New 
Series.) 

The second of these two articles is a worthy companion to 
the " Chloris Boreali- Americana," above noticed r its execu- 
tion is highly honourable to the New World, and would 
do credit to any town or city in Europe. The plates are 
peculiarly excellent, drawn by Mr. Sullivant himself, full of ' 
microscopic dissections, and beautifully engraved. The 
author, in the execution of the figures, has evidently had 
Bruch and Schimper's admirable '' Bryologia Europsa" in 
mind, and a better model he could not have chosen. 

Many of the species here figured and fully described had 
already appeared in an equally admirable work of its kind, 
** Sullivant* s Musci Alleghanienses ;" a )Vork in 2 vols, of a 
very large quarto size, containing charming specimens, with 
printed names, and characters (when required) of 292 species 
of the Musci and Hepatic® of North America, many of great 
rarity, and as the title announces, chiefly gathered in a 
mountainous district between Maryland and Georgia. The 
manner in which these are got up is a great improvement 
upon the excellent *' Musci Americani*' of Mr. Drummond ; 
and we can say with truth, that two more perfect works of 
the kind than these (Sob. 1 and 2) mentioned at the heading 
of this notice, have not appeared in any age or country. 
The species figured and described in No. 2, are : 1. PhyUo- 
gonium Norvegicum, Brid. j first detected in Norway, and now 
found *' in large patches, pendent from the perpendicular feces 
of sandstone rocks, in moist, shady places, near Lancast^, 
Ohio.'* It is to be regretted that perfect capsules have not 
yet been gathered. Though placed in the same genus with a 
tropical moss, Pterigynandrum jidgens, Hedw., (the type of 
Phyllogonium) by Bridel, the author suspects that when its 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 65 

fruit is discovered — and male and female flowers have been 
detected on the Ohio specimens — it will prove to be sui 
generu. 2. Fimdens minuiidus, SulK 5. Fissidens^exiguus, 
SuU. 4. Schiaiidium serratum^ Hook, et Wils. 5. Marchaniia 
di^functOj SuU. 6. Aneura sessilis (Jungermannia sessilis, 
Hook, et Wils.) ; and, 7- Notothylaa orbicularis and valvata^ 
Sail. 



Catalogue of Mb,. Gbyer's Collection of Plants gathered in 
the Upper Missouri, the Oregon Territory, and the 
intervening portion qf the Rocky Mountains; by 
W. J. H. 

Having at p. 524 of our last volume concluded the inte- 
resting narrative of Mr. Geyer's Journey in the above 
countries, it is now our agreeable task to publish a Catalogue 
of the plants forming the beautiful Herbarium made during 
that journey. The numbers, between parentheses, refer to 
those distributed with the collections. 

Ranunculacea, Jum. 

1. Clematis DougbuU, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1, p. 1. Torr. et 
Or. Am. 1, p. 8. 

Hab. Borders of wooded mountains and prairies in the 
Spokan River, Coeur d'Aleine and Nez Percez country. 
Upper Oregon. Corolla reddish-violet. Many stems rise 
from one root April, May. (lu 313.) — These are splendid 
spedmens of a beautiful Clematis, A singular use is 
related by Mr. Geyer to be made of the root of this plant. 
** At a horse-racing of the Nez Percez Indians, I witnessed 
the application of the root It happened that several 
horses were run nearly to death ; so that they fell down 
during the heat of the day. As soon as such an accident 
happened, an Indian put a piece of this root (the outer 
ooat scraped off) into the nostrils of the anima) : the effect 
was surprizing, the creature sprang up under convulsions, 



66 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

was brought to the river and bathed, and I found sereral, 
which had been so treated, afterwards grazing with the herd, 
apparently without having sustained any injury/' 

2. C. Virffimanaj L. 

Has. Poplar groves and thickets along the banks of rivulets. 
Upper Columbia River. Aug. (n. 617*) 

3. C. verticillarisj DC. — Atragene Americana, lAnn. 

Hab. Only seen on the gentle elevations at the foot of the 

Coeur d'Aleine, about St. Joseph's, climbing over Amebm" 

chier Canadensis. April, (n. 615.) 
1. Anemone nemorosa, L. — var. guingurfolia, Torr. et Gr«*— 

A. quinquefolia, L» 
Hab. High alpine shady woods, Coeur d'Aleine mountains. 

(n. 606.) 

1. Ranunculus aquatilis, L. y. cuBSpUosus^ DC. 
Hab. (This in my collection is witliout No.) 

2. R. Flammviai L* 

Hab. High grassy plains of Coeur d'Aleine. (n. 306.) 

3. R. rq^tanSi L. — DC. — ^Torr. et Gr. — R. Flammnla, var. 
Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 

Hab. Stony exsiccated water-courses in sunny places. Upper 
Oregon. July, Aug. (n. 213.) 

4. R. Cymbalaria, Ph. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. I. p. 11. Torr. et 
Gr. l.p, 17. 

Hab. Swampy springy meadows, between the Upper Platte 
and Sweet Water River, with R. scekratus. July. (n. 132.) 

5. R. brevicmdiSf Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 13. t. 7. A. — ^Torr. 
et Gr. 1. p. 18. 

Hab. Plains of Upper Columbia River. Feb. Mar. (n. 459.) 

6. R. sceleraius, L. 

Hab. Swampy springy meadows, between Platte and Sweet 
Water rivers, growing with R. Cymbakaria. July. (lu 134.) 

7. R. acris, L. ; var, caule appresso-{>ubescente, foliis info- 
rioribus minus divisis basi magis acutis, segmentis anga»» 
tioribus. 

Hab. In a fertile swampy meadow at the Upper Sweet 
Water River. Aug. (n. 110.)— This quite agrees with 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 67 

R. ocm in the root and flower and fruit; but the pu- 
bescence of the stem is rather dense and appressed, as well 
as on the leaves^ and the root-leaves are not cordate at the 
base^ but almost acute or wedge-shaped, and the segments 
fewer and narrower. 

8. R. Usjridus, Mz. 

Hab* Abundant on the Gamass prairies of Coeur d'Aleine ; 
not seen elsewhere. August, (n. 303.) 

9. R. Penmylvanieus, L. ; var, a. minus hirsutus, foliis cauli- 
busque gracilioribus. 

Hab. Muddy margin of swamps, Upper Columbia, Fort 
Colvilla* August, (n. 580.) — var. The only RantmctUiis 
seen in the valley of Upper Platte or Sweet Water Biver, 
1839 ; at Devil's Lake, quite prostrate, (n. 579.) 

10. R. ienellus, Nutt. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 23. 

Has* Swampy grounds about springs and rivulets, Koos- 
kooskee Valley, (n. 400.) 

1. Myosurus mitumus, L. 

Hab« Borders of pools in the Gamass prairies of the Coeur 
d'Aleine, with Isoetes lacu8tris. May. (n. 322.) 

L Coptis occidentaliSf Nutt. Journ. Acad. Sc Philad. 7* p* 9. 
t K Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 28. 

Hab. Low, dry, shady pine woods, Upper Oregon. April, (n. 
614.) — Of this very rare plant, only previously discovered 
by Mr. Wyeth (Nutt.) in the " Rocky Mountains,'* the 
spedmens are in fruit, in which state it was unknown to 
Botanists. As Nuttall suspected, the scape lengthens in 
age, and its 3 fruit-bearing branches (themselves 2-8 inches 
long) are borne upon a stalk a span high. The plant is 
evergreen, Mr. Geyer observes, and, in spots where it 
grows, covers almost every square foot of the ground. 

1. Delphinium Menzierii, DC. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 25. 
Bot. Reg. 1. 1 192. D. simplex, Hook. 

Hab. On the mountains dose to the Upper Columbia; 
abundant in the Coeur d'Aldne country. Inner petals 
fitscous, bearded. May. (n. 600.) 

2. D. rimplex, Hook. Fl. Bor. Ann 1. p. 25 ; and var. dUiichi-' 



68 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

florum. D. distichum, Geyer, Ms. ; glabrum, foliorum seg- 
mentis latioribus minus divaricatis. 

Hab. Slopes of the undulating plains between Kansas and 
Platte Rivers, with (Enothera serrulata, (n. 163.) — Var. 
Grassy stony borders of rivulets, high plains of Spokan and 
Nez Percez, (n. 420.) — Our D. simplex, Messrs. Torrey and 
Grey unite with D. Menziesii ; probably with justice^ for 
it is as difficult to define the limits of the American species 
of this Genus as of the European ones. Again, it must be 
allowed that the var. here given of D. simpler has a 
very different appearance from that species^ in its gla- 
brous leaves^ with broader^ shorter, and blunter lacimas^ 
and (according to Geyer) regularly distichous flowers: 
— yet I fear there are no permanent distinguishing cha- 
racters. 

1. Act£sa rtibra, Big. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 27--Torr. et 
Gr. Am. 1. p. 35. 

Hab. Deep shady defiles, borders of rivulets, Nez Perces 
Mountains, near the snow line. June. Berries deep-red, 
oval. (n. 520.) 

1. Thalictrum dioicum, L. 

Hab. Low alpine woods, Coeur d'Aleine country. May. (n. 
622.) 

BsBBERIDBiB, JuSS^ 

1. Berberis AqutfoUum^ Ph. 

Hab. Stony banks ; most abundant on precipices of Trap 

mountains of the Upper Platte to the Lower Columbia : 

very abundant. April, May. (n. 370.) 

CRUCIFBRiB, JUSS. 

1. Cheiranthus capitatus, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. 

p. 38. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 71* C. asper, Cham, et 

Schlect. in lAnruea, I. p. 14. 
Hab. Sunny rocks, highlands of Nez Percez : rare. May. 

(n. 399.) 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 69 

)• Nastortinm Curvisiligua, Nutt. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 73- 
Sisymbrium Curvisiliqua^ Hook. Fl. Bor. Am^ I. p. 61. 

Hab. Stony borders of the Coeur d'AIeine Lake. June : rare, 
(n. SSS.) 

2. Nasturtium /MiAi^^re, DC. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 89. 
Torr. et Gr* Am. I. p. 73. Sisymbrium palustre^ L. 

Hab. Muddy banks of rivers, Upper Oregon. July. (n. 482.) 

I. Barbarea wdgariSt Br. — Erysimum Barbarea, L. 

Hab. Stony borders of Lake Coeur d'Aleine and Koos- 

kooskee Rivers. April, May. (n. 604.) 
]. Turritis glabra^ Br. 
Hab. Thickets in sunny places, Kooskooskee valley: common. 

May, June. (n. 353.) 
2.T.paiulaf Grab, in Edinb. Journ. 1829, p. 7. Hook. Fl. 

Bor. Am. 1. p. 40. Torr.et Gr. Am. 1. p. 79. 
Hab. Swampy rocks, Coeur d'Aleine Mountains : rare. May. 

(n. 646.) 

3. T. reirofractOj Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 41. Torr. et Gr. 
Am. 1. p. 7^- 

Hab. Alpine ravines, mountains of the Kooskooskee River, 
in thickets, (n. 564.) 

I. Arabis Airni/a, L. 

Hab. Banks of Black's Fork of Upper Colorado, in dry de- 
nuded places, August, rare. (n. 364} ; and alpine ravines 
in the mountains of Kooskooskee River, (n. 565.) 

1. Cardamine Atrm/a, L. — C. Pennsylvanica, Muhl. 

Hab. Along rivulets ; Valley of Flathead, or Upper Clarke's 
River. Sept. (n. 181.) 

1. Sisymbrium canescenSj Nutt. De Cand. Prodr. 1. p. 194. 
Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 62. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 92. 
(var. a.) 

Hab. Mountain rocks; alpine ravines, Kooskooskee. June, 
(n. 675.) 

1. Erysimum oiperum^ DC. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 64. t. 
22. — E. lanceolatum, PA. 

Hab. In sunny places, in the high stony plains of UppeJi 



70 B0TAKIGA1« INVOBVATIOSI. 

Fhlte, searoely teen at tbe Kooskootkae. Flowers with 
the frngnmee itt CkekxmikuB CkeirL Jane. (n» 153.) 

1* Paebypodiam uU^fr^bSmm, Nntt^ in Torr. et Gr- Am. 1. 
p. 96. 

Has* Sandy inundated places, valley of Upper Platte and 
Sweet Water River, growing with Ckome hUegrybKa and 
AMdepku ipeeioia. Jaly. (n. 234.) This has been also 
foond abundantly by Mr. Tolmie; and by Mr. Douglas 
during his last journey in the Oregon territory* 

!• Vericaria aljrina, Nutt. in Torr. et 6r. Am. 1. p. 102. 

Hab. Sunny calcareous cliffs; bills of Upper Platte, near the 
^ Chimney Rock.'' June. (n. 60.) Mr. Nuttall seems to 
have discovered it on the same spot, and it appears to have 
been found in no other locality, and by no other Botanist. 
A beautiful and very distinct species. 

2. V. Ludovieianaj DC. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1, p. 101. — Alys* 
sum Ludovicianum, Nutt^ Gen. Am. 2. p. 63. Myagram 
argenteum, Ph. 

Hab. Gravelly calcareous hills of Upper Platte, towards the 
Black Hills : — partly prostrate. July. (n. 27B.) 

3. V. Oeyeri, Hook. ; perennis, stellatim incana, radice fusi- 
formi, caulibus e coUo numerosis, foliis longioribus radi- 
calibus suborbiculatis longe petiolatis, foliis cauKnis lanoeo- 
latis sessilibus sparsis, siliculis late obcordatis bilobis com- 
presso-inflatis stylum longitudine eequantibus. (Tab. V.) 

Hab. Sunny sandy declivities on elevated volcanic places. 

Upper Spokan River. April, (n. 476.) 

A new and very remarkable species, with much the habit 
of V. dUfymocarpa, especially in the mode of growth and in 
the radical leaves ; hut the fruit is totally different, though 
somewhat membranaceous and inflated, and two-lobed ; it is 
broadly obcordate, densely stellate, pubescent, two-lobed, 
compressed, of so membranous a texture that the pericarp 
shrinks or fidls in between the four seeds (two in each cell), 
rendering the surface very unequal. The style is as long as the 
silicule. — (Tab. V. Fig. 1. Portion of a flower; /. 2. Silicula; 
/ 3. Seed.) 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 7^ 

1. Draba glacialU ? Adams. 

Hab* On an isolated calcareous cliff in the Black Hills on 
the Horse River. July. (n. 267-) — I am rather doubtful 
about this species, my specimens possessing neither flower 
nor perfect silicules ; but, judging from the nature of the 
leaTcs and the pubescence, I think it is that species. 

2. Draba lutea, Gilib. — /i. longipes. Hook. Flor. Bor. Am. 
1. p. 55. Torr. ei Gr. Am. 1. p. 107. 

Hab. Moist borders of hills, Coeur d'Aleine valley, and on 
the sandy banks of Columbia river, at Fort Colville. 
March— May, (n. 626.) 

1. Platyspermum scapigerum^ Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 
68. t. 18. B. Torr. et 6r. Am. 1. p. 112. 

Hab. Wet rocks and water--courses in the plains. Upper 
Oregon, Coeur d'Aleine and Chuelpee country; forming 
dense carpets, rarely solitary, on rocks. Corolla white ; 
silicule psJe green with purple dots. (n. 597). — ^There are 
very beautiful specimens in all stages, from the flower-bud, 
to the large ripened fruit, which, when fully formed, is 
essentially orbicular, and as large as a silver penny. 

1. Thlaspi coMeariforme^ DC. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 58. 
Nutt. Journ. Acad. Philad. 7* p« 13. Torr. et Gr. Am. 
1. p. 114. 

Hab. On the high, cold, swampy prairies of the Coeur 
d*Aleine, surrounded by high mountains. Somewhat 
stoloniferous. Leaves purplish, (n. 305). 

1. Lepidium Firginicum, L. 

Hab. Indian camps, Kooskooskee river valley, growing with 
Erodium Cicuiarium. June. (n. 389) 

2. L. iniegrifoUum, Nutt. in Torr. etOr. Am. 1. p. 176. 
Hab. Saline clayey denuded places, about the sources of 

Muddy river, and along the valley of Bear River. July, 
August, (n. 81). — Exactly agreeing with Mr. Nuttall's 
original specimens from the western side of the Rocky 
Mountains about the borders of the Oregon. 
1. Thysanocarpus curvipes, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1 . t. 18. A. 
—Torr. et Gr. 1. p. 118. 



72 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

Hab. Stony moist sunny declivities, and slopes of the high 
plains towards Kooskooskee valley : rare. May. (n. 343). 
— Judging from an extensive suite of specimens gathered in 
California by Dr. Coulter and presented to me by Dr. Har- 
vey, the silicules of the winged group of this genus are 
very variable, and the number of published species ought 
to be reduced. 

2. T. obUmgifoUuSy Nutt in Torr. et 6r. Am. 1, p. 118. 

Hab. Stony ridges, valley of Coeur d'Aleine river : rare. 
April, n. 607. — A very distinct species from the preceding, 
the fruit being apterous ; in that respect allied to T. puaiU 
kuf, Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 43. 

Capparide^b, Juss. 

1. Cleome integrifolia, Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 122. Peritoma 
integrifolia, Nutt, in Joum, Acad. 8c. Philad. J. p. 14. 

Hab. Moist sunny sandy places, river valley of the Platte, 
extending to the Upper' Sweet Water River ; whence its 
place is taken by C. aurea, Nutt. It was also detected at 
Upper Big Sioux River, Missouri. July. (n.*i68). 

POLYGAIiBiB, JU8S. 

1. Polygala alboy Nutt. Gen. Am. 2. p. 87. De Cand. Prodr. 
1. p. 330. Torr. et Gr. 1. p. 131. 

Hab. Gravelly hills, Upper Platte, growing with MammU'- 
laria simplex and Evolvulus argenteua : the specific name is 
not appropriate, for the flowers vary to deep reddish 
violet and purplish. June, July. (n. 276). — It seems to 
be the same as P. Beyrickii of Torr. et Gr. I. p. 120, and 
Messrs. Torrey and Grey suspect it is not different from 
P. SenegUy which is assuredly a very variable species. 

VlOLARlEifi, DC. 

1. Viola tf/rtn/a. Ait. 

Hab. Moist fertile alpine woods; poplar groves in the valley 



BOTANICAL rNPORMATION. 7^ 

and mountains of Coeur d'Aleine River. April, May. 
(n. 602). 

2. V. MuhlenbergUj Torr. Fl. 1. p. 256. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. 
p. 140* V. Muhlenbergiana, Ging. Hook. FL Bor. Am* 1. 
p. 78. 

H AB. Meadows and low woods in river valleys, Upper Oregon^ 
always in bloom, even under the snow (n. 608 in flower), 
and among willow-tbicketii of springy swampy meadows 
between Upper Platte and Sweet River, (n, 41). 

8. y. NuttaUU, Ph. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 9. t. 26. 
Torr. and Or. Am. v. 1. p. 141. V. aurea, Nutt. in Hook. 
Herb. 

Hab. Open pine woods, borders of the high table-land, 
prairies of the Nez Percez, in fertile grassy plains : rare. 
June. (n. 407). 

4. v. nUmd^oUa ? Mx. Hook. FL Bor. Am. 1. p. 177- Torr. 
and Gr. Am. v. 1. p. 1S8. V. orbiculata, Geyer, M8S. 

Hab. In deep dark shady and dry woods of Th^'a giganiea, 
in the narrow defiles of the Coeur d'Aleine Mountains, 
with Lmmea boreaUs and Calypso borealis, and Copiia occi- 
dentaUs: very rare. (n. 295). — I am by no means sure of 
this spades ; the specimens exactly agree in the flowers 
and foliage with what I possess from Dr. Schweinitz as 
v. r$tund\foUa, Mx. It also resembles V. blanda, Nutt. ; 
the flowers and leaves are large. If it proves distinct, 
Mr. Geyer's mst name of V. orbieulaia should be 
adopted. 

Drosebacejb, DC. 

1. Plumassia Koizebuei, Cham, et Schlecht. Hook. Fl. Bor. 

Am. 1. p. 82. t. 28. Torr. and Gr. Am. v. K p. 149. 
Hab. Shady wet places under willows, in fertile meadows 

and springy grounds: rare; between Platte and Sweet 

Water River. July. (n. 133). 

VOL. VI. G 



74 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 



HTPKRICINBiE^ JU88. 

1. Hypericum Scouteri, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 111. Torr. 
and 6r. Am. 1. p. 160. — var. fol. angustioribus. 

Hab. Rocky places about springs and along borders of 
rivers, and in the open plains of Upper Oregon, growing 
with Erioffonum umbeUaium; July. Sept. (n. 196); and 
very wet places, valley of Kooskooskee. June. (n. 501). 

CABYOPHTLLEiE, JuSS. 

1. Arenaria congesta, Nutt. in Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 178.— 
and /3. var. major. 

Hab. Gravelly banks of Horse River of the Upper Platte 
(n. 26) ; and var. major, stony Islands of Kooskooskee 
River: rare. July. (n. 466). — The var. major is twice or 
thrice the usual size of the plant, but does not appear 
otherwise different. 

2. A. Hookeri, Nutt. in Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 178. 

Hab. High stony plateaux of Upper Sweet Water River, 
with Phlox " muscoides/^ July. (n. 143). 

1. Stellaria borealis, Bigelow, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 94. 
Torr. and Gr. Am. 1. p. 185. Spergulastrum lanceolatum, 
Mich. Micropetalon lanceolatum, Pers. — var. minor. 

Hab. Springs in the Spokan plains, September, (n. 532) ; 
and var. minor, springy places in the desert between 
Upper Platte and Sweet Water Rivers. July. (n. 36). 
What is here called var. minor of this most variable plant, 
has the leaves narrower than in a. and more obtuse, but 
except in size, is not otherwise different. 

2. S. nitidOf Hook, in App. Scoresby Greenl. p. 411. S. 
Edwardsii, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 96. t. 31. 

Hab. Open stony slopes of mountains. Upper Oregon, Apr. 
May, very abundant, (n. 629). — This is the S. nitida, nob. 
in Scoresby ; and is a slenderer plant than 8. Edward^ 
Mf, with which I united it in the Flora Boreali- Americana ; 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 75 

while these two, again, Torrey and Gray have considered 

mere Tarieties of 8. Umgyies^ Ooldie. It seems utterly 

impossible to define the limits of this group of SteUarice. 
3. S. lofiffipeSy Groldie, in Hook. Flor. Bor. Am. 1 p. 95. — 

e. Torr. and 6r. Am. 1. p. 185. 
1. In Mr. Geyer's MS. catalogue is a ^' SteUaria phhgioides** 

Geyer^ n. 144 ; which does not appear in my collection. 
Hab, Borders of woods, gravelly prairies of the Coear 

d'Aleine, creeping in dry sand. May. (n. 324). Petals short, 

sometimes wanting. 
1* Cerastium arvenscy L. (C. Pennsylvanicum, and C. tenui- 

foliam, and C. elongatum, PA., according to Torrey and 

Grey). 
Hab. Stony meadows of Kanzas River, also found at the 

Eooskooskee, May. (n. 284). 

1. Silene DrummondU^ Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. I. p. 89. Torr.et 
Gn 1. p, 191. 

Hab. Pine woods of Upper Columbia^ growing with Co/to- 
mta elegans, and Clarkia ptdcheUa, (n. 519, in flower) ; 
and in meadows about springs, near Sweet Water River, 
July. (n. 79). 

2. S. Aniirrhina, L. 

Hab. Banks and sterile stony places ; Kooskooskee River, 
May. (n. 385). 

3. 8. Menzierih Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 99. t. 30. Torr. et 
Gr. Am. 1. p. 193. — (i. Leaves narrower, less downy. 

Hab. Burnt places in pine woods, Upper Columbia River. 
Juty, (n. 550) ; and /3. (in fruit), sandy moist pine woods 
at Flathead River^ also on the '^ Black Hills" near Fort 
Laramie, Upper Platte, (n. 549). 

LiNBiE, DC. 

1. linam rigidum, Ph. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 105. Torr. 

et Gr. 1. p. 204. 
Hab. Generally seen on the high plains of the Platte River, 

o 2 



76 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

below the junction of the Forks, growing with lAqmug 
pusilbis; corolla ochreous yellow, (n. 169).—! cannot dis- 
tinguish this from L. riffidum. 

Okraniacba, DC. 

1. Erodium cicutarium, L'H^rit. 

Hab. In the range of the Nez Percez Indians, (n. 670). 

1. Geranium maculatum, L. Hook. FL Bor. Am. p. 115. 

Torr. et Gr. I. p. 206. 
Hab. Dry stony thickets and ravines, common upon Up{>er 

Missouri and Oregon territories. Corolla white to crimson ; 

2 feet high, bushy, (n. 402). 

Tbrebinthacbjb, DC. 

1. Rhus Toxicodendron, L. 

Hab. Shady rocky narrow woods and groves of Rhus gla* 

brum, along the banks of the Kooskooskee river. Never 

rooting, (n. 560). 

MALVACEiB, JU88. 

1. Malva rivularis, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 107. 
Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 226. 

Hab. Thickets of Upper Columbia, and on Kooskooskee ; 

3 to 10 feet high : very rare. June, July. (n. 410). 

2. M. Papaver, Cav. Torr. et Gr, Am. 1. p. 226. Nuttallk 
Papaver, Graham, in Hook. BoU Mag. t. 3287* Nuttallia 
cordifolia, NutU in Joum. Acad. Philad. 7* p« 98. 

Hab. Limestone rocks, valley of Blue and Vermillion Rivers, 
between Kanzas and Platte Rivers ; May. (n. 262). This 
is precisely the M. Papaver of Cavanilles, and is perhaps 
the most northern locality of the species. 

3. M.pedata, Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 227* Nuttallia pedata, 
Nutt. in Hook. Ex. Bot. 2. p. 62. N. digitata, Bart. Ft 
Am. Sept. V. 2. p. 62. (non Nutt.) — P. umbellata, Torr. ei 
Gr. I. c. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 77 

Hab. fi. In a meadow of the Lower Platte River, not seen 
afterwards; May. Flowers milk-white (in these speci- 
mens), (n. 76). Of this species or Tsiiety the root is said 
to be eaten. 

1. Sida mahHeflara, DC. Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1036 (excellent). 
Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 108. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 234. 
Var. 1. Floribus roseo«purpureis. Var. 2. Floribns pnni- 
oeis (" deep red.^0 

ELab. Var. 1. Grassy fertile borders of rivulets in the high 
plains of the Spokan and Nea Perces Indians, (n. 404). 
Var. 2. Rocky ravines of Muddy River, near Smithes Fork 
of the Colorado s the only specimen found, (n. 82). The 
latter differs in no respect from the former, save in the 
deeper and redder colour of the flower. 

2« Sidacomaea, DC. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 108. Torr. 
et Gr. 1. p. 235. Malva coocinea, NutL Oen. Am. 2. p. 81. 
Sim$, Bot. Mag. t 1673. 

Hab. Fertile elevated plains. Lower Platte, growing with 
Gaara eoccmea, Penistemon ^albidw/' and Batschia '' de- 
cumbens.^' June. (n. 174). 

3. SidsidiBsecta, Nutt. in Torr. et Gr. i. p. 235. 

Hab. Gravelly slopes of calcareous hills. Black's Fork of the 
Upper Colorado, (n. 98). — ^This seems gradually to pass 
into 8. coccinea. 

ACBBINEJB, JUSS. 

I . Acer Dougkutif nov. sp. ; foliis cordato-rotundatis mem- 
branaceis obtusiusculis 5-lobis brevissime acuminatis grosse 
indso^serratis glabris 3-5-nerviis subtus pallidioribus, ra- 
cemis lazis umbellatis 4-8floris basi (foliisque novellis) 
longe bracteatis, bracteis ovato-lanceolatis coloratis intus 
pubescentibus, calycibus petalisque linearibus glaberrimis, 
fiructibus umbellatis erecto-patentibus alis subfalcatis ob- 
tusis. (Tab. VI). 

Acer barbatum, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 112. {var. 
Ms.) 



78 BOTANICAL INPORllATtOir. 

Hab. Near springs of the Rocky Mountains about the 
sources of the Columbia, Douglas ^ Drummond. Blue Moun- 
tains of Oregon, Douglas. Banks of streams. Upper Ore- 
gon, 10 — 20 feet high, very often shrubby ; more elevated 
in the lower re^ons, Geyer. (n. 616). — My first specimens 
of this, both from Douglas and Drummond, being only 
young flowering branches, I was unable to give an opi- 
nion respecting the species. Since the publication of the 
Flora Boreali-Americana, I have received good fructified 
specimens, gathered during poor Douglas' last journey in 
the Blue Mountains ; and now I possess flowering and firait- 
ing specimens from Mr. Geyer, all of which clearly prove 
this to be a new and most distinct species, totally unlike 
A. grandidentaium of Nuttall, to which Messrs. Torrey and 
Gray have, with slight doubts however, referred it. Our 
figure will, we trust, satisfactorily show the characters of this 
species, which has a good deal the flowers of A. ctrctn- 
naturoy while its leaves more resemble those of A. rubrum : 
but it is in other respects very different from both. 

Tab. VL Kg. 1. Flower, magn. 

CELASTRINEiB, Bv. 

1. Oreophila myrttfoliaj Nutt. in Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 259* 
Myginda myrtifolia, Nutt. Gen. Am. 1. p. 109. Hook. Fl. 
Bor. Am. l.p. 120. t. 41. 

Hab. My specimen and the habitat are mislaid. The speci- 
men was probably from the Rocky Mountains of the 
Oregon (n. 331. on the authority of Mr. Geyer's list.) 

RHAMNBiB, JU8S, 

1. Rhamnua PursManus, DC. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p, 123. 

t. 43. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 262. R. alnifolius, PA. {non 

UHMt.) 
Hab. Rocks and water-courses in the plains, Spokan River 

and CoBur d'Aleine country. A small tree or shrub, 8—12 

feet high. June. (n. 522). 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 7^ 

1. Ceanothus O^^ant^ , Nutt. in Terr, et 6r. Am. I. p. 265. 
C sanguineus. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 125. {non Ph.) 

Hab. Mountains, Upper Oregon, 2 — 10 feethigh. Outline 
of the bush globose, outer stems rooting. Leaves biennial. 
Toung leaves, after they attain their full size, are shining and 
covered on the upper surface with a glutinous colourless 
substance. Flowers white. Grows with ^nraa ariaJbUaf 
June. (n. 526). 

(7b be continued). 



Jowmal of the Voyage to the Niger of Dr. J. R. T. Vogbl. 
{Continued from Vol. V.p. 644.) 

Thursday^ 5th qf August. — We left Accra after midnight, 
and cast anchor on Sunday, the 9th, at the mouth of a 
river, supposed to be the Nun. The weather was gloomy, 
and a dense rain falling all day, caused the wet to make its 
way through the shutters, so that it was difficult to find a dry 
place, even for standing room. We stayed there the whole 
day, and sailed next morning for the mouth of the Nun, 
anchoring about nine miles off it, alongside the Albert. 

Friday the ISM of August. — The want of water, already 
felt the day before, was now more severely experienced, 
ilthongh we had collected some rain on Monday. How such 
an Expedition came to be unprovided with water, especially 
when we consider that, on no account, ought we have made 
use at first of the Niger water, is incomprehensible to me. 
It had been easy to obtain abundance of good water at 
Danish Accra. 

Sunday, August IS.^We quitted our anchorage at half 
past eleven, a.m., and crossed without difficulty the bar, 
beyond which we cast anchor beside the Albert, at about 
a quarter to two, p.m. Here we stopped four days, during 
which I could only examine the right bank of the river, 



80 JOURNAL OF .THB 

because I bad no boat to get to the opposite aide, where the 
greater ei^tent of land and a village seemed to o£fer more 
interest. The river is here perhaps 10,000 yards wide, and 
the stream carries down a great deal of sand. The tide 
showed itself very distinctly, running perhaps three or four 
knots an hour, and the current seeming to set more on 
the left shores which appears to be a mere sandbank, or 
sandy foreland, than on the right, which is covered with 
jungle, immediately beyond the sandy strand. The mouth 
of the Nun looks like a Delta, on a small scale ; at least now, 
during the rainy season ; being intersected by many shallow 
watercourses, forming, further on, low lands covered with 
MamgrweSy similar to what I observed at Bassa Cove (Grand 
Bassa). The Avicewnia appeared to prove, that the one 
hitherto seen, with quite naked leaves (A. nitida ?) at Grand 
Bassa, is but a variety of that at Sierra Iieone. In these 
Mangrove swamps, the OH palm often grew, covered with 
parasitical Ferns, (I found only two species of Ferns besides 
those, which are terrestrial), and on somewhat higher ground^ 
Drepanocarpus bmatus^ Ormoearpus verrucosus, a few shrubby 
Rubiaceaj and a few Mi$nosea. Of the trees, intermixed with 
the Mangroves, little can be said ; they were not many, and 
all covered, to the very top, with parasites. Some belonged to 
the genus Sombax. This land, if it can be so called, was but a 
few feet above high-water mark, and consisted of sea-sand and 
vegeteble remains. The beach was quite flat, hardly higher 
than the sea, covered in many places with water, and formed 
of sand, mixed with mica, probably carried down by the 
Niger, and giving its shores a shining and peculiar appearance. 
In some places, the strand is clothed with jungle dose to the 
sea, consisting of Ckrysobalamu Icaco and Ecasiophj^Uum 
Broumei ; the fruits of the former, of a beautiful red, were very 
conspicuous. Intermingled with these grew MeloHmnaceie, 
Diodia mort/tmn, Th., some other small Rubiace/e, and &o* 
porta dulcis • while the border, towards the higher woods, 
was frequently ornamented with the beautiful yellow flowors of 
Hibiicui tUiaceus. Amongst these shrubs, spots might be seen. 



VOYAGE TO THB NIGER. 81 

here and there, covered with tall rough Grass and Cyperaeeay 
to the height of a man, and higher ; bound together by Cwi^ 
votvuU, CanythOy 'and other lianesj rendering them perfectly 
impenetrable. I found several places closely matted with 
StyioModkes Gumeensis, forming carpets, upon which one 
mig^t cross pocda without observing them. The most 
barren and sandy places were much overgrown with a Te- 
iemniheraj R. Br., {lOecebrwn obliqmm, Schum. ?) an Euphor- 
bia {irmerviay Schum.?) but especially with a yellow-flowered 
creeping Dotiekas and Convohndua Pes Caprte, {rotundifol. 
Sebum.), which latter is diffused over the whole coast from 
Monrovia. An UmbeUtfera {Hydrocotyle interrupta, fi. 
plaiyph* DC), grew every where on the beach amongst 
the Mangroves, and seems to overspread the whole coast. 
A spedes of Malaghetty Pepper^ differing from that in 
Gtmnd Bassa by the long beak of the fruit, was frequent. 
On one spot, amongst the Mangroves, I noticed, on the de- 
caying roots, a delicate white plant, having white scales instead 
of leaves, and three flowers; it was a parasite on the roots, 
but sent forth roots of its own. I have preserved a few 
■peeimens in spirits. Upon the whole, I have seen too little 
of the vegetation here, to compare it with that of any place 
bidierto visited on the coast. On the opposite shore, they 
cultivate Cocoa Palms, of which the natives brought us 
Ae nuts ; on the right bank, where we did not now see any 
inhabitants, the Cassada showed traces of abandoned plan- 
tations. The scenery is not remarkable. At the entrance, 
the left aide presented a pleasant prospect, from the familiar 
fimns of the forest and Cocoa Palm ; on the opposite shore, 
beyond the forest and brushwood, there appeared a sort of 
lagoon^ while behind that, the Mangroves rose into an erect 
and lofty-stemmed wood. 

Of the natives, I saw only few, and none very near. They 
seemed to be well-formed, robust men, with their hair fre- 
quently shorn in a crest shape, but having nothing particular 
io their dress. I was told that they have a language of their 
own (Bassa language). The weather was changeable, al- 



82 JOURNAL OP THB 

ternate rain and sunshine; the former moderate and the 
heat never oppressive. By day and night, but especially 
during the day, a fresh sea-breeze prevailed. 

Friday, August 20. — ^At break of day, we proceeded up 
the river, and although it rained violently, every one was in 
high spirits at our at last moving onwards, and beginning, 
after so much detention, the Expedition itself. A little 
above the bar, the river, dividing into creeks and branches^ 
is very wide, resembling a lake ; but the only branch deep 
enough for the steamers, at present known to unite with the 
upper part, called ^' Louis Creek,'' is narrow in proportion^ 
at one part only sixty to eighty English yards wide. So 
far, tlie shore is covered with Mangrove {RMzqphora), 
which, with its roots descending from the branches, has 
a singular appearance; but this is only the case with old 
trees, for the young Mangroves often form woods of dense 
foliage, now in the full splendour of green leaves — a glorious 
sight! Only in a few places, I saw Ferns spring out of 
the water amongst the Mangroves. A little beyond Louis 
Creek, the character of the vegetation underwent a marked 
change ; although the country was still much covered with 
Mangroves, they receded to ibe back-ground, and the stream 
itself was lined with young, still bushy. Oil Palms : Pandanus 
Candelabrum showed, not seldom, its grass-like leaves ; while, 
here and there, other trees mixed with them, until, near 
Sunday Island,* (about thirteen English miles from the sea), 
the Mangroves and Pandanus disappear. Then the shore 
was lined with small trees and shrubs, with fresh glossy 
foliage, backed by the tall and elegant forms of fully grown 
Oil palms, a view which can never tire our sight. These 
Palms are 60*80 feet high. The stems are thickest in the 
middle ; but the contraction towards the bottom is hardly 
perceptible. The top is rounded. The leaves are long, their 
tips somewhat pendent; the lower leaves more so, which 
causes the cylindrical shape. 

* The influence of the tide extends only as far as *' Sunday Island."— 
(H. D. lYotter.) 



VOYAGB TO TH£ NIOBR. 83 

Hitherto we had met few natives ; but they now began to 
show themselves, more and more numerous, in their small 
canoes. Their thatched huts, close to the river, were sur- 
rounded by plantations of PUanff, descending apparently into 
the water. I saw occasionally Bombax trees, or Leguminoste 
and MimosetB, easily distinguishable by their peculiar foliage, 
and some other trees, which might have been taken for 
species of Ficus. The trees increased in number, and to- 
wards evening, we passed shores covered with tall ReedSy 
beyond which thick forests extended ; but under no circum- 
stances was there a deficiency of Oil Palms. Alternating 
with reeds, we observed plantations of Pisang and Sugar-cane^ 
completely in water, close to small villages which became 
Tery numerous. After sunset, we anchored in the midst of 
the stream. From Alburka Island we reckon to have 
made thirty-five English miles, (or forty from the sea.) 

Saturday^ August 2\. — We proceeded, the three ships in 
company, at day-break. The vegetation resembled, on the 
whole, what we had seen yesterday ; the trees often descend- 
ing close to the water, and exhibiting a mass of parasites of 
most singular forms. Sometimes I saw flowers, and fruit, 
which only made me regret, that I could not examine them 
closer. In Madeira I botanized on horseback, at Cape Coast 
Castle out of a carriage, and at Accra in a basket ; but from 
a steam ship it was impracticable. The villages became very 
frequent ; in the plantations we saw (through the telescope) 
besides Pisang and Sugar, occasionally Cassada, Maize and 
Yam; to which may be added the Oil palm and the Cocoa, 
similar to the latter, but (here at least) not so slender, being 
rather short and of vigorous growth. But whilst the Oil 
pabn grew every where, the Cocoa showed itself only near 
villages; a sure proof of its not being indigenous. Soon 
after noon, an attempt was made to proceed by another than 
the usual branch of the river, round an island ; but we found 
that it did not speedily join the main stream, and we were 
separated from the other vessels, which had taken the eastern 
branch. Afler sunset we anchored ; having come about thirty- 



84 JOURNAL OF TBB 

six miles. Soon after entering the western branch, we 
perceived on the right shore a village of clay cottages, 
from whence a chief came off to us ; the village was called 
Otuo. The men in the canoes were a robust race, and, like 
others who visited us in the course of the day, had a line or 
mark drawn over the forehead down to the nose. Their 
clothes showed nothing remarkable ; but the hair of some 
was divided into squares, like a chess-board ; while others wore 
it plaited, in numerous little tails, which stood erect on the 
head like so many horns. They spoke the Bassa language. 
The shore was generally very low, rising but little above the 
river, at the most elevated part perhaps 4 feet; while the 
bared roots of plants made me think that the water is 
sometimes higher than at this time. 

Sunday J August 22. — Proceeding at break of day, we soon 
perceived on the left side a town ; the first we had yet seen, 
situated on an elevation of 6 to 10 feet above the river, and 
containing clay cottages, each with a covered court-yard; 
while higher up were some magazines or warehouses, I saw 
here no CocoapalmSj but in the course of the day a few single 
ones occurred. The natives^ who assembled on the shore, 
to the number of several hundreds, it was fancied, men- 
tioned the name of the town as '' Amasuma^' and that of the 
river as ^ Oguberri.** Further on we came to two equally 
wide branches of the river, with equally strong currents, 
joining together ; after some consideration, the easternmost 
was chosen, and at two o'clock we arrived at a similar place, 
but where the western channel was very narrow. We pro- 
ceeded a short way upwards, and Captain Allen caused two 
plants to be fetched by the boat, which was towing. One is 
probably a new Dalbergia^ and one a Creeper, which I had 
watched eagerly ever since ^' Sunday Island.'^ It cUmbs 
up the trees along the shore, to their very summits, and 
then drops many thread-like stalks, 6 feet long, covered at 
the top with bundles of yellow flowers, which often reach the 
ground. It appears a new genus, closely allied to Mucuna^ 
and I call it provisionally Mucuna flagellipes. Both plants 



VOTAOB TO THB NIGER. 85 

-were unfortunately without fruit. Returning down this 
branchy we saw, close to the fork on the left side, a village^ 
the name of whieh we understood to be Haddi, i. e. small 
box. Towards sunset, we arrived again at the eastern or 
main branch, left on Saturday, which is, at the place of sepa- 
ration, a river of 3 to 4000 feet wide ; its shores are elevated 
some feet and covered with reeds and shrubs ; on the left 
bank, immediately opposite to the fork, stands a village, or 
rather three small ones, somewhat apart and consisting of 
day huts, and magazines, raised on posts. The name of the 
last of the three sounded like ^^ Obokriga.^' Not far beyond 
this we anchored, when it got dark. The general character 
of the country was the same as yesterday, but the shores 
being somewhat higher, I was able genendly to see the soil, 
though frequently the shrubs and plants were immersed up 
to their lower leaves. The vegetation appeared the same as 
before. 

Monday^ August 2d.»Again in movement at break of day. 
On the shore, which was lower than on the previous day, 
we noticed a few villages, and some negroes came alongside 
in canoes and on board. They wore not only the streak 
down the forehead, but mostly three parallel lines on each 
cheek<>bone. Towards ten o^clock we arrived at a village on 
the right shore, named in Laird^s expedition ** Ihu/' and 
•* Little Ibu" in Allen's chart ;* the inhabitants called it Ocro* 
tombi or Korotumbi ; but it was some time, before we could 
clearly hear the name. The chief, who came on board, wore 
an old blue European jacket, and a perfectly new green cap, 
with tassel strings. It had rained in the morning ; towards 
noon the weather cleared, and a boat going on shore to take 
the sun's meridian, I joined it, and we landed at a plantation, 

* Lieut. Allen's chart of the River Niger or Quorra, published by 
Bate« in the Poultry, London.— Lieut. William Allen, who surveyed the 
river in 1832 — 3, in the Alburka steamer, under Messrs. Lander and 
Lsird* was second in command on the Niger Expedition, and Comman- 
der of H.M. Ship Wilberforce, the steamer in which Dr. Vogel ascended 
th« river.*(B. D. Trotter). 



86 JOURNAL OF THE 

where the ground, about 4 or 5 feet above the level of the 
water, consisted of good vegetable soil, mixed with clay and 
sand, and cultivated with Cocoa treeSj Yams, and C(qm^ 
cum. Sorghum {rubrum ?) grew apparently indigenous, and 
formed grassy forests, 10 or 1 1 feet high. The geographical 
latitude was found to be 5^ 14' N. The spot was a little 
lower down than that called Ofitulo on Allen^s map. 
Towards 10 o'clock we approached Stirling's Island, and on 
account of the violent rain, we cast anchor there for a short 
time ; the rain felt very cold (refer to my MeteoroL Jour- 
nal). We proceeded about three o'clock ; the rain continuing 
till night, with variable violence. Shortly before dark we 
passed a place on the right shore, called, according to Mr. 
Brown, '* Ingliana.'' Near it I noticed an extensive planta- 
tion of Bananas, and soon after this, we cast anchor. The 
borders of the rivers were every where covered with forests, 
reaching to the water's edge, or with intervening high grass, 
{Sorfftmmsaccharinum ?) Amongst these, there were frequently 
places cleared for plantations, or they might be natural 
open spots in the forests, where high trees would stand 
singly. A great inconvenience and misfortune it is that 
we are obliged to drink such bad water; it has not only 
a dirty colour, but owing to its being saturated with decom- 
posed vegetable and animal matter, a sickening taste, which, 
though somewhat lessened, is not removed by filtration. 

Tuesday, August 24.»-At eight o'clock we passed so near 
the shore, that I could botanize, and I observed the blos- 
soms of a high tree (Mimosa) and of a climber, a Tetracera, 
perhaps not different from T. Senegalensis (obovata ?) Towards 
ten o'clock we came to the Benin (Warree) branch. On the 
point of land, between the two arms of the river, a signal-post 
was erected^ and this gave me the opportunity of visiting 
the shore for a few minutes, and I found it covered with the 
Sorghum, previously noticed. An jEschynomene, Cassia 
mimosoides and a Malvacea, were all I could pick up in the 
hurry. Though, from on board ship, the shore had appeared 



VOYAOB TO THE NIGER. 87 

swampy^ it proved firm to the water's edge, and I am 
inclined to believe that spots, looking marshy at a distance, 
are not really so. Perhaps some swamps may be formed 
in dry weather by the receding of the waters; but since 
our quitting the Mangrove country, I have not observed 
any absolute morasses; on the contrary, the land appears 
every where to rise 2 or 3 feet above the water, though 
what are now creeks may become swamps in the dry 
season. We descended the Benin (Warree)* branch for a few 
.miles; it nowise differs from the main river, except that the 
stream is somewhat narrower. By four o'clock we returned 
to the point of junction, and during our short stay, a great 
many canoes assembled about us. Some were large and 
carried twelve or sixteen persons, others fewer, and some 
bad only one in them. The canoes are the same as before, 
with a high and broad stem. One man stood steering with a 
paddle. There were perhaps sixteen canoes, containing 
about one hundred and ten people, who had come mostly 
firom Obiah, on the right shore of the river. Their dress had 
nothing very peculiar. The main difference consisted in the 
various coral and pearl strings, or ivory and brass rings, 
which they wore on arms and legs, and in the manner of 
dressing t^e hair. The latter struck us particularly, now 
that so many individuals had collected, and we could look 
down on their heads, from the deck of our ship. Some had 
cat their hair so round and formally, that it bore the most 
deceptive semblance to a wig; some shaved their heads 
quite bald ; while others only kept a portion of hair behind, 
or a lai^ portion forming a narrow ridge across, or it was 
allowed to grow high in the middle of the head, like a small 
steeple. Some whimsical fellows exhibited merely a narrow 
atrip of hair from behind to the front, looking like the crest 

* Hie branch is erroneously called the Benin branch in Allen's chart. 
It leads to Warree or Warn, and ought therefore to be called the War- 
ne branch.— (H. D. Trotter). 



88 JOURNAL OP THE 

of a helmet, or perhaps an oblong square, or it was cut ia 
chequers, and the remaining portion twisted into numbers of 
little tails, while others wore their hw like our European 
dandies, arranged in various ways on the sides of the head. 

The river,* at the separation of the Benin (Warree) branch, 
is about a mile wide; the commencement of this brandi 
measured 696 yards. At 5 o'clock we quitted the Benin 
(Warree) branch, returning into the main stream, which has 
here a lake-like appearance, surrounded with high trees; 
many of the canoes followed, spreading over the water, 
and greatly enlivening the scene by zealously rowing to keep 
up with us. Towards sunset we cast anchor* The weather 
was very cheerless, being generally rainy, except at noon. 

Wednesday y August 25. — Proceeded at the usual time. 
Much rain and therefore several stoppages. At noon we 
reached a place, marked on Allen's map, Egaboh, but now 
called ** Ulok.'' The sun showing itself, and an attempt to 
make observations following, I was enabled to land for a 
short time. The grass along the shore was not a Sorghum, 
but some other genus. Close to the water-side grew a fi|^ 
tree, with very small fruit. The neighbouring chief, an old 
leprous man, came on board ; he wore a drummer's jacket 

• The branch which here separates from the Nun or main brandi of 
the Delta of the Niger« runs to the sea by the town of Wanee or Warn, 
falling into the fiight of Benin to the north-west of the mouth of the 
Nun river. Captain Becroft of the Ethiope, Mr. Jamieson's steamer, 
was the first to ascend the Niger by this branch, in 1840. LdeuteDant 
Allen had previously conjectured it to be the Benin river, with whidi« 
however, there is only a communication by creeks. This aooonnts for 
Dr. Vogel calling it the Benin branch in his Journal. 

Above the separation of these two branches, the river may be pioperly 
called the Niger, the name by which it has been so long known in the 
civilized world. The natives have no name for the river, excepting 
the general appellation of " Water," which varies with the diflFerent 
languages spoken on the banks. Mungo Park found it called '« Joliba" 
in the higher parts of the river. In the Houssa country k is called 
" Quorra."— (H. D. Trotter). 



VOYAOS TO THB NIGER. 89 

ghm him at the time ot Laird's expedition (he seemed to 
have taken great care of it) and carried an iron staff divided at 
tbe top and ornamented with brass rings. After some deten- 
tion, occasioned by heavy rains, we pursued our course, tbe 
straam being generally about half a mile wide, and the vege- 
tation the same as heretofore. Approaching the creek that 
leads to Ibu (Abdh)* the current proved so strong, that we 
could hardly make way against it ; on the preceding day it 
had only been one and a half or two knots an hour. Towards 
half past seven we cast anchor at the Ibu (Ab6h) creek; 
abreast of the creek leading to the town of Ab5h. 

nurmiay, Auguit 26.-^ Early in the morning, the Captain 
and myself rowed about in the Ibu (Ab5h) creek, and col- 
lected a few plants. This creek, at present very wide, is 
witiiout a current; the main diannel measures perhaps 100 
yards. The right shore is now inundated, the shrubs being 
altogether covered with water, the grasses immersed to their 
ears, on which snails, ants and small beetles had settled, by 
way of refuge, in great numbers. We had taken on board, 
on the previous day, a man who wanted to go as pilot to 
Ab6h ; he seemed to be a careful and clever person. Granby, 
our interpreter '' for Brass and Ibo," recognised him as an 
old acquaintance, he. (Granby) having lived here a long while 
before being sold to the Europeans. The Ibo man was 
rgeioed to see him again, and expressed his astonishment, 
that a roan sold to ihe Europeans should return, it being the 
general opinion that such slaves were used for food ! 

Large canoes were fastened in the jungle ; they had come 
from the Brass country, chiefly to purchase palm oil, for 

* Sdion says the proptr name of this town is not Ibu, but ** Ab6b/' 
Hm town had hitherto been called by Europeans ** Ibo" or " Eboe/' 
and was generally supposed to be the capital of the whole of the Ibo 
country ; but we ascertained that its proper name is " Ab6h/' and that 
it is the principal town of the territory of the same name, which forms a 
part only, and that probably the most western, of the Ibo country. 
(H« D. Th»tler).-~8ee Captain Trotter's Report to Lord Stanley; Parlia- 
oeatary Papers relating to the Niger Expedition, p. 91. 

VOL. VI. u 



90 JOURNAL OF THB 

which purpose, large casks lay on board, under roofis of 
matting. Ahbh is on the opposite side of the shore, here 
intersected by several small creeks ; otherwise it is covered 
to the water's edge with brushwood, behind which are the 
huts. I gathered on this occasion a few Mimosea, Sapinda^ 
cemy and Rubiacete, but the most interesting was a shrub 
{Polyand. Pentag. fruct. placentis 5 parietalibus) apparently 
a new genus of Bixacea. In the main stream, and even in 
the smaller creeks was a Pisiioy perhaps Pistia Stratiotes\ 
it does not, however, seem to grow here, but to float down 
the Niger, where it may be seen drifting in large masses. 
Some specimens were in flower ; fruit I could not discover. 
In the morning we had a visit from King Obi's son ; towards 
noon he came himself, with a lot of noisy followers, and 
henceforth we were constantly surrounded by many canoes. 
These people wear either a piece of cloth round the loins, or 
portions of European dresses; only King Obi had both 
coat and trowsers. Obi is between fifty and sixty, with a 
true Negro face, but cunning. The son is a finely formed, 
strong, powerful young man. King Obi brought with him 
one of his wives, a very young person, and a daughter, 
dressed in African style, i. e. sans g4ne. When this was 
observed. Commissioner Cook gave to. the wife a red, and 
Captain Allen to the daughter, a coloured gown ; but the 
latter was not pleased with hers. One might mention several 
peculiarities about their attire ; but such things, and their 
smoking pipes, etc., did not particularly interest me. Several 
women wore enormous ivory rings round the legs. The 
account I have before given of the various ways of dressing 
their hair might be extended. The desire to possess what- 
ever they saw, was unequivocal ; but I heard of no thefts. 
There were a good many tools scattered about on deck, 
which in the confusion might easily have been taken. The 
weather was rainy and very uncomfortable. 

Friday, August 27- — ^Through incessant rains the ground 
got swampy, in fact so muddy, that it became impossible to 
make any extensive excursions. Besides some plants pre^ 



VOYAGB TO THB NIGER. 91 

vioosly mentioned, I collected CucurbUacetB, Apocpnea, a 
FicuB and a species of Mdlaghetiy pepper^ which, judging by 
the leaves and fruit, is identical with that at the mouth of the 
Nun River; a fine Costug was very common ; a Salviniaf not 
nure in the creeks, uid a CerataphyUum, which I had seen 
before in Ab6h creek. On the stems of trees grew three 
species of Mosses ; on the ground none. Whoever may have 
the good fortune to investigate these creeks in a boat, would 
probably find many Cryptogamue, new to the African 
Flora. 

Saturday, August 28.— I had yesterday seen a tree, about 
thirty feet distant from the water's edge, of moderate height, 
with three long straight branches, closely appressed at the top, 
and bearing a corymb of rose-coloured blossoms, rising from 
the terminal cluster of leaves. Having noticed this object 
through the telescope from the deck, I of course wished to 
obtain the flower, and landing, I asked two negroes (from 
Sierra Leone) who accompanied me, whether they would 
procure it; but they both declared it impracticable, because 
of the high grass. I therefore cut a way with my knife ; but on 
reaching the tree, I found it too lofty for me to get to*the top 
without loss of time, the period for which the boat was lent 
me having expired. To-day, I succeeded again in obtaining 
the boat for a short while, and I found fortunately one 
amongst the negroes who climbed the tree, about 16 feet high, 
and gathered a few branches with an iron hook. I record 
this circumstance here intentionally, as an instance of my 
nearly daily difficulties. Amongst the few plants which 
I collected, there were many that occur along the whole 
coast; asy for instance, Sarcocephalus. According to what 
Mr. Schon told me, the name of this place, which I had 
considered to be Ibu, is Aboh. In the afternoon we left Ibu 
(Ab5hO ftnd steamed it by moonlight till eleven o'clock, when 
we cast anchor. Sunday, 29th, we did not move. Weather 
very bad. 

Monday, August 30. — Started by daybreak. Neither the 
country nor the river offered any thing new. 

H 2 



92 JOURNAL OF THE 

TueBdaif^Auffwi SI, ^'l had twice an opportunity of vi'- 
siting the shore for a abort while. The first time^ I found a 
terrestrial Orchidea^ 4 fket high ; a greet part of the jungle 
on the right shore consisted of a Fig-tree^ with long branch- 
lets, covered with fructification shooting out from the old 
wood, its white bark was visible at a great distance. The 
ants were here dreadfully troublesome. At two o'clock, when 
passing an island, we perceived a strong very sweet smell, 
(almost like the Tetracera which I had collected on the 24th), 
but I could not descry any flowers through the telescope. 
In the afternoon we saw, at a distance, on the left shore, the 
first low hills, and soon afterwards a watercourse on the 
same side, apparently quite still, for the current of the Niger 
ran in a sharply distinct line athwart it. This part, including 
the hills and river, is said to be called ^^Oredtha;" it is 
opposite Kirro market, (so-named in Allen's chart.) In this 
branch of the river grew many Pistim; but higher up the 
Niger, we also met them floating in large quantities. This 
plant appears to have been displaced, by rising waters, firom 
its tranquil domicile, as is frequently the case with others ; 
for we pass many small floating islands of grass and other 
plants, clumps of roUed-up grass, and stems of huge trees, 
appearing in the distance, with their roots and branches 
partly emerging from the water, exactly like canoes. The 
river, since we left Ibu, (Ab5h), continues about half-a-mile 
in width, sometimes more ; the water very muddy, and of a 
clay colour ; the shores low, covered with brushwood, inter- 
twined witl^ so many creepers as to form, sometimes for 
great distances, a vegetable wall. This wall was particularly 
remarkable on the left side of the said still water ; behind it 
rose a few hillocks, with much cultivation, {Sorphum vuU 
ffareF) amongst which single trees were interspersed. A 
peculiar feature of this part consists in the small huts raised 
on poles along the shore, from which the natives^ according 
to Brown, drop their fishing-lines into the river. 

Wednesday y September 1. — ^This morning the river was 
very wide, in one part above a mile, and covered with Pisiut. 



VOTAOB TO THB NIO£B. 99 

There were hills, especially on the left side, but they ceased 
before we reached Damugu.* Of this place we only discerned 
a few huts, the first roand ones, with a pointed overhanging 
grass roof. On the whole we saw to-day but few villages ; 
if there are more, they must lie beyond the jungle. Nor did 
we observe any Cocoa palms, which had occurred in several 
places on the previous day. About Damugu, the country 
seems covered with high forests ; hitherto, there had been 
only low woods. Towards evening, we saw isolated high 
trees, apparently covered with blossoms; but through the 
telescope we descried these fancied flowers to be white birds, 
(BffreUS) of which several stalked, here and there, along 
the shore. 

TAifTMiay, September 2. — Beyond Damugu, the land 
appears again lower and covered with jungle. I think that 
the shores of the main river are mostly lined with forests, 
and the islands covered with grass and underwood. To- 
wards noon we came to finely wooded hills, and in the 
evening, King William's Mountain appeared, (see Allen's 
chart.) I had twice the opportunity of going for a short 
time on shore* First to an open place, covered with 
grass, where I found Cassia Absus^ mimosoides? a Psoraka^ 
some Gromtnetf, Malvacete and Schmidelea ; a Sarcocephalus 
grew likewise here. The second time was near a village, 
where the cottages are round, and plaited of palm-leaves 
and grass. Storehouses, raised on poles, are filled with Indian 
com. A Tephrosia (toxicaria), almost arborescent, was 
phmted about the huts, which a Krooman told me, was used 
to benumb the fish. A fine red flower, on a high tree, could 
not be procured ; it appeared to be Beauvois' Spathodea, 
and I fancied I had seen it several times in the Delta. 

FKdbjr, September 3. — We can quite overlook the country 
from on board our vessel. On both sides, the river is mar- 
gined at some distance with hills ; further ofl*, towards the 
north, rise mountains, enveloped with blue mist. Only on 

• Or AddA-Mugu.— (H. D. Trotter.) 



91 JOURNAL OP THB 

the left side, the hills approach the shore, and are, for 
the space of about a quarter of a mile, quite abrupt to about 
100 feet high, of red sandstone, visible, because of its bright 
colour, at a great distance. The top is often covered with 
overhanging vegetation. On this hill stands the town of 
Attah*, (Iddah), surrounded by cultivated grounds. In the 
distance grow Cocoa pcUms and Baobab irees^ the latter 
bearing long pendent fruit. This morning I had another 
opportunity of going on shore. The ground in front 
of the hill, and down the river, is now quite covered with 
water. Some way up, I found a Baobab tree^ apparently con- 
sisting of several stems joined ; it was by no means low, per- 
haps 30 feet high to the branches, and altogether 70 to 80 feet 
high. The fruit is remarkable, suspended from stalks li foot 
long, but I could only collect a few specimens, being obliged 
to return. We moved to the right shore, where the " Sou- 
dan'' already was, to cut fire-wood^ the '^ Albert" remaining 
behind, and lay close to the shore, of which a considerable 
breadth was inundated. In the afternoon, a number of 
natives came to see what we were doing ; especially, (as they 
said), because the people of the Attah sometimes come here 
to make slaves. They appeared never yet to have been in 
contact with Europeans ; they wore the country cloth round 
their loins, and were armed with bows and arrows, the latter 
with only wooden points. The quivers seemed to be formed 
of goatskins. Their town is said to be five miles inland, and 
i3 called '' Waapa.'* The country is called Angoriy and is 
under the chief of this town. 

According to one of our free negroes, a native of these 
parts, this district belongs to ^^ Benin Country," which 
extends to the sea. The ^^ Great King" of it sacrifices daily 
three human beings. (!) It was singular that none of the 
Angori people had canoes, although their plantations 

* Attah is the name of the chief, and not of the town ; or rather, Attah 
ia the title of the chief, who is styled the Attah or King of Egarra, or 
more generally "the Attah." The town is called Iddah. -^{H. D. 
Trotter. 



VOYAOB TO f HB NIOBR. 95 

came down to the edge of the river. One, of Yams {Dioscorea 
saiwa) and Matze, was situated close to our vessel ; amongst 
these plants grew a few TephrosuB^ which, a '^ Nufi man'^ told 
me, were used in his country for catching fish^ and are seen 
both wild and cultivated. The brushwood near the river 
consisted chiefly of Quisqualis obovata^ (Schum.), which, 
whether bearing white or red flowers, had a beautiful 
appearance ; — and a PorinOy Spondias, SarcocephaltiSj a few 
OH palms J Lonchocarpus formosa^ &c. 

Saturday f September 4. — A trip into the interior showed 
me that the soil on the hills is much mixed with sand, owing 
to the decomposed sandstone. I could not get far; the 
land being chiefly savannahs, the remnants of decayed forests ; 
Tamarinds, and other Leffuminoste, a Bardsteriaj (?) and 
Bombax were conspicuous, besides other trees, already men- 
tioned. Of herbaceous and shrubby plants I found, amongst 
the CyperacetB and Grasses, chiefly Leffuminosa^ Desmodium^ 
Cassia, Malvacete, EuphorbiacecB, {PhyUarUhus, Tragia). 
Near the shore, in water-holes, grew frequently a Lemna,^ 
now in flower. A flowering Loranthus, with verdigris-co- 
loured fruit, was parasitical on a Leguminosa, now almost 
un^er water. 

The burning sun, which came out after rain, gave me a 
violent head-ache. Towards evening, we proceeded a few 
miles up the river, and staid there during Sunday the 5th of 
September, in company with the other vessels, keeping 
the Sabbath as a day of rest. The current ran here extremely 
strong, about three knots and a half per hour. 

Monday, Sqptember 6.^1 felt very unwell, and towards 
noon slight fever came on, which exhausted me much. 
In the evening we followed the ^^Albert^' to Iddah, and 
grounded near the eastern inundated part of English Island. 
Here we remained till Wednesday, September 8, in the 
evening, when we succeeded in getting afloat again, and 
proceeded a few miles upwards. 

* It it different from L. minor, of Europe ? The leaves are distinctly 
striated ; which, so far as I recollect, is not the case in our plant. 



96 iOCRNAL OF THB 

Hmrsday^ September 9. — Till mid-day I felt unwell and 
weak, but then got better. We approached the mountuns, 
which proved to consist of small ridges, 1,000 to 2,000 feet 
high; and the scenery was sometimes very pretty, the 
mountains being overgrown with trees to the top« The hillsi 
which we passed first, and then the mountains, seemed 
to form several (more than two?) basins, through which 
the river bad forced its way, as is frequently the case with 
mountain streams. We proceeded along the eastern bianch, 
to the Bokweh Island. The foremost moontaine of King's 
Peak (so called in AUen^s chart) came down to the river, 
and we could clearly distinguish large strata in the declivity 
and down to the bottom. At the northern end of the island, 
a beautiful prospect was suddenly disclosed, upon the 
mountains on the right shoie, from Mount Jervis to Mount 
Saddleback, (see Allen's chart), contrasting, at the moment 
we came out of the channel, most distinctly with the horieon, 
then strongly illuminated by the setting sun. I observed no 
great change in liie vegetation, unless perhaps less grass 
prevailed on the right shore. We never before saw so many 
canoes descending the river as to^ay; some very large; all 
had a small scaffolding in the middle, and in some of them 
were horses, no bigger than donkeys. The current, where we 
anchored a little above Bokweh Island, was three knots and 
a half. 

Friday^ Stptember 10. — To-day we passed the mountains, 
most of which rise in elongated ridges, but oth«« ai« isolated, 
their slopes covered with large boulders, between which is m 
thick brushwood. The scenery is very pretty; mountuns 
often like those of the Rhine, but castles and vineyards 
are wanting, and the rivers too wide and full of island and 
swamps. About noon, we stopped near a small island, 
beyond Mount Soracle (in Alien's chart), the name of 
which, according to some natives who came on board, was 
Dagore. I was again unwell and could not go on shore, but 
Roscher, who did, found the island of granite formation, and 
brought me a few plants. Between Mount St. Midiael and 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 97 

Mount Franklin in. Allen's charts stood a village, situated 
on a partly isolated hill, the first, which I had observed here, 
built on a considerable elevation ; most of the villages being 
dose to the river, so that, because of the unusual rise of 
vater, a portion of the huts are under water. A LeguminoBa 
vith the habit of Robwiia, and violet blossoms now in full 
splendour, struck me ; I also saw here and there a Baobab 
with fruit; yesterday I noticed many Cocoas^ to-day none. 
Near a village, on the right shore, a little above Maconochie 
island, grew some Fan palms, and we subsequently met with 
more; before this, I had only seen one in the Delta. We 
anchored about half-way between Mount Franklin and the 
confluence of the Niger and Chadda. The current runs two 
and a half knots. 

Saturday^ September 11. — Before eight o'clock we cast 
anchor o£F Adda-Kuddu, the place which had been prelimi- 
narily fixed upon for the model-farm. The river expands 
here to a lake, while, to the extreme left, the confluence with 
the Chadda is seen. Mountains above 2000 feet high are 
visible in every direction at a distance. The landing-place 
was remarkable for the many boulders, lying one over the 
other, surrounded and partly overgrown with shrubs and 
trees. In one conspicuous place I found a Baobab^ looking 
much like an old Oak, Close by, were several others, one 
quite denuded, the rest with a little foliage, but all showing 
tlieir characteristic pendent fruit. Being still poorly, I took 
Captain Trotter's advice and went on shore. The ruins 
of Adda^Kuddu surrounded the place, and were already 
covered with vegetation. 

Cylindrical holes, several feet deep, and 2 feet in diameter, 
and bricked for making dyes, were still visible. The ruins 
of Afirican towns offer nothing picturesque. We hurried to 
some spot, from whence we might survey the country. 
About the town, the habitations of which had been round 
day huts, lies a level valley, bounded by low; hillocks, which 
promised the territory best fit for cultivation. To get at it, we 
had to pass a place, where seemed to have been something like 
a ditch and wall. The valley itself had evidently been culti- 



98 JOURNAL OF THE 

Tated at one time, but is now covered with GramineiB^ 
CyperacetBy a few small EuphorbuSi Malvacea, and particularly 
LeffuminostBy amongst which two TephrosuBy one 5 or 6 feet 
high, were the most remarkable plants, rendering our pro- 
gress very difficult by their woody stalks. The valley was 
nearly dry, with only a few puddles of rain water, and the 
ground is pretty well cleared, with here and there a few 
large pieces of broken rock. The soil consisted of decom- 
posed granite^ and if it ever had been mixed with vegetable 
earth, it is exhausted by former cultivation. Quartz remained 
abundantly in it, in the shape of coarse sand, and I could 
not help condemning the soil as extremely indifferent. ■ The 
inhabitants of Adda-Kuddu, upon their town being destl^oyed 
by the Felahtis, removed to the opposite side of the river, 
and built there the town called " Schimri," (afterwards 1 
heard other names for the new Adda-Kuddu) close to the 
shore. It is now, by reason of this year's unusually high 
water, quite inundated, and therefore the people have erected 
another new city. The chief or governor (or Aneidjo) ap- 
pointed by the King of Iddah, paid us a visit. His compa- 
nions wore the Nufi Toba, an under-dress with wide sleeves, 
reaching to the knuckles. He was decorated with large bells 
on the wrists, and a slave fanned him with a leathern Am. 
In the afternoon we proceeded up the Niger, to Stirling Hill, 
to examine the country ; it was difficult to learn at whose 
disposal it was ; but at last we were assured, that an inde- 
pendent tribe, said to be very savage, dwelt on the mountain. 
I was requested, towards sunset, to examine the soil in the 
valley, and found it no better, than at Adda-Kuddu. There 
were plantations of Maize and Yams. Mr. Carr had, in the 
meantime, been on the hill, and detected a rich vege- 
table soil. We returned immediately to Adda-Kuddu, which 
we reached at dark. The current; here is two knots. The 
natives had brought cocoa-nuts on board, and on my inquiry, 
they said, the tree grew on the other shore ; but afterwards 
they asserted, that it was not found here at all. Mr. Brown 
had brought me from thence a Unona (!) and an apparently 
entirely new genus of the family of LeguminostB^ with a fruit 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 99 

similar to SwartziOf and I subsequently found this little tree 
every where on the shore about Stirling. 

Sunday^ September 12. — We remained quietly at anchor. 

Monday f September IS. — I went on shore to botanize 
amongst the ruins of Adda-Kuddu, but the hot sun quickly 
forced me back. Papaws are here still frequent > also some 
Borts of Cucurbiiaceaj which, with Asclepiadea and Creepers, 
have overgrown the ruined huts. A Lemna growing in a 
puddle was the same as I had seen at Iddah. I observed 
here but a single Pistia float by ; whilst the day before, we 
met with them in abundance, floating on the Quorra (Niger). 
In the afternoon I went again to Stirling hill, and explored 
it for a short time; but found the soil to consist of sand* 
stone, impregnated with iron, and therefore bad. A few 
spots only exhibited vegetable soil, formed of decomposed 
plants. 

T\iesday9 September 14. — At six o'clock we climbed 
Mount Patt^h. It is rather steep, difficult of ascent, and 
covered with many boulders of red iron sandstone. The 
pea-like formation is remarkable. There were single strata 
of quartz. The cultivation of Yams, Capsicum, Guinea grainy 
(now without blossom or fruit) a bean or Dolichos, and a few 
Bananas, continued to the summit. A streamlet, running 
down from somewhere about midway of the mount, had a 
bed of clay, which is also more or less mixed with the soil 
generally, and along this channel the chief brushwood grew. 
Largish isolated trees are met over the whole declivity, pro- 
bably remnants of former forests. It looks as if the useful 
trees had been preserved. Four species occurred particularly 
often ; Baobab ; Parkia, now without fruit or blossom, but 
with foliage ; Sarcocephalus, sometimes a stately tree, but 
with long branches showing a disposition to climb ; and the 
Hog'pkan (S^ndias), but this chiefly at the summit. The 
barometer gave 1200 feet, according to a hasty calculation, 
(subsequently 1 150), above the level of the Niger. On the 
top is table land (level plateau) much cultivated, and covered 
often with brushwood and a tree with yellow flowers, I think 



100 JOURNAL OF THE 

BeauTois' SpaiAodea ;* (another tree, of which blossomf and 
fruit are preserved in acid), a shrubby Mimosa and species of 
Flcus, without fructification. A species of Tq^hrosia was fre- 
quently cultivated. I saw no Palm. The natives appeared, as 
yet, to have had no communication with Europeans ; they were 
armed with bows and arrows, much like those of the country 
near Angori; their arrows are said to be poisoned, and 
their clothes consisted of stuffs, manufactured by themselves. 
They were of a gentle nature, and the mere word " scanu^' 
was sufficient to conquer their diffidence. For some presents 
which we gave them, they expressed their thanks by bowing 
to the ground, and strewing repeatedly dust on the forehead, 
perhaps twelve times ; the women uncovered the bosom and 
put dust on it. Decency amongst the women seemed to 
require, that the upper garment should be tightly fastened 
above the bosom, so as to cover it completely. The boys 
we saw were circumcised. 

Towards two o'clock I returned, not feeling well, for I 
had exerted myself too much. The sun had been clouded, 
and I had latterly protected myself with an umbrella ; never- 
theless in the afternoon and evening I felt so tired, and yet 
so heated and restless, that I cannot recollect ever having 
been so uncomfortable and disabled, without absolute ill- 
ness. Every exertion seems now to produce more or less 
this effect. Restlessness and exhaustion, burning of the skin 
and eruptions, become quite insufferable. 

Tuesday, September 14. — To-day I had to take care of the 
plants, which I gathered yesterday, and wished to arrange 
my collection, for which purpose I had been unable to 
obtain either room or a case, and was therefore obliged to 
preserve them, as best I could, in bundles in my cabin ; 
a plan which was good neither for them, nor for myself* 
My assistant, now somewhat trained, was unfortunately the 

* A handsome tree, with dark scarlet flowers, of the same genas, was 
frequent on the declivity. 

t A high, much branched, leafless £i9iAor6ia, the juice of which is 
said to cause blindness. 



VOYAGE TO TlaB NIGER. 101 

best lingniftt, and our intercourse wiU>ibe natives being very 
great, I could hardly ever avail mysel£-of his aid. At a 
distance this all appears trivial, but to- ^/traveller in my 
situation the frequent repetition of such trisds is extremely 
disheartening. The natives, perceiving our tt^shea/ brought 
ehiefly arms on board, some apparently made in a hyLtrf for the 
occasion; also calabashes, mats and sacks of plart^d^.^ass, 
honey, palm-wine, stufin of their own manufacture, r^jsh of 
cotton, earth-nuts, yams^ goats, sheep, poultry and fat.«*;hi 
return they took cowries, cloth, wearing-apparel and partiCU' 
larly looking-glasses ; the latter being chiefly bought by the 
women. The women are often beautifully painted with red 
Camwood (?) pulverised and made into balls as large as a fist, 
and thus sold ; the eyelids they paint with antimony, which 
they brought with them on board in very neat cylindrical 
oaaes made of skins. 

Wedne9dayj September 15. — ^The intercourse with the 
natives continued. They bring, besides the things mentioned ; 
tobacco, which they call taba, in flat rolled disks ; also a chalk- 
like substance, prepared from burnt bones, with which they 
rob the fingers when spinning, it is called Effu in the Aku 
bmguage. Alii in Houssa, they kept this in small calabashes, 
or in masses like elongated dice ; whips of hippopotamus 
skins, called Uoji; some rice, grown on the left shore, 
and a few Limes. The process for discharging their arrows 
seemed to me ingenious. They have a knife with a some* 
what broad handle into which they insert the hand,"* and pull 
up the string of the bow with the back of the handle, being 
thus sure not to hurt the hand, and are thus ready to 
kill with the knife whatever the arrow may have hit. On 

* In TVevinnus' Memoir occurs the following quotatioii from a letter of 
Dr» Vogel's, more clearly Bhowing their manner of using the bow. " In 
the light hand they hold a knife with a hollow handle, through which 
thsy place four fingers in the middle of the handle. On the thumb they 
hare an iron ring, and draw between this and the handle the bowstring, 
so that Ihey cannot injure the hand."— (See vol. v. p. 616, of the London 
iourasl of Botany). 



102 



JOUjtNJU. OF THE 
• •• . 



the left upper arm tl]*(3>^t»rry arrows for their immediate use 
in a wooden quivec ***• 

Thursday y SfgfeMer 16. — Captain Trotter wiahed me to 
visit the left.*%Iiore. The current on the right side, 
where wflL were tit anchor, was 1 and 1^ knots; but towards 
the mid^le*}t ran much stronger, and in some pkces the boat 
cou^dC^t^fdljr make way against it. We kept therefore, after 
reaotuBg the left bank of the Niger, close to the jungle, (I 
. mtlst' not say shore, for every • thing was under water). 
/•*iLdiongst different things, I noticed a rather thick tre^ 
'*. 30 feet high, which attracted my attention by its large fruit ; 
it is apparently an Artocarpus. The Kroomen call it Oquaj 
and told me that they eat the boiled seed. I saw only fruit 
and female blossoms ; no male flowers. The tree contained 
much milky juice. Besides this I found here a seemingly new 
species of Anona, and the above-mentioned genus of Legu^ 
minosaj occurring often as a small branchy tree, with white 
flowers^ remarkable for its bright red terminal leaves. In 
those nooks, where the current was weak, the Pistia grew in 
large quantities, mixed with CeratophyUum, without fructifi* 
cation, and the Salvinia, and Jungermannia (?) of Ibu. At 
last we reached a bit of dry land, deep in the bush, where 
some negroes had pitched their tent-like straw huts for 
temporary dwellings. They told me that they had come 
from the opposite side (from Dgaggu ?) to plant this place, 
against the rainy season ; but they had not yet begun. The 
ground, now inundated, would be cultivated in the dry season, 
for it all consisted of rich vegetable soil. 
On my return, I could find no place but the deck for my plants. 
I then went on board the ^* Albert,'' to make my report to 
Captain Trotter ; but was obliged to stop there a long time, 
for want of a boat to return. In the mean time, we had a 
heavy shower of rain, and on my subsequent arrival in the 
" Wilberforce*' I found not a few of my plants spoiled, or 
quite lost, amongst them the Anona ; and I was unable to care 
r— .t- ^g^|.^ every nook that I could use having been filled 
, and my cabin was crammed nearly full. During 



VOYAGE TO THE NIGER. 103 

the last four weeks, for want of suitable boxes in which to 
preserve my collections, I was unable to do almost any- 
thing in Botany. 

Friday y September 17. — I bought to-day a complete set of 
arms of Adgh6 for 2000 cowries. Captain Allen purchased an 
ox for 30,000 cowries, from the son of a former chief of Adda- 
Euddu, whom he called Mallen Katab, and who had poisoned 
old Pascoe and the Kroomen. This son, Machmakal, was 
one of the handsomest negroes I ever saw ; but he wanted to 
give his father's name differently. He made me a present of 
a pair of shoes of antelope hide, very well made. He under- 
stood a little Arabic, though he could not pronounce it 
according to Miiller's notions, but he wrote it ; and singularly 
enough, he put the paper not in the usual manner before him, 
nor writing the letters from the top downwards, but so, that 
they must be read in the usual manner. 1 have bis name and 
mine written by him. I had understood his name as Makola. 
According to Miiller, what he wrote, is in the Algerine 
dialect, meaning: Machmakal. — (VogePs Private Journal). 

Saturday, September 18. — ^The number of sick increases 
considerably, and the '* Soudan'^ is to take them to-morrow 
down to the sea. I there/ore torote letters to-^y. I continue 
unwell; head ache and fever. 

Written later^ at Fernando Po. 

Sunday J September 19. — Decided, but slight fever. The 
** Soudan'^ leaves for the sea. 

Mmday, September 20.— It is settled that the " Wilber- 
force" shall also proceed to sea with the sick, which have 
much increased in number, and my first resolve was to 
remain here ; but our circumstances on shore were such, that 
u an invalid, I could hardly hope to be comfortable, and I 
therefore take Captain Allen's advice, which is to go down 
to sea in the " Wilberforce,'* and stop at Fernando Po. 

TVetdby, September 21. — At six o'clock in the morning 
wc proceeded down the river, I becoming daily worse. We 



104 JOURNAL OF THB 

ariiyed at Fernando Poon the 1st of October, and I earnestly 
entreated to be put on shore, for the vessel was to pro* 
ceed to Ascension Island, and stop there several months ; 
which would have been for me worse than a prison. On 
leaving the ship I had still violent fever, which only quitted 
me after a week and a half. In the landing of my collection 
I was kindly assisted by Mr. Forster. Of several of the 
most interesting fruits, however, which, until disabled, I had 
kept on deck to dry, nothing was to be seen. I regret espe<- 
cidly the fruit of AdanaoniOf ripe fruit of Artocarpus^ a fruit, 
the blossom of which I have never seen, from Mount Patt^, 
being amongst the most interesting , with mapy more. Captain 
Allen had the goodness to order us a lodging at Mr. White's, 
the agent of the West African Company ; and Mr. Roscher 
having also determined to remain here, he and I agreed to 
live together. The house intended for us not being quite 
ready, Mr. White was so kind as to give us, in the mean 
time, quarters in his own dwelling. We found soon how 
difficult it was to obtain on this island the necessary provi- 
sion, and as we had to be our own housekeepers, we asked 
for some articles from on board ship, that we might not at 
the outset be quite bare. 

On the fifth of October we landed. They sent us from 
our mess a few necessary utensils, cups, plates, &c., which 
were not to be obtained any how on the island, and for 
which we felt very grateful; but time forbade their fur- 
nishing us with the least provisions, the '^ Wilberforce'^ 
sailing on Saturday. On Monday, October 18, we quitted 
Mr. White's house, to make room for the sick whicJ2 had 
arrived on the previous day, by the '* Albert." I had 
to be carried to our new residence, for we were in miser* 
able plight, and to get a piece of bread for money on the 
island, was actually impossible; and had not some acquain- 
tances obligingly supplied us in some degree, we should 
have had to ikst this and the next day, in the strictest 
sense of the word. We therefore addressed Captain Trotter, 



VOTAOB TO THE NIGER. 105 

who made arrangements, by which we were at least spared 
the necessity of running about in the heat of the day 
for proTisionSy as all those^ who have no stores of their own, 
are obliged to do. 

Here I stop. My recovery proceeds but slowly; today 
(October 25), I am not yet able to walk for half an hour. 
What conoerus our stay at Fernando Po must be written 
hereafter. 



These are the concluding words of the Botanical Journal. 
In Dr. VogePs private Journal there are some few entries 
after this date, referring mostly to personal affairs^ de* 
spatches, provisions^ and the like. 

It would appear that, towards the end of November, he 
felt strong enough to begin his botanical excursions, 
and says : ** The heat is too great to allow convalescents, 
who are still very weak, to work much. Besides plants, I 
have now taken to collecting insects. Boscher has quite a 
mania for sporting f* — and again ■: — 

December 2.-—^' We had intended to proceed this week into 
the mountains, to the tent which had been erected for Cap- 
tain Trotter; but ever since Sunday, Roscher has been ill, 
probably in consequence of his sporting, often in the heat of 
the sun, and Thomson, who during the absence of the 
^ Albert/^ remains here as doctor, attends him. There are 
several cases of fever; amongst them White, the store- 
keeper, and the doctor; all people who have been here for 
some time ! Tlie weather is certainly not genial to European 
constitutions. Mornings and evenings are dull and foggy, 
though not so thick but that one can see the country ; noon and 
afternoon changeable, a few hot hours, with west and south 
wind. Because of Roscher's illness I must attend to our 
housekeeping, which comes rather awkward to me. In the 
meantime, I continue my previous way of living, t. e. I make 

VOL. VI. I 



lOG FLORiB TASMANIA 8PIGILBGIUM. 

excursions from three o'clock till dusk (6 o'clock), but am 
very anxious to get into the mountains. Yesterday I went 
towards the farm, to seek for the Calamus which Roscher had 
seen, but could not find it/' 



With these words Dr. Vogel's private Journal ends ; and 
we may here introduce an extract from the Report of Captain 
Trotter, addressed to the Right Honourable Lord Stanley, 
Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated March 
15, 1843. 

" We found at Clarence Cove, Fernando Po, on our 
return in the Albert firom the Niger, Dr. Vogel and Mr. 
Roscher. These indefatigable gentlemen, of whose zeal on 
all occasions it would be impossible to speak too highly, 
had fallen sick at the confluence, and were obliged to 
descend the river in the " Wilberforce ;** but they declined 
going to Ascension for the re-estabUshment of their healdi, 
hoping to be able to pursue their scientific researches in 
Africa. Dr. Vogel lived only to the l7th December fol- 
lowing j[ but his memory will be cherished, as long as Botany 



Floba TASMANiiE SpiciLSOiUM ; or Contributions towards 
a Flora of Van Dibmbn's Land; by J. D. Hooker, 
M.D. R.N. F.L. & G.S. 

{Continued from Vol. ILp. 42\y qf the Journal qf Botany), 

Compositarum nova Genera et Species. 

1. 'Earyhih persoanioides^ DC. 

Var. j3. lanceolata; foliis lanceolatis acuminatis. 
Hab. Mt. Wellington ; Gunn. v. v. n. 

2. Eurybia o^ptna, Hook. fil. ; fruticosa, ramis erectis, foliis 
■ubter pedioellis involucrisque pube appressa pallide brun- 



1 



PLORiK TASMANIiE 8PICILBOIUM. 107 

Tiea tomentosis, foliis elliptico-obovatis obtusis integerrimis 
supra nitidis, pedunculis axillaribus unifloris ralidis folio 
subasqQilongis, involucri campanulati squamis plurimis 
imbricatis, acheniis glaberrimis. 

H AB. Lofty mountains ; Lawrence^ Gunn* v. v. n. 

Ab E. persooniaiikj cui proxima, conspicue differt foliis mi- 
noribus, tomento brunneo, pedicellis breyioribus ralidiori- 
busque, capitulis duplo majoribus, squamis involucri 
plurimis multifariam imbricatis acheniisque glabemmis. 

S. Eurybia Gunniana, DC. 

a. hnffipes ; pedicellis elongatis, capitulis mediocribus, foliis 
anguste lineari-oblongis obtusis supra puberulis glabra- 
tisve. 

/3. brevipes; pedicellis breyioribus, capitulis paulo majoribus^ 
foliis brevioribus angustioribusque. An species distincta ? 

y. angustifoUa; pedicellis brevioribus, capitulis ut in a, 
foliis linearibus. Vix sp. distincta. 

I. microcep/uda; omnia ut in a, sed capitulis minoribus pedi- 
cellisque brevibus. Certe varietas E. Gunniana, D.C. (fid. 
Herb. Landl.) 

e. cana; dense cano-tomentosa, pedicellis brevibus, capi- 
tulis ut in a, foliis parvis 3-4 lin. longis valde coriaceis 
utrinque sed subter praecipue cano-tomentosis. Vix sp. 
distincta. E. mbrepanda, D.C. (fid. Herb. Lindl.) 

^. salicinai omnia ut in a, sed foliis majoribus linearibus 
integerrimis subter appresse canis subglaucescentibus. 

i|. scaberula; pedicellis capitulisque ut in a, foliis latiori- 
bus lineari-ellipticis argute dentato-serratis supra scabe- 
rulis. 

Hab. All the above varieties are nK)re or less abundant, 
throughout Tasmania ; Lawrence, Gunn, &c. t;. t^. n. 

4. Eurybia (Brachyglossa) linearifolia, DC. ; fruticosa, ramu- 
lis cano-tomentosis strictis erectis, foliis alternis anguste 
linearibus subacutis integerrimis^ marginibus revolutis 
subter appresse cano-toraentosis, capitulis in axillis folio- 
rum sessilibus solitariis foliis ter brevioribus in spicam 

I 2 



108 PLOBiB TA8MANIJS SPIOILBGIUlf. 

elongatam foKosam dispontb, inyolucro basi conico, 
pappo albido, ligula stylo breyiore. 

Hab. Port Dalrymple, on the beach ; {Hb. Hook. — Eraser, 
comin.) 

RamuK 4-5-iinciale8. Folia patula, fere uncialia, viz I liu. 
lata. CapUula } unc. longa ; involucri squamis cano-pubes* 
centibiis ; ligulis valde inoonspicoiB. 

Differs from De CandoUe's description, only by the white 
pappus. 

5. Eurybia ramulosa, Lab. 

Var. j3. elongatai ramulis elongatis^ apice floriferis. — An sp. 
distincta ? 

Var. y. floribunda ; ramnlis brevioribus perplurifloris. 

Var. S. densa ; fastigiatim ramosa microphyUa. 

Var. c. eruuitfolia ; foliis linearibos, subimbricatis. 

Var. (. laxa ; laxe ramosa, foliis subtus tomentosis. 

Var. 17. grand{fbUa ; foliis majoribus. 

Hab. Very abundant throughout the colony ; Lawrence, 
Gunn. V, v. n. 

6« Eurybia (Argophylleea) obcordata, n. sp.; ramulis bre- 
vibus foliisque subter pube arete appressa subsericeo* 
tomentosis, foliis brevissime petiolatis crenato-obcordatis 
apice obtuse 4-dentatis supra nitidis, peduncuUs validis soli* 
tariis axiUaribus unifloris folio brevioribus, involucri conid 
squamis pubescenti-tomentosis, acheniis glabratis, pappo 
albido rufescente copioso, radii ligulis stylo pluries Ion- 
gioribus. 

Hab. Lofty mountains ; Lawrence^ Gunn. v. v. n. 

E. persoonioide proxima. FoUa fere ^ unc. longa, lequilata. 
— Species distinctissima. 

7. Eurybia pintfolia, n. sp. ; ramis validis lignosis, ramulia 
brevibus sericeo-tomentosis, foliis in ramulos abbreviatos 
fiusciculatis rigidis linearibus pungentibus teretibus margi- 
nibus ad costam revolutis supra canaliculatis junioribus 
sericeis senioribus glaberrimis, pedunculis solitariis axilla- 
ribus terminalibusque simplicibas v. furcatis folio plerum- 
que longioribus, pappo rufo vel pallido. 



PLOILB TASMANIiB 8PICILBOIUM. 109 

Hab. Mountains; Gtmn. 

FnUex humilis, lignosua, facie Hakea, Folia uncialia capitulis 
I longiora* 

8. Eurybia (Spongotricbam) linifblia^ n. sp, ; glanduloso- 
puberala, subvisoosa, ramis brevibas apice corymboso- 
floiiferia angulatis^ foliis linearibus utrinque obtusis inte- 
gerrimia enexriis supra sulcatis marginibus tenuiter revo- 
latia utrinque viscosis, pedunculis brevibus, involucri 
subcaropanulati squamis pluriseriatis imbricatis obtusis 
medio coriaoeis marginibus scariosis glutinosis, acheniis 
glandnlosis. 

Hab. Woolnorth; Ounn. 

Fmtieulus humilis, ramosus ; ramis erectis angulatis foliosis. 
FoUa uniformia, 1 unc. longa, 1 lin. lata. Capiiula ad apices 
ramulorum corjmbosa, i unc. longa. Liguke majuscule. 
Pappus pallide rufescens. 

Allied to E. glandulosa, but exceedingly distinct. 

9. Eurybia (Spongotrichum) floribunda, n. sp. ; ramulis gra- 
cilibus divaricatis strictis foliisque subter appresse fiirfu- 
raceo*tomentosis, foliis parvis fasciculatis brevissime pe- 
tiolatis late oblongis obtusis super glabris coriaceis margi* 
nibus revolutis patentibus reflexisve, capitulis parvis per- 
pinrimis erectis secus partem ramulorum superiorem 
dispositis sessilibus ramulosve brevissimos terminantibus, 
involucri squamis glabratis dorso viridi marginibusque 
acariosis glandulosis ciliatis. 

H ab. Banks of rivers ; Gunn, v. v» n. 

E. lepidopkyUa proxima, differt ramis gracilibus fiirfuraceis 
oon tomentosis magisque foliosis, foliis distantioribus, 
capitulis sessilibus vel ramulis brevissimis pedicellatis. 
Color luridior. — Species satis distincta. 

10. Olearia affiniiy n. sp.; ramulis cano-tomentosis, foliis 
funplts petiolatis anguste ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis basi 
rotundatis supra glaberrimis leevibus reticulato-venosis 
subter cano-tomentosis marginibus lente recurvis integer- 
rimis vel obscure sinuato-dentatisve, capitulis par\iculatis 



110 FLORiB TASMANIiB SPICILBGIUIT. 

parvis, pcdunculis gracilibus ramosis bracteatis^ involucri 
squamis pauci-seriatis, ligulis elongatisy pappo albido v. 
rufescente vix biseriato, acheniis pubescentibus. 

Hab. Rocky places, often near the sea ; Gunn. v. o. n. 

Arbuscula ramosa. Folia 3-^4 unc. longa, 1 — \\ lata, ple- 
rumque integerrima, petiolo nunc \ unciali. PanicuUe 
plemmque terminales, amplse, multiflorsei ramis inferiori- 
bus divaricatis recurvis. 

11. Eurybiopsis scabrida, n. sp. ; tota setis brevibus paten- 
tibus rigidis hispido-pilosa, ramis erectis foliosis apice 
monocephalis; foliis rigidis parvis sessilibus obovato- 
spathulatis obtuse sinuato-dentatis coriaceis supeme 
scabridis subter marginibusque ciliato-hispidia, capituizs 
majusculis solitariis terminalibus, involucri squamis rigidis 
anguste linearibus dorso subcarinatis hispido-pilosis maigi- 
nibus tenuiter scariosis, ligulis apice subintegris, pappo 
pallide rufescente scabrido, acheniis hispidis. 

Hab. Open places, New Norfolk ; Gunn. 

Exemplar unicum f pedale^ e basi ramosum. Rami virgati^ 
crassitie pennee corvinae. Folia 3 — 5 lin. longa, vix 2 lata, 
dorso subcarinata v. plana. CapUula f unc. lata. Involucri 
squamee vix 2-seriat6e. 

12. Eurybiopsis gracilis, n. sp.; ramis ramulisque gracilibus 
cano-tomentosis foliosis, foliis petiolatis anguste lineari- 
spathulatis apice rotundatis integerrimis v. rarissime 2-3 
lobatis utrinque pilis laxis albidis moUiter pubescentibus 
enerviisy capitalis terminalibus majasculis, involucri 
squamis anguste linearibus acuminatis pubescentibus mar- 
ginibus scariosis, pappo pallido, acheniis elongatis pube- 
rulis. 

Hab. New Norfolk, Launceston, &c. Gttnn* v, v. it. 

Herba basi suffhitescens, ramis ramulisque elongatis, his 
apice nunc corymboso-ramosis. Folia subflaccida^ ^ — I 
unc. longa, apices versus i — 3 lin. lata. CapUula f unc 
lata. Ligula cseruleee ? 

13. Aplopappus TasnianicuSf n. sp. } glaberrimus (nisi scapi 



PLORiG TASMANIiE SPlCILEOIUM. Ill 

apice)y radice perennante ? mono-tricipiti, foliis radicalibus 
plurimis confertis recurvis longe petiolatis elliptico-spathu- 
latis acutis coriaceis integerrimis sub-nitidis, scapo 
gracili erecto solitario unifloro bracteato supeme tantum 
pubenilo, capitulis suberectis, involucri squamis lineari- 
bns sabobtusis acuminatisve dorso scaberulis apices versus 
parpurasceTites ciliatis, floribus radii 2-serialibus liguliB 
disco longioribus, pappi setis basi distinctis, receptaculo 
alveolato, acheniis glaberriniis. 

Hab. Mount Wellington ; Gunn. 

Species elegans. Folia radicalia ^ — li unc. longa^ coriacea, 
longe petiolata, enervia. Scapi graciles, 1 — 4 unc. lon^, 
bracteolis linearibus 2 lin. longis aucti. Capitula sub \ 
unc. lata* Flares radii purpurei. Achenia glaberrima; 
pappo sordide albo. — Species haec et sequentes inter se 
affineSy Aplopappo vix conveniunt, quamvis mediantibus 
A. alpiffenOj Torr. et Gr., A. stoloni/ero^ Hook, (boreali- 
americanis) aliisque a genere supra dicto eegre distin- 
guend®. Achenia omnium glaberrima v. parce pilosa. 
Ab. Erigeronte differunt ligulis uni-y. pauciserialibus ha- 
bituque plerarum. 

14. Aplopappus Gufiniiy n. sp. ; totus glanduloso-puberulus, 
radice perennante ? foliis coriaceis subsessilibus obovato- 
spathulatis apice rotundatis obtuse serrato-dentatis, scapo 
erecto subflexuoso superne pauci-bracteato, bracteolis 
anguste lineari-spathulatis, involucri squamis linearibus 
acuminatis glanduloso-pilosis, flosculis radii 2 — 3 seria- 
libus purpnreis, receptaculo alveolato, pappo pallido, 
acheniis glaberrimis. 

Hab. Mount Wellington ; Gunn. 

Omnia A. Tatmanid^ sed major, piloso-glandulosus ; bracteae 
scapi pauciores et longiores, folia multoties latiora dentata 
m petiolata^ scapus validior. — Planta BeUidis facei. 

15. Aplopappus Pappochroma, (Erigeron Pappochroma, Lab.) 
glaberrimus (nisi scapi apice), radice annua mono-tricipiti, 
foliis breviter petiolatis obovato-spathulatis apice rotun- 
datis coriaceis integerrimis v. obscure dentatis, scapo 



112 PLOAJS TASMANIiB 8PICILKOIUM. 

plerumque solitario gracili glabenimo apice glanduloso- 
puberulo supeme bracteolato, capitulis solitariis parvis, 
involucri squamis linearibus acuminatis dorso puberulis. 

Hab. Mount Wellington and Recherche Bay ; Gtmfi. 

Inter species 2 precedentiores quasi mediusi sed exemplaria e 
locis yalde diversis lecta inter se conveniunt, et ab utraque 
differunt. Statura, defectu pilorum^ scapoque gracili A. 
Tasmanico accedit, A. Gunnii autem forma foliorum. 

16. Aplopappus bellidioideSf n. sp. ; humilis« annuus, sub- 
hispido-pilosus, foliis obovatis in petiolura latum angus- 
tatis obtusis integerrimis ▼• rarissime uni-bidentatis 
utrinque pilis brevibus albidis sparsis subhispidis, scapo 
brevi plerumque foliis breviore nude v. 2-3-bracteolato, 
capitulo solitario majusculo, involucri squamis paucis 
linearibus acuminatis pilosis, ligulis sub 2-serialibus apice 
2-3-dentati8, acheniis glaberrimis, receptaculo alveolate. 

Hab. Middlesex Plains ; Gunn. 

Species parvula, tota pilis brevibus albidis hispidula. FoUa 
plana, ^ — ^ unc. longa, nunc latiora et in petiolum evi- 
denter angustata, nunc angustiora et subspathulata. Scopus 
plerumque perbrevis, rarius elongatus. CapiitUutn pro 
planta majusculum, i unc. latum. 

17« Aplopappus tf/^flo/itf, n. sp.; scapigerus^ foliis omnibus 
radicalibus stellatim patentibus lineari-oblongis elongate- 
linearibusve obtusis integerrimis ooriaceis subconcavis 
marginibus ciliatis glabratisve, scapo breviusculo puberulo 
bracteolato, bracteolis linearibus, involucri squamis gla- 
bratis subacutis, pappo sordide albo setis insequalibus, 
achenio scabriusculo. 

Hab. Mountains ; Gunn. 

Radix descendens, valida, fibris crassis aucta. CoUum 
brevissimum, uni-multiceps. Foiia conferta ^ — f one. 
longa, i\ lin. lata, uninervia, marginibus basi proodpue 
pilis rigidiusculis patentibus ciliata, caeterum glaberrima, 
coriacea, subnitentia. Scapus l-li uncialis. Bracfeobe 1-2 
lin. longee. Capiiulum { unc. latum. 



WLORM TABMANIiB SPlCILEGiUM. 113 

IJ. LagenoflhoTA htiifotia, n. sp.; hispido-pubescens, stolo- 
nifera^ foliis paucis late obovatis spatbulatis in petiolum 
brerem attenuatis utrinque hispidalis obtuse sinuato- 
dentatis, scapis erectis nudis, involucri sqaamis glabratis 
glaberrimisve acuminatis, acheenio corapresso lanoeolato in 
lostram sensim attenuate glanduloso. — An L. BUlardieri 
▼ir.? 

Hab. Mt Wellington, Gnnn. 

L. BittarJ&eri proxima^ sed folia multo latiora brevi-pe- 
tiolata acheniaque (matura?) angustiora. 
The specimens sent by Mr. Gunn are marked by himself 

as belonging to a distinct species ; though, except the very 

broad leaves, they possess little claim to specific distinction. 

16. Lagenophora montanaf n. sp. ; pusilla, glaberrima vel 
glabrata, foliis ellipticis subacutis in petiolum gracilem at- 
tenuatis irregulariter remote dentatis, scapo solitario 
erecto gracili bracteolato, involucri squamis glabris obtusis, 
acheeniis obovato-laneeolatis in rostrum breve abrupte an- 
gustatis viscosis. 

a. majcr. 

/}. minor. 

Hab. Var* a. Marlborough and Woolnorth.— Var. /3. Mt. 
Wellington, Gunn* 

Species distinctissima, pracipue squamis involucri obtusis, 
foliis plerumque longe petiolatis, acheeniique rostro bre- 
viusculo. Folia \-l unc. longa, rarius in var. a. 1 J uncialia. 
Peiiolus folio eequilongus v. brevior, gracilis. Scopus squa- 
mis linearibus semper instructus. 

Ncv.Gen. Emphysopds, Hook.fil. — Ca/n/tf/um multiflorum, 
heterogamum. Flores radii ligulati, foeminei, 1-seriati; 
diid tubulosi, 5.dentati^ masculi ; antheris liberis. Recep" 
taculum planiusculum, alveolatum ; involucri squamis late 
oblongis, sub S-serialibus, obtusis^ basi coriaceis, ap- 
preasis, marginibus membranaceis. Achania elliptico-lan- 
ceolata, compressa, utrinque subacuta, glaberrima, ero- 
strata. — Herba Tasmanica, subrobusta, hiipido-pubescens, 
$capiffera, foliis lineari-obhngis^ apice$ versus grosse obtuse 

VOL. VI. K 



114 FhORM TASMANIiB SP101I«EGIUM. 

deniatis ; scapis plurimis, supeme sensim imcrasMoiis k^atii, 
infra capitulum parvum coniractis. Involucrum late hami' 
Bpharicum> 

19. Emphysopas Gunnii. 
Hab. Dry banks^ Gunn. 

Radia prsBinorsa, fibris incrassatis aucta. Folia omnia ra- 
dicalia, patentia, utrinque hispido-pilosa^ 2-3-unciaUa, ^ 
unc. lata. Scapi foliis aequilongi, sursum gradatim incras- 
satis infra capitulum contracti. Capitula ^ unc. diametro. 
FL radii parvi, ligulis brevibus inconspicuis. 

20. Brachycome scap^j^rmis, /3. glabra, DC, achsniis late 
obovatis. 

Hab. Hobarton, not uncommon, Gunn, &c. : — v. v* n 
y. moniana, crassior, achdeniis angustioribus, 
Hab. Mt. Wellington^ summit ; Gunn, ; — v. v. n- 
AcJuenia alata, alis primum ciliatis, demum glabratis^ grosse 
crenatis. Vix B. leucanthemifolia, Benth. 

21. Brachycome tenuiacapa, n. sp. ; glabrata v. glaberrima, 
scapigera, foliis omnibus radicalibus patentibus anguste 
subcaneatis v. lineari-obovatis obtusis coriaceis fere gla- 
berrimis apices versus profunde 3-5-crenato-dentatis, scapo 
elongate gracili erecto glanduloso-pubescente bracteolato, 
bracteolis 3-4 inferioribus subfoliaceis, involucri squamis 
late linearibus obtusis^ acheeniis non alatis obovatis glaber- 
rimis, pappo minuto* 

Hab. Middlesex plains, Gutm, 

Radix prostrata v. descendens, gracilis, fibrosa. Folia angusta, 
flavo-virescentia, sessilia v. petiolo lato a lamina non dis- 
tincto, \-2 unc. longa, 3-4 lin. lata, glabrata v. pube sub- 
glandulosa. Scapi graciles. Capitula | unc. lata. 

A characteribus B. pumike conspicue differt acheeniis glaberii- 
mis compressis non clavatis, foliis epetiolatis, &c. — Sectio 
hujus generis valdenaturalis ob achseniis exalatis, speciebus 
scapigeris conveniens. Squamae involucrales quoque charac- 
teres summi juris prebeunt, nempe obtusee et acuminatee. 

22. Brachycome decipiens, n. sp. ; glaberrima, radice prs- 
morsa, fibris validis numerosissimis, foliis omnibus radi* 



PLORiB TABMANIiK SPICILBGIUM. 115 

calibus patentibus coriaceis oblongo-spathulatis obtusis 
sttbactttisve irregularitercrenato-dentatis, scapo foliis eequi- 
longo niido y. rarius l-2-'bracteolato, capituUs inclinatis, 
involncri sqtiamis obtusis, aoheeniis compressis oblique 
obovatis non alatis puberulis apice emarginatis. 

Hab« Abundant; Lawrence^ Gunn, : — v. v. n. 

Species in Tasmania nostratem Belhdem perennem habitu, 
loco et copia omnino referens. 

23« Brachycome squaUdOf n« sp. ; caule gracili basi nudo 
decumbente, ramis ascendentibus foliosis ramulosis mi- 
nute hispidulis, foliis parvis coriaceis profunda sinuato- 
pinnatifidia obscure scaberulis laciniis linearibus brevibus 
Tiz acutis, oapitulis ramulos longe nudos gland uloso-pube- 
rulos terminantibus, involucri squamis lineari-oblongis ob- 
tuais mai^gine apiceque scariosis fimbriato-laceris, achseniis 
oboyato- compressis anguste ciliato-alatis. 

Has. Spring Hill; Gunn. 

Cankf filiformis^ tenuis, crassitie pennee passerinaB, ramosus, 
rigidus. Folia coriacea, suberecta, siccitate rigida, vix ^ 
unc. longa. Capitula ramulis longe nudis pedunculate, 
i ttiic. lata* Receptacuhtm conico-elongatum. 

Nov. GetK CrmvosPERUAyHooLfiL — CapUulum multiflorum, 
heterogamum; fl. radii foemineis pluriserialibus ; corolla 
nulla, stylo sinu acbaenii inserto bifido ; disci masculis tubu- 
losis, 4*dentati85 stylo indiyiso, stigmate disciformi. Involu- 
erum biseriale ; squamis paucis, lato-oblongis, obtusis, her- 
baceis. Reeeptaculum planiusculum, papillosum. Achania 
radii compressa, juniora alata, alis supra medium ciliatis, 
piUs latiusculis, basi globoso-incrassatis, matura oblonga, 
oboompressay medio turgida, alis incrassatis. — Herba Tas- 
manica o^'na, glaberrima ; r9Lmv& prostratis foliosis \ foliis 
pitmaHfidis\ pedunculis brembus crassis; capitulis parvis 
subspharicis. 

24. Ctenosperma alpinum, 

Hab. Marlborough^ Gunn. 

Radix e fibris crassis descendentibus. Rami plurimi pros- 
trati, nunc radicantes, foliosi, 3-4 unc. longi. Folia 1-2 

K 2 



116 FLORA TASMANIA BPICILEGIUM. 

uncialia^ herbacea, subcamosa, petiolata, petiolo basi vagina 
membranacea aucto, lamina lineari-oblonga, profunde pin- 
natifida ; laciniis subremotis^ linearibas, acutisi subrecurvis^ 
integerrimis v. margine superiore 1-2-dentatiB. Capitula 
solitaria, pedunculo i unciali crasso. Itwolucrum basi cum 
pedunculo subcontinuum, squamis glandulosis. — Gknos 
Hippiarum, Coiuke characteribus proximuin, sed differt 
fioribus disci masculis^ aliisque notis supra dictis. 

Nov, Gen. Symphyomera. CapUulnm maltiflorum, hete- 
rogainum: fl, radii pluriserialibus glandulosia foemineia; 
corolla conica brevi achcenio omnino coalita, compressa, 
ore obscure bi-tridentato ; styli ramis subinsequalibus ; fl. 
disci masculis tubulosis 4-dentatiS) styli apice disciformL 
Involucrum sub 2-seriale9 squamis herbaceis, oblongis, ob- 
tusis. Receptaculum parvum conicum, papillosum. AcluBnia 
disci abortiva; radii compressa, alis subglandulosis^ corolla 
persistente coronata. — Herba Tasmanica acauUs v. caule 
repenie, parce molliter pilosa; foliis pinnatifidia \ pedun* 
culis breviusculis l-floris. 

25. Symphyomera filicula. 

Hab. Hampshire Hills, Mt. Wellington, Gunn,: — v. v. n. 

Caulis brevis y. elongatus, radicans ; radicibus e fibris crassis. 
Rami pilis laxis subvillosi v. glabrati. Folia petiolata, 
subuncialia ipetiolo basi vagina membranacea aucto ; lamina 
oblonga, pinnatifida, glaberrima, laciniis patentibus, lineari- 
oblongis, pauci-dentatis. Peduneuli breves, villosi. Co- 
pUula erecta, I unc. diametro, flava. Involucri squamae 
medio herbaceae, nervosee, pilosae, marginibus membrana- 
ceis. Fl. radii perplurimi. Achenii integumentum gela* 
tinosum. Testa crassa, cellulosa. Perispermum (albumen) 
e cellulis in telam carnosam connexis ! 

Genus Strongylospermo characteribus accedens, differt fiori- 
bus disci masculis habituque, his notis LeptineUa magis 
affinis tuboque corollee cum calyce omnino oontinuo. 
The lobes of the leaf often have the lower surface attacked 

by a black Fungus, giving an appearance of the fructification 

of a Fern. 



FLORA TASMANIifi SPICILROIUM. 1 17 

Lbptinblla. Subgen. Oligoleima : Involucri squanuB sub 5, 
orbicnlatee, 2 -seriate. Fl. radii corolla breves, latiores 
quam longee, persistentes. Receptcumlum anguste conicuui. 
— An genus distinctum ? 

26. Leptinella (Oligoleima) longipes ; glaberrima, caule pros- 
trato repente radicante ad nodos fibroso, foliis erectis longe 
petiolatis lamina late ovata pinnatifida, laciniis paucis 
erecto-patentibus obovatis obtusis paucidentatis, pedun- 
culis solitariis axillaribus elongatis foliis aequilongis erectis, 
capitulo sphsrico, involucri heemisphaerici squamis rotun- 
datis berbaceis, flosculis radii glandulosis, achaeniis imma- 
turis alatis maturis subtrigonis vix alatis. 

Hab. Circular Head ; Gunn. 

Herba subramosa. Radix e fibris crassis descendentibus, 
Caulii crassitie pennae corvinae^ longe repens, 2-8 unc. 
longus vix ramosus. Folia erecta, 1-3 uncialia, longe pe- 
tiolata ; lamina i-i unc. longa, obtusa. PeduncuU graciles, 
axillares, erecti. Capitula glaberrima ; disco foliolis invo«- 
Incralibus longiore. 

27- Leptinella (Oligoleima) intricatay n. sp. ; pusilla, glaber- 
rim^i V. parce pilosa, intricate ceespitosa, caulibus repenti- 
bus radicantibus validis foliosis ramosis apices versus 
praecipue pilosis^ foliis breviter petiolatis, basi in vaginam 
latam mcmbranaceam dilatatis, lamina ovato-oblonga pin- 
natifida, laciniis late ovatis profunde trifidis, scgmentis 
acutis obtusisve, pedunculis brevibus, capitulis subsphae- 
ricis, involucri squamis orbiculatis herbaceis, flosculis disci 
achaenii&que compressis glandulosis. 

Hab. South Cape; Gunn. 

Caules validi, 2 unc. longi, herbacei, radicantes, subgenicu- 
latim flexuosiy glaberrimi v. pilis paucis flexuosis subto- 
mentosi, foliosi. Folia glanduloso-punctata, 4 unc. longa, 
petiolo valido, lamina 2-3 lin. lata, laciniis discretis, infe- 
rioiibus tri6dis, subtus villosis glaberrimisve, petiolulatis, 
superioribus Jobatis dentatisve. PedunctUus folio brevior, 
pobemlus. CapUulum 1^ lin. diametro, sphasricum. /n- 
volucri squamas latae, punctatae; flosculis grosse glan- 



118 FLORA TABMANIiE aPIGILBGIUM. 

dulosis. Achmnium radii immaturum oblonguin» com- 
pressum, alatum; maturum turgidam, corolla styloque 
persistente terminatum. Flares disci subinfundibulifor- 
mesy 4-dentati, acheenio nullo^ styli basi cum tubo corollie 
connata. 

28. Leptinella (Oligoleiina) muUifidaj n. sp. ; puflilla, pilosa, 
caule gracili repente parce ramoso radicante, foliis aublonge 
petiolatis erectis^ petiolo gracili glabrato y. piloso, lamina 
petiolo eequilonga lineari-oblonga obtusa pinnata, pinnis 
basi remotis petiolulatis late ovatis pinnatifidis, laciniis 
lineari-oblongis acutis bi-tridentatis, pedunculis folio bre* 
vioribus, capitulis ut in precedente. 

Hab. Kangaroo Point; v, v, n. 

Praecedenti afEnis ; differt his notis» gracilior, foliis longius 

petiolatis subflaccidis^ lamina oblonga pinnata, pinnis sub 

5-jugis late ovatis profunde pinnatifidia. 

29. Craspedia Richea^ Cass, 

var. linearis 'y foliis anguste linearibus laxe araneo*tomen- 

tosis. 
Hab. Western Mountains; Gann. 
Inter C. Bichea et C. gracilemy foliis habituque quasi media, 

priori sttftura diametroque capituli accedens. 
Var. glabrata ; ceespitosa, parvula, glabrata, foliis linearibus* 
Hab. Marlborough, Gunit. 
An species distincta 7 

30. Craspedia macrocephalay Hook. Bot Mag. t. 3415, 
var, a. foliis linearibus angustis. 

Hab. Abundant ; Lcnvrence, Gunn. :— v. r. it. 

var. /3. scapo folioso, foliis latioribus superioribus sessilibus 

basi subauriculatis. 
Hab. Eagle-Hawk Neck ; r. v. n. 

31. Craspedia gracilis^ n. sp.; tota laze araneo-tomentoas, 
foliis radicalibus anguste lineari-lanoeolatis elongatis longe 
petiolatis, petiolis basi glaberrimis, scapo elongato gracili 
supeme glabrato foliis linearibus remote bracteato^ ca- 
pitulis globosis, involucri squamis extimia oblongo-Iineari* 
bus obtusis purpureo cinctis. 



PLORA TASMANIA 8PIGILBQ1UM. 119 

Hab. Middlesex plains ; Gunn* 

Electa, gracillimay 1-2-pedalis. Folia radicalia 5-10 unc. longa, 

ntrinqae laze tomentosa, vix ^ unc. lata. CapUula I anc. 

diametro. 

32. Craspedia a^nna^ Backh. ms.; dense lanata, tomento 
moIU floccoso, caule erecto valido apice monocephalo, foliis 
ladicalibus lineari-lanceolatis utrinque niveis caulinis linea- 
ribus sessilibus, involucri squamis late ovatis medio lanatis^ 
maxginibaa late scarioso-membranaceis. C. alpina, Backh. 
ros. in Herb. Hook. 

Hab. Mount Wellington, from 3000 ft. to the top. — Back- 

kou$e : Gunn* : — v. t;. n. 
Species pr«ecedentibus robustior, 6 unc. ad 1| ped. alta. 

Qgniula diametro fere C. macrocephahe. 

33. Osotbamnus lycapoeUaides, n. sp. ; virgatus, glaberrimus, 
Tiscosus, foliis lineari- oblongis obtusis erectis imbricatis 
enenriis marginibus minutissime cartilagineo-erosis, capi- 
tulis sessilibus in axillia ramulorum subaggregatis, invotucri 
sqoamis basi extus subaraneosis caeterum glaberrimis sea- 
rioso-chartaoeis viscosis, achieniis papilloso-piloeis, pappo 
cUvellato. 

Hab. Swan Port, Backhouse. 

FoUa siodtate viridia, 2-3 lin. longa, Lycopodium varium refe- 
rens. CapUula sessiiia, aggregata (exemplare manco). In- 
pobtcri squama apice latiores, brunneee, vix radiat«e. 

A congeneribus toto cttlo differt. 

34. Oaotharonus ericafoliuSf n. sp. ; fruticosus, ramis supeme 
incano-tomentosis patulis subsquarrosis coriaceis breviter 
linearibus obtusis, marginibus revolutis super laxe lanatis 
glabratisve, capitulis campanulatis in oorymbos parvos 
parce rmmosos aggregatis, involucri squamis viscidis inte- 
rioiibus albidis radiantibus, flosculis sub 6, achsenio glan- 
duloto, pappo leviter clavellato scabrido. 

Hab. Marlborough, Gunn. 

Fndex 7-pedaIis, ramis subtortuosis, parte inferiore canis ara* 
neosisve, superiore appresse tomentosis. Folia 4 lin. longa, 



120 FLORJB TASaffAXlA BPICir.EOIUM. 

vix 4 lata, coriacea. Corymbi aibi, J unc. lati. Involucri 
squamae extimee flavidae, intimae niveaB. 

35. Ozothamnus lepidophylha ; fruticosus, ramis araneosis, ra- 
mulis tomento appresso dense lanatis, foliis minimis ramulis 
arete appressis ovatis concavis obtusis supra ooncavis ara- 
neosis raarginibus replicatis dorso linea albida dense to- 
mentosis, capitulis sessilibus parvis ad apices ramulorom, 
inyolucri squamis interioribus radiantibus albidis, floscolia 
sub-5, acbaeniis glandulosis, pappo subclayellato scabrido. 
Baccbaris ? lepidophylla, Dec. v. p. 427* 

Hab. Mountains ; Lawrence^ Gnnn.i — v, v. n. 

Frutex 8 ped. altus, ramis ramulisque robustis. RamuU fra- 
giles, ob folia parva arctissime appressa quasi aphylli» 
Capitula in fasciculum vix \ lin. diametro aggregata, 
nivea. — Habitu sed vix characteribus genus novum con- 
stituens. 

Nov. Gen Ptbrtoopappits. Hook. fil. CapUvb/m sessile, 
sub 6 florum, heterogamum ; floribus racBi sub 3 fcemineis 
linearibus tubo apice inaequaliter 3-dentato, styli ramia 
apice inaequaliter bifidis; eUsci masculis tubulosis obtuse 
5-dentatis, antheris basi bi aristatis, styli apice subdisci- 
formi obscure bifido. Recepiaculum angustum, planum, 
nudum. Involucri squama oblongae^ obtusae, chartaceao, 
sub 2-seriales, aequilongae. Achanium obconicum, semi- 
compressum, lateribus superneque ciliato-hispidum. Pappi 
setae sub 6, coroUis aequilongae, plance, lineari-spathulataey 
distiche plumos®, penno^formes. — Herba Tasmanica alpi- 
coUij muscosQj densissime c<B9pitosa. Rami brevesj/oliis acu- 
tUsime imbricatis tecii. Folia lavioy obovaia, concava^ pa- 
teniia^ bast vagmantia^ submembranacea^ stq}eme coriacea^ 
niiida, apice submucronulaiay utrinque medium vermufuor 
eulo den$isii$ne piloso barbata. Capitulum goUtarium^ mi- 
mmuntf tessile, post aniheain stipUaiumj utvideiur terminak, 
9ed vere ad basin ranmK brevissimi aanttare. . 

86. Pterygopappus Lawrencn. 

Hab. Mountains ; Lfowrenee^ Qwm. :— -v. t;. n. 



FLORJB TASMANIA 8PICILBGIUM. 121 

Csspites nunc late extensi. Caules 1-3 unc. longi. Rami 
cam foliis \ unc. diametro. 

37* Helichrysum $emipapposum, DC. 

Yar. /3. latifoUum ; foliis amplis lanatis. 

Var. y.fil^6liwn\ foliis fere filiformibas. 

Yar. Z. ramosum ; caule basi ramoso, foliis linearibus. 

Yar. f. scabridum ; hispido-pilosum, vix lanatum. 

Hab. Most of the above. varieties are abundant throughout 
the colony* 

38. Gnaphalium coUinumf Lab. 

Yar. a. BiUardieri; caule gracili stricto erecto, foliis angustis 
elongatis super glaberrimis nitidis^ capitulis pallidis. 

Hab. Circular Head and Recherche Bay, &c. 

Yar./). Otmnu; foliis latioribus super plerumque araneo-to- 
mentoais, capitulis fuscis. 

Hab. ? (Gunn in herb. Hook.) 

Yar. y. iMwrencU; foliis latioribus utrinque araneosis nunc 
dense cano-tomentosis, capitulis pallide stramineis.*-An 
sp. distincta ? 

Hab. Middlesex plains. Western mountains, Gunn. &c. 

89. Gnaphalium indutum, n. sp. ; pumilum, herbaceum, 
totum albido-lanatum, caulibus e radice plurimis gracilibus 
brevibus adscendentibus apice corymbiferis, foliis paucis 
flexuosis anguste linearibus obtusis sensim dilatatis radica- 
libus subnuUis, corymbo majuscule polycephalo ramoso, 
iavolucri parvi squamis stramineis hyalinis basi bracteatis 
linearibus obtusiusculis, achesniis subcompressis. 

Hab. Circular Head ; Gttnn. 

Species ab omnibus hactenus descriptis diversa. Radix 
annua, fibrillosa. Caules adscendentes, undales, ut et folia 
lana laxa albida tecti. Corymbi pro planta magni, ampli, 
1 unc. lati, multiflori. Involucra nitida, straminea, foliolis 
linearibus bracteata. 

40. Erechtites kitpidulas Rich, in Toy. Astrol t 34. 

Yar«/3, caule foliisque inferioribus tantum pilosis cssterum 
aran6oaa.-*An B* glabreicenHi var. ? 

Hab*? (Gtmn in herb. Hook.) 



122 VttORM TASMANIiB 8PI0ILBGIUM. 

41. FitechtitAs fflabreseenSf Cnnn. 

Var. /3. foliis radicalibus lineari-oblongis petiolatis, canlinb 

basi simplicibus non auriculatia, E. kitpidukB yar* ? 
Hab. Circular Head, Gunn. • 

42. Erechtites eandicaw, n. sp.; tota appresse araneoso* 
floccosa, caule ascendente sitnplici folioso, foliis erectia 
anguste lineari-oblongis subacutis integerrimis in petiolum 
basi sunpHcem attenuatis utrinque sed subter prsecipae 
floccosis superioribus gradatim minoribus angastioribiis- 
que, marginibus revolutis, capitolis corymbosis foUofia 
linearibus bracteatis, involucri squamis apioe recaryis> flos- 
culis omnibus tubulosis, achsenio hispidulo apioe yix atte- 
nuato in cupulam pappiferam dilatato. 

Hab. ? {Gunn in herb. Hook.) 

Exemplar solitarium 1 \ pedale, basi lignosum. Radix deest, 
verosimiliter ima basi divisa, v. ramosa. Folia coriacea, 2-S 
unc. longa. Capitula latiuscula, bis longiora quam lata, 
^ unc. longa. 

43. Erechtites arguiay DC. 

Var. /3. glabrata, foliis glabratis sinuato-pinnatifidis utrinque 

asperis coriaceis. 
Var. y. asper ; foliis subcotiaceis arachnoideis asperisque pin- 

natifidis segmentis latis oyatis, involucri squamis nunc 

purpuratis. S. agper^ Cunn. Planta humilis, misera. 
Var. i* obovaia ; foliis obovato-lanceolatis petiolatis sinuato- 

pinnatifidis super glabris subter parce araneoais, ramis 

foliosis, oorymbis paucifloris. 
Var. c. foliis obovatis petiolatis sinuato-dentatis pinnatifidisre 

super asperis subter araneosis, 
Hab. Common throughout the colony* 

44. Ereditites Gufinu, n. sp. \ tota laxe araneo-tomentosa r* 
floocosa, caule erecto basi diviso, ramia foliosis^ kXis 
lineari-oboyatis obtusis longe petiolatis integerrimis v. 
obscure dentatis marginibus recurvia petido bast samplici 
supremis nunc baai latioribus yva aurioulatisy capitolis 
corymbosis angustis, squamb anguste linearibus in diacum 
pappiferum dilatatis. 



PLORJB TASMANIA SPICILBGIUM. 123 

Hab. Alpine situations, Gtmn, 

An preeoedends forma extrema? Herba erecta, robuata, 1^ 

pedalis ; oaule ramisque foliosis. Folia S^4 unciaiia, i-} unc. 

lata, dgriiula fere i-uncialia, ter longiora quam lata. 

Invohteri aquamoe scepissime parpnrascentes, acumiuatee, 

disco adqailongae. 

45. Senecto capiUtfoUus, n. sp. ; radiatus, herbacens ? ramoaas, 
glabenimus, caule striato folioso, foliis sessilibus in la- 
dniis distantibus perplurimis filiformibus divisis, ladniis 
elongatis basi remotis angostissimis bis-terve divisis lobu- 
ktisrej capitulis corymbosis late turbinatis pedicellisque 
sabglandnlosis, floribns radii paucis, involi^cri squamis 
disco brevioribus basi bracteolatis mai^nibns achieniisque 
pnbenilis. 

Hab. ? {Qutm m Herb. Hook.) 

Exemplar solitarium^ S. anethifoUum habitu omninoreferens, 
sed capitalis diveraissimum. 

46. Senecio rupicola ; A. Rich. Voy. AiiroL t. 37* 

Var. 0, foliis simpliciter pinnatifidis laciniis patentibua linea- 

ribtts integenimis lobatisve. 
Var. y. foliis Unearibos pinnatifidis breyi4obatis.«— S. linifolius, 

Lab. in herb. Hook. 
Var. d. foliis pinnatifidis segmentis lobatis snberectis. 
Hab. Coasts, abundant. 
Ab 8. neglecio (Nova Zelandis) differt solummodo eapitu- 

lorom magnitudine. 

47. Senecio australis^ Willd. 
Var. a. foliis subter glaberrimis. 

Var. /3. foliis subter appresse lanatis candidis. 
Hab* Abundant. 

48. Senecio veUwMes^ A. C. 
Var. j3. capitulis paulo majoribus. 

Hab. Road to Mc. Quarrie's harbour ; Qunn. 

49. Senecio pectinatus, DC.:--yariat foliis linearibus v. 
obovato-Unearibus lobatis obtuse dentatis et pinnati« 
fidis. 



124 FLORiB TABMAV1A BPICtLEOlUM. 

Hab. Mt. Wellington, Gunn. : — v. r. ». 

Nov. Gen. Cbntropappus. Hook, f I Capiiulum heteroga- 
mum, multiflorum, radiatum ; Ji. rad. 1- seriatis, foemineis, 
Ugulatis, ligula latissima, 9-neryi ; styli ramis elongatis ; ft. 
disci plurimis tubulosis, supeme campanulatis, 5*fidis, lobis 
lineari-elongatis revolutis; antherse ecaudat®; styli rami 
apice solum penicillati. BeceptactUum planum^ nudum, al- 
veolatum. Invohuni l-serialis squamee rigidee, coriacese, ci- 
liato-fimbriate, disco i breviores, basi bracteolatse. Ac/ut- 
nium erostre, lineari-oblongum, glaberrimum. Pappi seim 
1 -seriates, flexuosee, per totam longitudinem barbellatae, 
setis cylindraceis acutis superne gradatim elongatis supremis 
calcariformibus. — ^Arbuscula Frutexve Tasmani® alpestriSf 
glaberrimtu. Rami transverse grosse cicairicati, teretes. 
Folia apices versus ramulorum^pateniiaf linearia, sub-obtusa, 
sessiliay integerrima, 1-nema, facte Bupleuri. Capitula 
flaiva ad apices ramuhrum corymbosa, pediceUata. Pappi 
seta fere ut in Bedfordia. 

50. Centropappus Brtmoms. 

Hab. Mt. Wellington, Gunn. 

FVutex ramulosus, 7*^ pedalis. Folia 3 unc. longa, 3 lin. 
lata, subcoriacea. Capitula latiuscula, i unc. longa^ sub- 
viscosa. Pappus sordide albidus. 

ScoRZONEBA. Subgcn. Monibrmos: P^i/Tpu^ uniserialis, paleis 
angustissime linearibus sursum sensim angustatis, scabris. 
•— Herbee scapigerm Australasiceo, Novse Zaslandieeque, 
fade Hypocheeridis. 

6 1 . Scorzonera (Moniermos) LawrencU ; radice fiisiformi sim- 
plici V. divisa, foliis glaberrimis anguste linearibus lineari- 
lanceolatisve gramineis integerrimis pinnatifidis margini* 
busve lobuliferis sejmeniis divaricatis recurvisve plerum- 
que linearibus, involucri cylindracei squarais acuminatb, 
margine anguste membranaceis exterioribus ovatis intimb 
lineari-lanceolatis. 

Hab. Abundant. 

Statura foliorumque longitudine et latitudine variabilii. 



BOTANY OF THB NIGER BXPBOXTION* 125 

Sagmi folium sequana v. longe superans, glabexrimiiB t. 
tennisaime pnedpae infra capitola puberulua. — Scorzanerm 
(Moniermoa) scapigerm, Forat. valde affinia, differt aqua- 
xnorum involucri forma. 



Botany of the Niger Eapeditimj by Sib W. J. Hookbb 

OJltf Db. J. D. HOOKBB. 

(/a continuation of the Journal of the Voyage to the Niger qf 
Dr. J. R. T. VoGBL, Vol. VI. p. 106.) 

Notes on Madeira Plants. 

So great was Dr. Vogel's zeal in the cause of Botany, 
that his collections were commenced before leaving England, 
daring the few days spent by the Niger Expedition in 
Plymouth Sound. The plants in question consist princi- 
pally of Alga, and being only the common South of England 
spedes, and foreign to the object of this Memoir, need no 
further notice. 

During his four days' stay at Madeira, although unable to 
make any distant excursions, Dr. Vogel formed a very ex- 
cellent Herbarium, having been assisted in his investiga- 
tions by the Kev. Mr. Lowe. These planta we deem worthy 
of enumeration, as shewing what future voyagers may expect 
to obtain during an equally short visit, and facilitating the 
troublesome task of determining their names by those general 
works on Botany in which alone the Madeira plants are de- 
scribed. The names of those collected by the Antarctic 
Expedition* on its outward voyage are added to this list; 
the majority of which, having been gathered (in October) at a 
Tery different season, were not met with by Dr. Vogel. 

All the species have been determined by Dr. Lemann, 
whose botanical accuracy and acquaintance with the Floras 
of S. Europe, Madeira, and the Canaries, entitle us to place 

* The tmalloeM of thii collection is to be attributed to the temporary 
ill health of the Bouniat of the Antarctic Expedition dunng the ships' 
tea daya* aojoom at Madeira. 



126 BOTANY OP THE 

great rdianee ou the andieoticity of die nomendature. That 
gentlenMui has also &voared us with some iK>tes on the 
Sotanf of Madeira, as oompared with other neighboming 
islands^ which we beg to acknowMge most heartily^ and 
which are embodied in the following remarks. 

The Island of Madeira contains 672 species of flowering 
plants and Ferns, of which 85 are absdatdy peculiar, and 
480 common to Europe ; 280 are common to Madeira and 
the Azores (whose Flora is estimated at 425 sp.) ; 312 (or 
probably more) to Madeira and the Canaries ; and 170 to the 
neighbourhood of Gibraltar (where 456 have been collected.) 

It is remarkable that out of 400 European, and these Me- 
diterranean species, indigenous to Madeira, not more than 170 
occur in Gibraltar ; for it were natural to suppose that the 
majority of 480 species are very widely dispersed throughout 
the S.Europe, and must have migrated by way, as it were, of 
Gibraltar, if transported across the ocean to Madeira. It is 
further worthy of observation, that the Azcntcs, though very far 
to the westward, and the Canaries to the south, both contain 
many more of the Mediterranean plants seen in Madeira, than 
does Gibraltar. 

A considerable number of the Madeira plants belong 
to genera not found in the adjacent continent,* but in the 
Canaries, Azores, or Cape de Verd Islands ; thus indicating a 
Botanical affinity between these groups and confined to them.t 

* Except, possibly, on the hitherto unexplored Atlas Mountains on 
the Morocco coast. 

t The following are some of the leading features of the N. Atlantie 
lahmd noxas^ as distingaiihing it from the continental. 

1. Genera confined to the four groups, and represented in two or more of 
the islands, are : — 

MehmiaeUmim, (Madeira and Asores.) 

^?^J^' } (Madeira and Canaries.) 

Sinapidendran, (Madeira and Cape de Verd Islands.) 

PkMit^' } (Madeira and Canaries.) 

Ctm^lanihuM, Canaries and Cape de Verd Islands.) 



NIGER EXPEDITION. 127 

The evidence of this relationship is very decided^ from 
the peculiarity of the genera or species giving rise to it* 
Though comparatively few in number, their characters are 
so prominent and so widely different from the Mediterranean 
plants which accompany them, that the latter, though nume- 
rically mndi the greatest, seem superadded, and, as it were, 
intruders on the former. 

The Canaries and Madeira, from their central position and 
various other causes, are the centre of this Botanical region, 
called by Mr- Webb the " Macaronesian,^' and exhibit more 
peculiarity than the Cape de Verds, (as far as they are at 
present known), or the Azores. There can be little doubt 
Madeira was even more peculiar in its vegetation than now, 
previous to the destruction by fire of the luxuriant forests, of 
which, almost clothing the lower parts of the island, we have 
historic evidence. Not only would such a catastrophe de- 
stroy spedes, but their place is afterwards occupied by strong- 
growing imported weeds, which prevent the re-appearance of 
the native plants by monopoUaing the soil. 

With Tery few exceptions, the Mediterranean are the 
only plants found in Madeira and the Canaries besides what 
sre confined to those islands ; in the Azores, on the other 
hand, more Northern European species are associated with 
them. In the Cape de Verds, far to the south, W. African 
and W. Indian plants replace those of the Mediterranean. 

The Island of Madeira participates in the Flora of the 

9* Orders represented by closely allied, but peculiar genera : — 

SCROPH ULARINBiB. 

lioplexU, (Madeira,) and CaUianasga, (Canaries.) 

Campanulacbji. 

MunehiOf (Madeira,) and Canarina, (Canaries.) 

whkH are further represented by the singular Campanula VidaKt in the 
Aiores, and the equally distinct C. Jacohaa in the Cape de Verd Islands. 
Other instances of representation by peculiar species are found in the 
ftacdosM and Sanehit and in the curious SupkoriM of the Canaries and 
the C^M de Verds and several other genera. 



128 BOTANY OP THE 

W. Indies to a much greater degree than does any part of 
the adjacent continent : — that this is in a great measure dae to 
the dampness of its insular climate, is dear, firom the plants 
in question being ahnost entirely Ferns, viz. :— - 

Acrostichum squamosum, Sw. 
Aspidium moUe, Sw. 
Asplenium monanthemum, 8w. 

ji furcatum, Stv. 
Trichomanes radicans, Sw. 

species found nowhere on the continent of Europe, or in 
N. Africa. The presence of a plant belonging to the other- 
wise exclusively American genus, Cleihra, is striking, be- 
cause indicating a further relationship with the Flora of 
the New World, but of a very diflFerent character from the 
above. 

The Helichrysa of Madeira are allied in rather a remarkable 
degree to the S. African species of that genus ; a fact which 
reminds us that the Myrsine Africana^ a Cape of Good 
Hope plant, is a native of the Azores, but of no intervening 
latitude on the West coast of Africa or the Atlantic Islands, 
nor indeed anywhere else but Abyssinia. Though not a 
subject falling immediately within the province of the pure 
Botanist, it may not be amiss here to state, that the four 
Island-groups in question have been conceived by my friend. 
Professor Forbes, to be the exposed remains of one continuous 
and extended tract of land, which formed the western prolon- 
gation of the European and African shores. He points to 
the specific identity of these islands and Europe, as affording 
Botanical evidence of this ingenious theory, which, however, 
he chiefly rests on geological grounds. Regarded in this 
light, the question will resolve itself, in the opinion of most 
Botanists, into one, concerning the power of migration, and 
the probability of migration having taken place, to a very 
great extent, over the Atlantic Ocean, and against the pre- 
vailing direction of the winds. It may be contended that 
such a migration would have peopled tliese islands solely, or 



tflOSR BXPBDITIOX. 129 

tnainlyj with certain of the more transportable classes of plants; 
and that the result must be^ that the number of species belong- 
ing to each natural order would be great in proportion to the 
facility with which they bear transportation ; while only those 
Orders could be numerous, which possess that faculty in an 
eminent degree. But such are not the characteristics of the 
Mediterranean plants found in Madeira. 

On the other hand^ the existence of such a continent, 
daring the period when these islands bore the plants which 
they now produce, would argue the former presence of 
a very large Flora belonging to die type which now distin^ 
guishes the islands in question from the Mediterranean, and 
of whose previous existence the remaining species, peculiar 
to them, are the indication. Against this theory it might 
be urged, that more specific identity between the plants 
of the several insular groups, would then be the natural 
consequence, than now is seen ; for the affinity of vegetation 
between the different islands consists, not in identical species^ 
but in representatives. The same agent, in short, whiefa 
eflfected the peopling of the several groups with the plants 
of continental Europe, would also have distributed more 
equally the non-European species over the same area. 

It is, however, to the lofty peaks of Atlas that we must 
look, if any where, for the continental representatives of 
those peculiar plants which mark the North Atlantic Insular 
Floras. Thus^ we expect to find the productions of the Galapa- 
gos Archipelago on the higher levels ^f the Cordillera; and the 
mountains of St. Thomas, Fernando Po and the Cameroons, 
on the west coast of Tropical Africa, may yet exhibit to us the 
Botanical features of St. Helena. Outlying and high islanda 
commonly partake in the peculiar vegetation of a ctimate cooler 
than belongs to the low lands of the adjacent continent; 
though, ill the case of Juan Fernandez, they sometimes 
exhibit genera equally isolated in botanical affinities as their 
habitats are in geographical position. 

VOL. vj« h 



130 BOTANY OP THE 

Catalogue of the Plants collected in the Island of Madeira by 
the Botanist of the Niger Expedition; to which are 
added those of the Antarctic Expedition ; drawn t^ by 
C. Lemann^Esq., M.D. Cantab. F.L.S. &c &c. 

1. Ranunculus grandifolius^ Lowe. — Ribiera Frio, VoffeL 

2. R. repens, Lowe. — Ribiera Frio, Fogel. 
S. Papaver dubium, L. — Curral, Vogel. 

4. Fumaria media, Loisel. — Curral, Pogel. 

5. Matthiola Maderensis, Lowe. — Funchal, Vogel & /. D.H. 

6. Cheiranthus mutabilts, I/'J9i^.— -Curral, Vogel. 
J. Nasturtium officrnale, R. Br. — Fanchal, J. D. H. 

8. Arabis albida, Stev. — Ribiera Frio, and Grand Waterfrll, 
Vogel. 

-9. Cardamine hirsuta, L. — Grand WaterfaU, Vogel. 
W. Teesdalia Iberis, DC. — Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 
1 1 • Sinapidendron frutescens, Lowe. — Curral, VogeL 

12. Raphanus Raphanistrum, L.-^Funcbal, Vogel. 

13. Viola Maderensis, Lowe. — Road to the Curral, /. JD, H. 
•14. V. sylvestris, Lam. — Ribiera Frio and Grand Waterfall, 

VogeL 

15. Linum angustifolium, Huds. — Funchal, Vogel & J. D. H, 

16. Malva panriflora, L. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 
17* Sida carpinoides, DC— Funchal, J. D. H. 

1 8. S. rhombifolia, L.— Funchal, J. D. H. 

19. Hypericum humifusum, L. — Funcbal, J. D. H. 

20. H. perforatum, L. — Funchal, Vogel & J. D. H. 

21. H. glandulosum, ^/. — Curral, Vogel. 

22. H. grandifolium, Ch^. — Curral, /. Z). H. 

23. Erodium Botrys, JSer/o/.— Grand Waterfall, VogA. 

24. Geranium rotundifolium, L. — Curral and Grand Water- 

faU, Vogel. 

25. Ozalis corniculata, L. — Funcbal, J. Z). R. 

26. Mesembryanthenmm nodiflorum, I/.— Funchal, /• D. H. 
2T. Polycarpon tetraphyllum, L.fil. — ^^Funcbal, Vogely J. D. H. 
28. Ceraatium glomeratum, ThuiU. — Curral and Funchal 

Vogek J. D. H. 



N1«UCR -EXPEDITION. "131 

29. Cerattioni triviale, Link. — Curral, Vogely J. D. H. 

30. Stellaria uliginosa, Murr. — Curral, Vogel^J. D. H. 

31. S. media, 8m. — Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

32. Silene Gallica, Z..— Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

33. Ulez Europeeus, L. — Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

34. Genista virgata, DC— Curral, Fogel, J. D. H. 

35. 6. Maderensisy Webh. — Ribiera Frio, Vogd* 

36. Latbyrus spbserieus, BMz. — Curral, Vogeh 

37. Lotus glaucas, ^«/.— Funchal, J. D. H* 

38. Medicago tribuloides, Lijm. — Funchal, Vogd^ J. D. Ei 

39. Psoralea bituminosa, L. — Funchal, Vogel^ J. D. H. 

40. Vicia sativa, X.-nCarral, Vogel. 

41. Soorpiiiriu subvillosaa, L.-<^FQncbal, Vogeh 

42. Omithopas perpusillus, Zr.— Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

43. Cassia bicapsularisj L. — ^Funchal, Vogel^ J. D. H. (intro- 

duced?) 

44. Acacia Fameaiana, WiUd. — Fooc^, Vogel, J. D. ff. 

introduced ?) 

45. Chamflsmeles coceinea, LinM. — East Coast, Vogel. 

46. Alchemilla arvensis, Sa^. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel, J. D.H. 
47* Poterium Terrucosum, £Ar.-*FunchaI, Vogel, J. D. H. 

48. Fragaria vesea, L. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel; Curral, J. D.H. 

49. Lytbram Graefferi, Tbiore.— Curral, /. D. H. 

50. Semperviwm glutanosum, i4i/.-<-Funchal, Vogel. 

51. 8« TiUosum, AU. — Carral, Vogel, J. D. H> 

52. 8. aiEoides, Lam. — Funchal ? VogeL 

53. Umbilicus pendulinus ? — VogeL 

54. Saxifraga Maderensis, Don. — Curral, Vogel. 

55. Bupleurum salicifolium, Solander. — Curral, V/ogel. 

56. Crithroam maritimum, L. ifi. latifolium. — East Coasts 

J. 2>. H. 
57* Sambttcus nigra, L. — Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

58. Galium Aparine, L. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

59. Sherardia arvensis, L. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel, J. D. H. 

60. Phyllis Nobla, JL.— Curral, VogeL 

61. Ageratum conyaoides, L. — Funchal, J. JD. H^ 
68. Pbagnslojti sazatile, DC. i— VogeL 

L 2 



132 BOTANY OF THB 

6.3. Eclipta prostrata, £.?— Funchal, J. D. H. 

64. Bidens leucantha^ fFt//tf.— Funchal, Vogtl^ J. D. H. 

65 . Chry santhemam pinnatifid urn, L. fiL — Ribiera Frio, Vogd. 

66. Artemisia argentea, UH(r. ^-^Vogd^ J. D. //• 

67. Helichrysum oboonicam^ DC. — Sea-coast, J. 2). H. 

68. H. melanophthalmum, Lowe. — Grand Waterfall, Vogd. 

69. Onaphaliom luteo-album, L. — Funchal, Vcgely J. D. H. 

70. Calendula anrensis, L. — Curral, Vogel, J. D. H. 

71. Galactites tomentosa, itfienM. ? — Vogel. 

72. Tolpis pectinata, DC. — Funchal, /. D. H. 

73. T. crinita, L&we. 

74. T. umbellata^ BertoL—Cxjml, Vogel, J. D. IL 

75. Thrincia nudicaulis, Lotoe. — Carral, Vogel; Funcbal, 

J. D. H. 

76. Sonchus ustnlatus, Lowe^ (leaves.) — South-east coast, 

J. D. H. 
77* Campanula Erihus, L. — Curral, Vogel^ J. D. H. 

78. Centrafithus Calcitrapa, Dt^. — Curral, Vogel. 

79. Vaccinium Maderense, LtnA.— •Ribiera Frio, Vogel; Pico 

Ruivo, /• D. H. 

80. Erica arborea, I/.— Curral, /. D. M. 

81. E. scoparia, L. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel\ Pico Ruivo, 

/. D. H. 

82. Clethra arborea, AU. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

83. Heberdenia excelsa, DC.fil. (leaves.) — Curral, J. D. H^ 

84. Siderozylon Marmulana, C. Sm. — Funchal, Vogel. 

85. Convolvulus althaeoides, L.*- ? Vogel. 

86. C. solanifolius, Lowe. — Ribiera Frio, Vogd. 

87* Plantago Lagopus, Hall. a. — j3. Lusitanica. — Grand 
Waterfall, /3. Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

88. P. Coronopus, L. — Funchal, J. D. H. 

89. P. arborescens, Poir. — South-east coast, /. D. H. 

90. Globularia longifolia, AU. — South-east coast, Vogd; 

Funchal, J. D. H. 

91. Echium plantagineum, L. — Grand Waterfall, /. 2>* H. 

92. E. fastuosum, Jacq. — ? Vogel. 

93. Myosotis repens, Don. — Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

94. Lavandula viridis, AU. — Funchal, Vogel^ J. D. H. 



NIQBR EXPEDITION. IS3 

95. L. pinnata, L^fiL — }VogeL 

96. Bystropogon punctatus, JJH6r. — ? VogeU 
97* Origanam virens, lAnk. — Curral^ /. 2). H. 

98. Micromeria varia^ Benih. — Corral, J. D. H, 

99. Melissa Calamintha, L. /3. villosissima, Benih.'^Cjxml, 

J. D. H. 

100. Prunella valgaris, Mcmch. — Grand Waterfall and Ri- 

biera Frio, VoyeL 

101. Cedronella triphylla, Mcench. — Grand Waterfall, VogeL 

102. Stachys hirta, Ir.— Curral, Vogd. 
102. S. arvensis, L. — Curral, VogeL 

102. S. fietonica, BerUh.-^ ? VogeL 

103. Clinopodiam vulgare, L. — Carral, Vogely J.D. H. 

104. Sideritis Massoniana, Benih. — Curral, VogeL 

105. Teucrium abutiloides, L'Hir. — Curral, J. D. H. 

106. Lantana aculeata. Ait, — J. D. H. 

107. Antirrhinum Orontium, Z/.— Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

108. Sibtborpia peregrina, — ? VogeL 

109. Veronica acinacifolia, L. — Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

110. V. Anagallis, L. — Curral, VogeL 

111. V. arvensis, L. — WogeL 

1 12. Odontites Holliana, Benih. (fruit.)— Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

113. Physalis pubescens, L, — Funchal, Vogely J.D. H. 

1 14. Hyoscyamus Canariensis, fCer.— Funchal, «/. D. H. 

115. Vinca major? not wild. — Funchal, VogeL 

116. Olea (Phillyrea, D.C.) Lowei, DC. — Maritime spots, 

J.D.H. 
117> Jasminum odoratissimum, L, — Funchal, VogeL 

118. Chenopodium ambrosioides, jL.— Funchal, J. jD. H. 

119. Sueeda laxifolia, Lowe.—EaBt coast, J. D. H. 

120. Rumex Maderensis, Z^oti^e.— Curral, VogeL 

121. R. Acetosella, L.— ?rojfe/. 

122. R. aculeatus, L. — Currtd and Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

123. Polygonum maritimum, I/.— East coast, J. D. H. 

124. Merenrialis annua, L. yar. /9. (M. ambigua, L. JU.) — 

Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 

125. Euphorbia Peplus, Ir.— Funchal, Vogel, J. D. H. 



184 BOTANY OP TBS 

126. E. hypericifolia,!/.— FanchaU Voget^ J. D, H. 

127. Persea Indica^ fiSpr.— Cunral, VogdyJ. D. H. 

128. Oreodaphne foetens, NeeM. — Ribiera Frio, Vogel. 

129. ApoUoniac Caaariensis, Nees. — Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

130. Myriea Faya, 3£r.— Mr. Veitcb'a garden, J. D. H. 

131. Parietaria Lusitanica, L,} (P. Maderensis, Rchb. 

Funcbal, /. D. U. 

132. Ephedra alata^ Dene. — Funchal, /• D. H. 

133. Peristylus cordatus, LindL — } VogeL 

134. Himantoglossum aecandifloram, Lindl. — Ribiera Frio, 

VogeL 

135. Amaryllis Belladonna, L. — Road to Curral, J. D. H. 

136. Rascus Hypoglossum, L. — } VogeL 

137* Commelina communis, L. — Funchal, J. D. H, 

138. Juncus glaucus, Sm.*^ } VogeL 

!39. J. triformis, L. — Grand Waterfall, VogeL 

140. Isolepis Saviana, SchulL — Grand Waterfall, Vogel. 

141. Carex divulsa, Gooden. — Curral, Grand Water&ll, Ri« 

biera Frio, VogeL 

142. Panicum vaginatum, 8wtz. — Funehal, J. D. H^ 

143. P. repens, L. — Funchal, J. D. H. 

144. Pennisetum cenchroides, Bich. — Funchal^ /• 2>. H. 

145. Lagurus ovatus^ L. — Curral, VogeL 

146. Cynosurus echinatus, L.— ^Ribiera Frio, VogeL 
147- C. elegans, Desf. — Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

148. Dactylis glomerata, 1/. ? — ? VogeL 

149. Melica ciliata, //.—Curral and Grand Waterfall, VogeL 

150. Poa megastachya, KoeL — Funchal, /. D. H. 

151. Briza minor, £. — Grand AVaterfall, VogeL 

152. B. major, L. — Curral and Ribiera Frio, Vogel^J. D. H. 

153. Aira prsecox, I/.— Grand Waterfall, VogeL 

154. A. caryophyllea, L. — Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

155. Avena hirtula, Xajf.— Curral, VogeL 

156. Bromus mazimus. — Curral, FogeL 

157* Festuca bromoides, L. — Curral, Grand Waterftdl and 

Ribiera Frio, Vogely J. D. H. 
158. Festuca jubata,jLoire.-» Corral^ Vogeh 



NIGBR EXPEDITION. 135 

159. Andropogon Halepensisj £>t^/A.<— Fanchal, /. X>. H. 
IdO. A. hirttts^ Zr.— Funchal, Vogel^ J. D. H. 

161. PoIypodiuiQ vulgare, Zr. — Curral, VogeL 

162. Gymnogramma Lovei, Hook, and Grev. — Ribiera Frio, 

Vogd. 

163. NotholiBiia lanuginosa, Dew. — Funchal, /. D. H. 

164. Grammitis Ceterach, L. — Funcbal, Vogel^ J. D.H. 

165. Adiantum reniforme, L. — ? VogeL 

166« A. Capillus Veneris. — Fanchal, Vogel^ /. D. H. 
167* Pteris aquilina, L. — Carral and Ribiera Frio, Vogely 
J. D. H. 

168. P. arguta, VakL, — Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

169. Lfomaria Spicant» Z)e«;.— Grand Waterfall, VogeL 

170. Atbyriam Filix-foemina, Roth* — Ribiera Frio, VogeL 
171* Asplenium Adiantum-nigruoi, I/. (A.proJi<c/«m,Lowe). 

Curral, Vogel; Funchal, /. D. H. 

172. A. monanthemum, Sm. — Ribiera Frio. VogeL 

173. A. anoeps, Soland. — Curral, VogeL 

174. A. palmatum, Swiz. — Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

175. Cystopteris fragilis, Bemh. — Funchal, Vogely J. D. H* 

176. Nephrodiuoi molle, Br. — Fanchal, J. 2>. H. 
177* Asptdium angulare, Sm.— Curral, VogeL 

178. A. elongatuin, Swtz. — Ribiera Frio, VogeL 

179. A. falcinellum, Swtz. — Ribiera Frio and Curral, Vogelj 

J. D. H. 

1 80. Davallia Canariensis. —Ribiera Frio and Curral, /. D. H. 

181. Lycopodium denticulatum, Willd. — Curral, Vogelj 

J. D. H. 

TENERIPPE. 

The next point visited by the Niger Expedition, after 
kaTing Madeira, was the island of Teneriffe : where the^ 
Tesael in which Vogel had embarked remained but a few 
boors* The same island, and the same port, Santa Cruz, 
liad been touched at by the Antarctic Expedition during the 
pre^ous winter. Teneriffe is always held to be classic 
ground by the Naturalist, as the opening scene of the labours 



136 BOTANY OF THE 

of Humboldt, who there first appreciated in their full extent 
the laws governing the geographical distribution of plants. 
His life-like pictures of the natural phenomena, observed 
during an ascent of the famous peak, have given to many 
succeeding scientific travellers that impulse which has turned 
their thoughts and steps from closet studies and the pursuit 
of Natural History at home, and induced them to seek hr 
distant scenes, in the West, the East and the South. 

The Peak itself is seldom descried : one hurried glimpse of 
its very apex, from upwards of sixty miles' distance, was all 
we obtained : it then appeared like a little short and broad 
cone high in the clouds, or rather as an opaque* triangular 
spot on the firmament. It is difficult to imagine this, the 
culminant point, to be that mighty mass, at whose base 
the toil-worn traveller pauses ; when, having surmounted four- 
fifths of the mountain, his heart quails at beholding a ^' Pelion 
upon Ossa piled^' so stern, so stony and so steep. 

Much and deeply did the officers of Captain Ross^ and 
Trotter's Expeditions deplore the necessity of hurrying 
from this spot, most interesting to the sailor; being the 
point to which every circumnavigator first steers, and from 
whence, with chronometers carefully corrected at its well* 
determined position, he takes his departure. For years, 
too, this was the prime Meridian : distance in longitude 
at sea being reckoned from Teneriffe as zero, by all the sea- 
faring nations of Europe at one period ; and by some it is so 
still. From the days of the earliest circumnavigators, to 
the presen t, ** we sighted the Peak of Teneriffe" marks that 
ps^e in the narrative, at which all that is interesting in the 
voyage commences. 

In the history of geology, the Canary Islands hold a 
conspicuous position: Von Buch developed his theory of 
eraters of elevation from what he there observed : his name 
too recalls, and most appropriately, that of his fellow-la- 
bourer in the same shores. Christian Smith, the amiable 
and gifted Swede, who first after Humboldt explored their 
Botany. Christian Smith returned to Europe to embaik 



NIGBR BXPBDITION* 137 

in tbe ill-fated Congo Expedition : when he again saw the 
Peak of Teneriffe, he welcomed it as a familiar object, and 
bade it adieu, rejoicing that a still more novel field of inquiry 
was opened to him, beyond this scene of his early exertions* 
A few short months terminated his life and hopes : like Vogel, 
he fell a victim to the dread fever of the pestilential coast of 
Africa : like him, too, he was a martyr in the caase of Bo- 
tanical Science. 

Possessed of so many and such touching associations, no 
naturalist-voyager can see the Fortunate Isles rising, one 
by one, on the horizon of the mighty Atlantic, without some 
feeling of melancholy, while reflecting on the fate of these his 
two predecessors, both most accomplished Naturalists of their 
age and day ; and whose prospects and hopes were in every 
respect as bright, perhaps brighter, than his own. 

The excellent and beautiful work of Mr. Webb, on the 
Natural History of the Canaries, leaves little to be said, 
especially of their Botany ; and renders even an enumeration 
of the few species gathered by Vogel and the Botanist of the 
Antarctic Expedition unnecessary ; for they were all collected 
within a very few miles of Santa Cruz, during a very hurried 
walk, and scarcely include a dozen kinds. This locality is 
one of the most barren of the whole group, especially in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the sea. The broad frontage of 
cliff and mountain, reaching upwards for several thousand 
feet above the town, and fore-shortened to the view from 
seaward, presents a progressive increase of verdure from 
tbe water's edge to the mountains. At this season, when 
the vines are out of leaf, nothing green meets the eye; 
the trees* either isolated or in very small clumps, only 
dot the alternate ridges and steep gullies with which the 
slopes are everywhere cut like the edge of a saw, pro- 
dodng that spotty effect in the landscape so admirably trans- 
ferred to the phytographical illustrations of the work alluded 
to, and which is eminently characteristic both of the Canaries 
and Madeira. 

The Kleinia, Euphorbia and Plocama are three plants 
which the voyager recognizes long before reaching the shore; 



138 BOTANY OF ITHK 

and they are so singular, whether as regudB habit, habitat 
or botanical characters, that the opportanity of seeing them 
in a wild state, even from the sea, must be deemed a privi- 
lege by the Botanist. 

Cape db Vbbd Islands. 

The voyage, from the Canaries to the Cape de Verd 
Islands, generally presents a hiatus in the journals of those 
sea-faring Naturalists who have followed this route. Before 
arriving at the Canaries, landsmen have scarcely recovered from 
the novelty of ship-board and its effects ; nor has there been 
time, since leaving these islands, to become thoroughly inured 
to the monotony of a sailing life. At first sight, the Cape 
de Verd Islands are very disappointing. It is true that we 
had passed from an extra-tropical latitude to far within the 
tropics; but the change in position was not accompanied 
with a corresponding difference, still less with luxuriance, 
in the vegetation and scenery. Yet these apparently barren 
islands have associations of great interest ; and their exami- 
nation yields both pleasure and profit. They afforded us 
the first glimpses of the fever-smitten coast of Africa, and of 
slavery. Even the black man here, deprived of freedom, 
and an alien to the land in which, though guiltless, he is 
a prisoner for life, is apt to be regarded as a mere object 
of Natural History by his Caucasian fellow-creature; who, 
before he has time for reflection, may perhaps be excused for 
pausing to consider, whether a being so different in features 
and social position, be really of the same origin as himself; 
whether, in short, the poor African is a race of the same 
stock, or a species apart. 

There are many other circumstances, connected with these 
islands, calculated to keep the mind busy while in their 
neighbourhood. They form the western extreme of the Old 
World, of what was the whole world to civilized man, tUl 
within the last very few hundred years.; and hence these, the 
North Cape and Cape of Good Hope, constitute the three 
salient points in the geography of the eastern Atlantic. 



NIGER BXPSDITIOK. 189 

In many of their physical features, they form a continuation 
of the great Sahara desert; that mysterious blank on our 
maps, upon whose sea of sand so many of our venturesome 
countrymen have embarked, to be heard of no more. The 
hitherto unexplored mountains rise 8000 feet and upwards 
above the sea, in serried ridges and isolated peaks, promising 
a rich harvest to some Botanist, who may in these higher 
and cooler parts of the islands rely on immunity from disease 
and a temperate climate. There he may expect to find 
new types of plants; for the Mountain Flora of Western 
Tropicd Africa is wholly unknown ; and of its probable 
nature ieven we can form no guess. To conclude, the Lin- 
naean axiom of ''semper aliquid novi ex Africa" has never 
yet proved false. A Naturalist cannot see the shores of that 
continent without feeling that no other spur is required to 
exertion, in a field to which such a motto still applies with 
so much force. 

(the Plants of this Voyage have proved so numerous, that 
it has been deemed advisable to form a separate volume of 
them, which is now publishing by Mr. Bailli^re under the 
title of '•The Botany of the Niger Expedition.")— Ed. 



Otservaiiom iur TAmoreuxia, DC. (Euryanthe, Cham, et 
SchkchL) et description des nouveaux genres Roucheria 
et LoBBiA : comme introduction h des mimoires distincts 
Mur les CoGiiLOSPERMKBs, LiN^Bs ct Aristolochikes, 
families auxquelles ces genres seront respectivement rattachis, 
par J. E. Planghon, Docteur-is-Sciences. 

{Avec trois planches, Tab. I. II. III.) 

La nicessit^ de suivre dans ^explication des planches de ce 
journal un ordre constant et r^gulier, m 'oblige si presenter pro- 
Tiaoirement, sous un m^me titre, des fractions strictement s^- 
parables de trois mimoires qui n'ont entr'eux rien de commun. 
Les botanistes ne perdront rien k cette irregularity apparente ; 
les d^twk auxquels je me borne ici ^tant purement tech- 



140 OB8ERVATIOX8 SUR l'aMOREUXTA^ &C. 

niqaes, c^est i dire, une piirtie du lourd bagage dont la science 
est obligfe de se faire suivre, que Ton use seulem^nt au temps 
du besoin, et dont on pourrait presque se passer, grace aux 
excellentes figures qu'il me reste a expliquer. 

Amorbuxia, Moc. et Sesse^ ex DC. prod, I. p. 638. 
Euryanthe, Cham, et Schlecht. in Linn. 6. p. 225. 

Calyx 5-partitus, laciniis oblongis, subsqualibus, erectis, mar- 
ginibas imbricatis. Petala 5, obovata, tenera, fugacia^ a&sti- 
vatione contorta. Stamina indefinita, bypogyna. Filamenta 
libera, filiformia; alterius lateris fere duplo longiora et 
crassiora. Anther» basifixce, rectce, dorso et facie com- 
planatiCj biloculares^ loculis sub apice limula introrsa 
apertis. Ovarium ovatura, obtuse trigonum, triloculare, 
placentis axilibus multiovulatis. Stylus fistulosus, ore 

minutissime denticulato stigmaticus. Capsula 

Semina reniformia ; testa nitida, Isevi ; embryo. • • • 

Herbae Mezicanee et Novo-Granatenses, habitu Malvoideo ; e 
tubere crasso lignoso, superficie irregulari, corticoso, caulem 
humilem basi vix induratum,sub anthesi foliatum exserentes. 
Folia alterna, longe petiolata, ambitu cordato-orbicularia, 
digitato-partita, laciniis spathulatis, irregulariter subdupli- 
cato-serratis, pinnatim venosis ; stapuls lineares, deciduee. 
Racemi terminates, demum evolutione gemmae axillaris 
oppositifolii ; v. rarius pedunculi solitarii folio oppositi ? 
(DC.) Pedicelli secundi, sigmoideo-curvati, bracteati. Flores 
quani ei Cochlospermorum minores, speciosi, flavi, eos 
Bieberstenue odora referentes. 

1. Amoreuxia Schiedeana, (Tab. nostr. I. sub nomine A. 
palmadfidae.) — Euryanthe SchMedeana^ Cbam. et Schlecht, 
1. c. — Amoreuxia palniatifida, Planch, supra iu icon. L— an 
DC. ? — A. racemis paucifloris, pedunculis secuudis subsig- 
moideo-incurvis, ascendentibus. 

Uab. in Mexico, inter Marantial et Paso de Oveyaa. — 
Schiedcj ex Cham, et Schlecht. — ad Senora Alta, Dr. CouUer, 
n. 789 in herb. Hook, nee non in planitie Ibaguensi pro- 



OBSBRVATION8 8UR L^AMOREUXIAy &C. 141 

▼inciiB Mariquita, regni Novo-Oranatensis (stirps cujus 
figura hue prasstat.) Purdie in herb. Hook. 
Tab. I. Amcreuxia ScMedeana, Planch, (sub nom. A. patma- 
tifida,) Planta magnitudtne naturali, caulis parte superiore 
ab inferiore tuberi oblongo continua excisa;/. 1. Flos 
apertusi petalis ablatis; /. 2. Petaiam magnitodine na- 
tural!; /I 3. Staminum pars sunima amplificata; /• 4. 
I^stiUum I /. 5. Ovarii sectio transversa. 
2. Amoreuzia paimaiifida, Moo. et Sesse, ex DC. I. c. ; A. pe- 
danculia solitariis, unifloris^ oppositifoliis^ erectis, apice 
inflexis. 
H AB. in Agro Mexicano. — Hoc. et Se$se. — Rmz in herb. Lam- 
bert, ex DC. 

Obs. L'excellente description que Chamisso et Schlechten- 
dal ont donn^ de leur Euryanibe Schiedeana ni'avait permis 
d'y rapporter une plante de la Nouvelle Grenade ; determi- 
nation qui s'est pleinement confirmee par la vue de la m^me 
espece dans la collection mexicaine du docteur Coulter. Cette 
identity une foia bien constat^e, on pent douter si le caract^re 
d'inflorescence attribu^ k VAmoretmapalmatifida netient pas 
k F^tatJmparfiEtit des ^chantillons types de cette espece. 
J'avais d'abord r^solu la question dans ce sens, comme le 
pronve le nom iiiscrit au bas de la planche qui reprdsente 
VAmoreuxia ScMedeana. Je me decide pourtant & r^tracter 
ma premiere opinion, en attendant qu'on ait d^cid^, sur des 
preuves, le degr^ de confiance que m^ritent dans ce cas 
lea dessina in&lits qui ont servi de type k I'esp&ce originate. 

RoucHBRiA, gen. nov. 

Calyx 5-partitus, laciniis erectisj sBstivatione marginibua im- 
brtcatis. Petala 5 anguste obovata, flabellato-venosa, te- 
nera, fugada, sestivatione convoluta. Stamina 10, alter- 
natim breviora, inclusa ; filamentis complanato-subulatis, 
inferne in tubum connexis ; antheris ovatis, bilocularibus, 
locnlia rima introrsa dehiscentibus. Glandulea 10, lutes- 
oentes, in annulum substantive tubi staminei innatum 
confluentes. Ovarium ovatum, 3-5-locul|^, loci|lis sub 
apice anguli intemi 1 ?-2-ovulatis. Ovul^ 'anatro{)a, coi»> 



14f OBSBRTATION8 BUR l'aMORBUXXA, &e. 

lateralia, pendula. Styli 3-5, filiforoves. Stigmata cu- 
neato-biloba. Nucula sabexsuoca, 5 ▼. aboitu S-i-loeularis. 
Semina (immatara) compreaBa, perfecta forsan alata, in- 
versa. 

Frutices Guyanenses et ladici ! elegantes, glaberrimi. Folia 
alterna, distiche patentia, in petiolum angustata^ oblongo- 
lanceolata, obsolete y. conspicue glanduloso^serrulata; ja- 
niora, more EryihrosyU y. HumirUf in gemma nuda mar- 
gine utroque inyoluta, eyolutione semiperacta in longnm 
5-plicata, yemicoso-lucida, azillis resiniflois, marginibas 
glandulis minutissimis caducis obsitis. Nenri lateralea nunc 
innumeri, striiiormesy sibi inyicem paralleli, e neryo medio 
angulo fere recto patentes^ yersus marginem folii in nemi- 
lum midulatum.connezi^ nunc inter se magis distantes, alte- 
risque crassiascolia, rectis, tenuioribus^commixtis; interdam 
pauciores, cunrato-ascendentes, yenis transyerais coanezi* 
Stipalaa laterales, liberse, minutae, caducissimtt. Faaciculi 
axillares y. foliomm casu nudatij densissime contract!, inter 
ilores sessiles bracteolati ; rarius corymbuli in paniculam 
breyem terminalem coUecti, ramis compressis, hinc illinc 
con&rtiuseale diyisis: pedicelli breyes, cito ebracteati* 
Flores pallide flaiyi. 

I. Roucheria eahphylla, foliis oblongo-lanceolatis, acnte cut- 
pidatis, tenuissime serrolatts ; neryis lateralibus atriiformi- 
bus ; fascioulis flonira petiolo 2-5 lineari vix longioribns. 
(Tab. II.) 

Hab. In Guiana Anglica, CI. Sehomburgk, n. 988 in herb. 
Hook. 

Frutex y. arbor facie HumirU. Rami teretea^ epidermide 
l«yi, nigrescente, punctis y. striis yerticalibus albia ad- 
spersa. Hamuli distiche patentes, non raro fasciculum 
florum concomitantes. Fdia pulcharrima^ chartacea, sic- 
eitate nigrescenti-ienea, feransyerse seous nervulos £aailia, 
margine obsolete crispula et sub lente obtuse serrulata; 
bracteae minutse, sicut foHola calicis, tenuissime pubemlss ; 
styli numero yarii, ssepius 4-5. 

Tab. II. Ramus floridus magnitudine naturali. f. 1. Flores 
duo, altero inaperto, cum braoteolis calycem atipantibaa ; 



OBSBRVATIONS SUR L^AMORKUXIA^ &C. 143 

f. 2. Flos^ petalis ablatis ; /. 3. Staminum adelphia, pistillum 
indudena \ f.A. Ovarium casu (non raro) tristylum. 

2. R, Griffithiana ; foliis lanceolatis, abrupte acuminatis, ob- 
tuse seiratis; nervis secundariis paucis, arcuatis; fasci- 
culis paucifloris^ brevissimia, in axillis foliorum v. secus 
ramulos denudatos compreasos sessitibus; nuculis ovatis^ 
abortu unilocularibua, monospermia. rN 

Hab, In Indis superioris p^y. Khasya, inter 20o et 26<> ^ 
lat. bor. noD procul a radicibu^ontium Himalaya, Griffith 
in herb. Hook. ^6. ^ /^// ^^/ 

Banii adulti teretes; juniores compressi, stricti, patentes, 
epidennide tenuissima, alba, cito detersa, corticem leevem 
rubescentem nudante. Folia basi acuta, in petiolum gra- 
diem 3 lin. longum attenuata, 2-2| poll, longa, 10-14 lin. 
lata, supra nitida, fuscescentia, subtus pallidiora ; textura 
tenui sed rigida ; nervis utrinque prominulis. Axilke pe- 
tiolorura scspius resiniflues. Floras 7-8 in fasciculum ramo 
quasi semi-immersum conglobati. Petala angusta, fuga- 
dssima. Nucula ovata, piso minor, subdrupacea ; nucleo 
eztus verticaliter striato ; loculis 3-4 effoetis, unico semen 
oompressum (imperfecte evolutum) fovente. 

Sp.floribuB ignotiSi subdubia. 

5. Roncheria kumiri\folia ; foliis oblongis, in petiolum vix pol- 
licarem decurrentibus, breve acuminatis, margine crispulo 
obtuse serrulatis ; paniculis terminalibus, foli brevioribus, 
nunis oompresso-angulatis ; pedicellis brevissimis nodifor- 
mibos ; nuculis ovatis, nigro-coeruleis, multistriatis, calyci 
minuto persistenti insidentibus. 

Forms duo exstant^ prima: foliis apice obtusis, acumine 
brevi, abrupte complicato, sphacelato terminatis, utrinque 
pallidis. AUerai foliis in acumen longiusculum acutum 
aensim productis, subtus fuscis. * 

Has. In Cayenna, CL Martin, in herb. Hook. 

Fmtez T. arbor, fade Humiru Ouyanensis, Benth. Rami 
teretea^ infeme denudati. Folia sparsa, patentia, 3^-5 poll. 
longa, ]|-2 poll, lata, chartacea, nitida ; nervo medio supra 



144 OBSERVATIONS 8UR l/ABfORBUXlA» &C. 

impresso, subtus acute elevate ; lateralibus tenuibua, paten- 

tibusy fere rectis, inter se modice distantibus, aliifftenuissi- 

inisj striiformibas, eis parallele interjectis. Petioli limbi 

decurrentia infra medium marginati, supra canalicolati, 

ima basi rubescente resiniflui. Stipularum cicatrices 

punctiformes, albee. Paniculas vix 2-pollicaris rami 4-5, 

a basi distincti, stjicti, compressi^ hinc inde ramulos 

iterum confertiuscule divisos emittentes. Pedicelli brevis- 

simi, cylindraceo-nodiformes, strato carnosulo obsokte 

costato corticati. Lacinise calycinae (sub fructu) in cupu- 

1am rotatam dispositee, basi marginibus imbrieat«e, vix I 

lin. longSj subrotundsB, obtussB, cereaceee, hyaline, pel- 

lucidopunctat€B / Nucula subbaccata, magnitudine grani 

piperisy apice stylulis 5 ad basim distinctis coronata; 

nucleo dure, l-5-locu1are» septis tenuibus, completis. Se- 

mina in loculo singulo 2, pendula^ immatura lateribus 

<x>mpressissima, perfecta verosimiliter in alam expansa. 

Je desire attacher a ces belles plantes Ic nom d'un compa- 

triote, I'auteur infortun^ du po^me des Mois. A une epoque 

ou la vertu ^tait un titre pour P^chafaud, Roucher trou- 

vait dans les fleurs que lui apportait sa fille, un soulage- 

ment aux horreurs d'un cachot r^volutionnaire. C'est un 

droit ch&rement acquis, d'entrer dans le cercle des adeptes 

de Flore, k c6t6 de Tinimitable Jean-Jacques et da trop 

r^veur, mais sensible et po^tique auteur des Etudes de la 

Nature. 

LoBBiA, gen. nov. 

Flores hermaphroditi. Perianthii tubus gracilis, tetragonus, 
ovario adhierens ; limbus urceolato-campanulatus, regularise 
basi intrusus, parte infera semi-globosa, fauce annulo pro- 

' minulo limitata ; supera latiore, triloba, lobis breviiius, latis, 
sestivatione valvatis. Stamina 1(>-18, circa styli brevis 
basim inserta, obscure biseriata. Filamenta a basi libera, 
crassiuscula, stigmatibus breviora. Antherae oblongse, bi- 
loculares; loculis dorso connectivi fdamento plane con- 



OB8KRVATION8 «UR l'aMOBBUXIA, &C. 145 

tinni adnati, r i verticali extrorisam dehiscentes. Stylus 
supra basim crassam, abbreyiatam, in ambitu staminiferam, 
in crures 5-6| subuUtas^ staminibus longiores, apioe stig- 
maticas ? diTisas. Ovaiium lineare, utrinqae atteauatum^ 
obsolete 4-sulcBm, 4-localare. Ovula anatrop^^ in loculo 
qaoque uniseriata, adscendentia, versas medium septi (nee 
angolo interne locttli) affixa ; seriebus aaymmetrice diapo- 
sitis : nempe 2 locoloram adjaoentium sibi invioem oppo- 
titis, 2 contra in loculis adjacentibus sibi paraUelis* Fmo- 
tos • • • • veroaimiliter capsula 4-Taiyis at iii Braganiia. 
Fnitex habitu piperaceo, scandens, sarmentosus, glaberrimus. 
Rami teretes, laeves, meduUosi : ramuli inter folia subge- 
nicolato-flexnosi. Folia disticha, brevissime petiolata^ exsti- 
pulata, oblonga, acute cuspidata, mucronulata, chartacea, 
siccitate fragilia, obscure triplinervia, ceeterum laxe penm* 
nervia, inter nenros secundarios arcuato-adscendentes reti- 
culata. Spicee p sarmentis, ad cicatrices veterum foliorum^ 
dependentes^ vix 2-pollicare83 rachi compressa, subdilatata, 
isrebre flexuosa; bracteaslineares, breves, ad latas alteram 
floris subsessilis solitarin. Ovarium Junius pedicellum 
nmolans^ periantbii limbum brunneo-rubentem, nervosum^ 
subsequans. 
Sp« unioaoi qu» : Lobbia dependem (Tab. III.) in insula 
Singapore leg. d. Thorn. Lobb. Sice, in herb. Hook, sub 
n« 289 ooll. Lobbian®. 

Le nom de oette remarquable plante rappellera les deux 
frires William et Thomas Lobb, dont le z^le infatigable 
a enrichi les serres de M. Veitch eomme I'herbier de Sir W. 
Hooker de plantes dont la science aura son profit M. 
William Lobb a ^tendu ses recherches depuis Rio de Janeiro 
ju&qu'i Buenos Ayres, de Ul au sud du Chili et Chilo^, 
enfin dans la plus grande partie de la Colombie jusqu'i 
ies limites septentrionales. M. Thomas Lobb, de son c6t^, 
a lev£ sur la v^g^tation de Singapore et de Java un tribut 
dont on pourra juger la richesse par la lisle d'une partie 
de les plantes qui sera continue dans ce Journal, et mieux 

VOL. VI. M 



146 ON THE ECONOMY OP TH|B 

encore par lea beaux sujets que plusieurs d'entr^elles out 

d^ji foumi au Botanical Magazine et au B. Register* 

Quant aux affinit^s de la plante, je dois me bomer ici, par 

lea ndsons avanc^es plus haut^ a indiquer ses rapports in* 

times avec te Bragantia et le Thottea. 

Tab. III. ezplan. Sarmenti floriferi pars^ ramulique foliati 
fractio, magnitudine naturali. J^. 1. Flos vix ac ne vix 
amplificatus; /• 2. Idem sectione laterali apertus;/. S. 
Stylus (incuria pictoris seriam unicam cicatricum inser- 
tionis staminum exhibens) ; /. 4. Sectio transversa ovarii ; 
/. 5. Eadem verticaliter secta. 



091 the Economy of the Boots of Thbsium linophvllum ; 
by William Mitten^ Esq. 

{WUh a Plate, Tab. IV.) 

The remarkable nature of the root of Theeium linqphylbtm 
has apparently hitherto altogether escaped attention. Indeed, 
from the general appearance of the plant, there is nothing 
to excite suspicion ; nor will there be any trace left of its 
parasitical attachment to the roots of surrounding plants ; 
unless the roots are taken up with the greatest care. The 
very brittle roots of the TTieeium itself, and the closely inter- 
woven roots of the many plants which compose the turf 
of the chalk hills, render the extrication of a perfect specimen 
a labour requiring no small degree of patience. The root of 
Thesiumf after descending into the turf for about an inch, 
becomes repeatedly divided, and spreads for many inches in 
various directions; it is nearly white, and thus contrasts 
strongly with the dark epidermis ofthe roots of the generality 
of its supporters. On coming in contact with the root of its 
future support the root of TTierium produces a hemisphs* 
rical tubercle, which firmly fixes itself; while from its centre 
protrudes a tongue-like process (spongiole) which penetrates 



ROOTS OF THBSIUM LINOPHYLLUM. 14/ 

into the y^ry heart of its supporter^ often causing very con- 
siderable derangement in its tissues* After the perfection of 
the first tubercle^ the root is continued from the side of the 
tubercle^ so as to give it the appearance of having be^a 
formed laterally, and proceeds at greater or less intervals to 
form more tubercles in the same manner on the same or 
neighbouring roots. On the larger roots of its supporters 
k is not usual to find more than one or two tubercles ; and 
these are mostly large : the largest I have seen being about 
the eighth of an inch in diameter; but on the fibrous roots 
of grasses and other small plants they are very small, and 
may be frequently found succeeding each other so quickly as 
to resemble a small string of beads« 

like Cuscuia, our species of Therium appears to be by no 
means particular in the selection of its supporters ; and I 
have ascertained its attachment to the roots of the following 
plants, vis. : ArUhyUis vubieraria, Thymua SevyfyUum, Lotus 
cormculatuif Daucus Carotaf Scab%o$a sucdaa, Carex glauca^ 
and some grasses : it is probable that a single plant of Therium 
sabsists, at the same time, on the roots of the whole of the 
plants above enumerated. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Borrer I have been able to 
examine the specimens published in Reichenbach's Flora 
E»riccaia\ and I find the roots of Therium aiptnum^ Linn., 
T. ebradeaiumy Hayne, T. roiiratum^ Koch, and T. linophyl* 
htm^ linn., to have precisely the same structure as that of 
our own species. Unfortunately the roots of the other 
species contained in this collection were too imperfect to 
afford any information ; but from the very close relationship 
of all the European species, there is good ground to infer 
that they are all of the same parasitical nature. It is how- 
ever very probable that some species will be found to grow 
only in the society of certain plants, or to have a preference 
for one in particular. I mention the T. UnophyUum^ Linn., 
contained in the Fiora Exriecaia^ on account of its different 
aspect from any specimens I have gathered. It is probable 
that the Linnssan T. Unophyllum contained more dian one 

M 2 



148 NEW LICHENS. 

species ; and hence may have arisen some conftision. Our 
own species I suppose to correspond with the T.tfi/ermddiiaMy 
Schrad. of Koch's Synopsis ; and with the var. fi,/iMfea 
there described. Some of the specimens agree. 

Although in its full-grown state Theswm linqpkjflbm is 
evidently parasitical, it presents several diaracters at variance 
with those required by a true parasite ; and at the conclusion 
of some experiments in which I am at present engaged, I 
hope to make some addition to its history as well as to 
that of Cuacuta, 

Tab. IV. Fig I. represents the root of TTiesium UnopkyBum 
attached 'to the roots of its supporters; /• 2. A MghUg 
magnified tubercle attached to a large root; / S. A longi- 
tudinal section of a tubercle, shewing the spongiole inserted 
into the root of Lotus camicuUUus; magnified^ /. 4. A 
transverse section of the same parts ; mf^pi^ied. 



New Lichens, principally from the Herbarium of Sib 
William J. Hooker; by Thomas Taylor^ M.D. 

Lecidba, Achn 

1. L. crystalli/era, Tayl. ; crusta cornea, squamosa, concava, 
cinerascenti, solidangulato-rimosa, subtus nigrescenti ; apo- 
theciis majoribus, substipitatis, atro-glaucescentibus, mar* 
ginem tenuem demum excludentibus. 

Hab. On sandy clay ; Swan River ; Mr. James Drummond. 
^-Scales crowded, their surface composed of semipellucid, 
very pale brown, solid- angular pieces ; beneath there is a 
layer of greenish granules, resting on a layer of snow-white, 
dense matter, which likewise rising up in certain spots, 
forms the obconical stipes of the apothecium. Disk of the 
apothecia dark and glaucous : lamina pale brown, vertically 
striated. In very young apothecia the white substance 
appears as a thin border. The thallus is unlike that of 
any of the Lepidoma of Acharius. 



NBW LTCHBNB. 149 

2. L. fflaucOf Tayl.; thallo granulate, gfanulis majoribus, 
confertis, subrotundis, subrugosis. albis; apotheciis atris, 
oonveziusculis^ subconfluentibus, disco pruinosOj margine 
undulato, nigerrimo, demum excluso. 

Hab. Swan River; on clay; Mr. James Drummond, — ^The 
grains of tbe thallus are tumid, subangulate^ but scarcely 
lobate. A vertical section of the apothecium shews a thin 
pellucid lamina which is striated ; the disc beset with dark 
points, the emerging summits of the thecse, and the lamina 
resting on a thick layer of black matter. This is princi- 
pally distinguished from L. confluenSj Ach. by the more 
rotundate and convex thaltodal scales, as well as by the 
absence of any black substratum. 

9. L. mttliijlora, Tayl.; thallo granulato, granulis minutis* 
simis, confertis, subrotundis, tumidis, subrugosis, albidis, 
demum in gemmas pulveraceas, fusco^olivaceas erumpen- 
tibus ; apothedis minutis, aggregatis, subsessilibus, sicci- 
tate atris, madore rufo-fuscescentibus, disco scabro, con- 
vexo, margine crasso, vix elevato. 

Hab. On bark; Swan River; Mr. James Drummond. — 
Thallus extended, creeping, without any distinct border, 
when dry of so dark an olive colour that the apothecia are 
not to be distinguished by the naked eye: the young 
thallus whitish. A vertical section of the lamina shows 
under a dark primrose disc a rather thick, striated ru- 
iesoent layer resting on whitish cortical matter of the 
thallos. L. seabrosa, Ach., is larger in all its parts, and 
has very conspicuous apothecia, whose lamina is bluish and 
rests on brown matter. 

4« L. /o/m/ui, Tayl. ; thallo subtus nigro-tomentoso, squa- 
muloso, squamis sparsis, citrinis aurantiacisque lobatis, 
lobis minutissimis ; apotheciis rubro-aurantiacis, siccitate 
concavis, urceolatis, madore convexiusculis, margine tenui, 
pallidiori, undulato crenatoque. 

Hab. On rocks ; Swan River ; Mr. James Drummond.-^ThiB 
diffisrs from Leeanora elegans^ Aoh., by its tomentose in- 



150 NEW LICHENS. 

ferior surface. The apothecia are much larger than the 
thallodal scales. 

5r L. humigefMy Tayl.; thalli substrato cuticuloso, gelatinosp, 
albido; verrucis sparsis, subhaBmisphericis, minutissiine 
tubercttlatis, fiiscis ; gemneiis granulatisi confertis, minutis, 
oblongis, subangularibus ; apotheciis virescenttbusy hmni- 
phericiSf subpellucidis^ pallide bninneis, immarg^natb, disco 
scabrido. 

H AB. On wet clay banks ; Dunkerron ; County of Kerry. — 
Patches two inches wide, to the naked eye of an obscure 
green. Warts exteriorly shining and dark brown, interiorly 
pale and pellucid, very rugged, with opaque prominences, 
which are larger than the buds. Disc of the apothecia 
subrugose, pellucid, the lamina rather shallow, very pel- 
lucid, strongly striated, resting on pale brown pellucid 
cellular matter. This can scarcely be confounded with 
L. vemalis^ Ach. On a gelatinous substratum are fixed 
both the warts and the buds^ also unconnected, either 
of them, the apothecia. These, again, are without any 
margin ; indeed without any distinct tunic to contain 
the lamina. 

6. L. icterica^ Tayl. ; thaUo pulverulento, citrino, tenuissimo, 
demum nigricante, substrato albo ; apotheciis numerosis, 
minutis, sparsis, vitellinis, disco convexiusculo, mar;pne 
pallidiori, integro. 

Hab. On limestone; Dunkerron; county of Kerry. — ^Thallua 
conspicuous in pale yellow, soft, thin, powdery patches 
one or two inches wide ; apothecia scarcely visible to the 
naked eye. Approaches to Lichen erythreUuSf EngL Bot. ; 
the thallus, however, is much thinner, more powdery, of a 
livelier yellow colour, and is bordered by the white pro- 
jecting substratum ; the apothecia are always more minute. 
Watched for more than twenty years, it is true to the 
above characters. 

7* L. Kaleiday TayL; thalli substrato tenui atro, squamis 
minutis, planis, subrotundis, sublobatis, virescentibus, sub- 



NBW LICHENS. 151 

proinosb ; apotheciis immersis^ disco nigro-pruiaoso, mar- 
gine tcnui) demum obsoleto. 
Hab. On transition rocks facing the south; Dunkerron, 
Coonty of Kerry.— Patches two inches or more wide; 
when wet the substratum and scales become very distinct; 
when dry appearing as a confused dusky greenish-grey 
powder. The scales on which the apothecta are fixed are 
by far the largest. Dissection shews beneath a browish- 
black disc a shallow semipellucidj striated brown lamina^ 
resting on much opaque brown matter. 

8. L. endochkraj Tayl. ; thalli squamis confertis, incrassatis^ 
angulato-rotundatiSf demum conyexis, albis, intus viridi- 
flavicantibusj marginatis, periphericis radiato-lobatis ; apo- 
theciis sessilibus^ minutis, disco rufescenti^ margine pal* 
lidiori« demum excluso. 

Hab. On sand ; Mendoza ; Gillies, Hook. herb. — Scales 
crowded, minute, white except where the cuticle is abraded, 
where they are yellowish-green. Lamina reddish-brown, 
paler than the disc This species would rank among the 
Psora of Hoffmann. 

9. L« emergens, Tayl.; crusta tenui, leproso-membranacea, 
pallide rufescenti-lutea, verrucis minutissimis albidis con- 
spersa, nigro-limitata ; apotheciis confertis, erumpentibus, 
planis, nigro-pruinosis, intus albidis, margine aterrimo, 
flexuoso, subintegerrimo. 

Hab. On bark; St. Vincent; Rev. L. Guilding, Hook. herb. — 
Thallus 2-3 inches wide, thin as cuticle. Disc of the 
apothecia pruinose and black, while the lamina, which 
is white, presents here and there blackish, erect, parallel 
thecal. — L. albi-ccerulescens, Ach. has a whitish and tar- 
tareous crust. 

10. L. MaurUiana, Tayl. ; squamis imbricatis atque confiuen- 
tibus, subrotundis, minutis, margine lobatis crenatisque, 
flaTo-olivaceis, subtus albo-fibrillosis, demum atro-spon- 
giosis ; apotheciis interstialibus, quam squamis majoribus, 
convexiB, lutescenti-fuscis, subimmarginatis. 

Hab.*— On bark; Mauritius; Hook. A^rft. •— Patches 1-2 



152 NSW laCHBNfl. 

inches widoj yellowish-ash coloured, unaltered by moisture. 
The naseent scale is at first subrotund, and sends out from 
beneath on all sides white fibres in a stellate manner $ at 
length the scale becomes crenate, then incised and effigu- 
rate at the margin. The patch rests on a thick cushion of 
dark interlacing fibres. Young apothecia are sometimes 
seen growing on the disc9 of the aged ones. Liamina Tery 
shallow and transparent ; through it is seen tlie colouring 
matter of the apothecium, lying beneath in a dense layer, 
and even extending downwards at the centrej and forming 
a kind of stipes. 

Calicium, Ach. 

I. C glabeUum, Tayl. ; thallo tenui, leproso. rimoso, albis- 
simo ; apotheciis stipitum apicibus immersis, disco prui- 
noso, stipitibus fasciculatis, subulatis, leevigatis, rigidis, 
aterrimis, subdecurvis. 

Hab. — On rotten wood; Bear Lake, North America j BfcA- 
ardson. Hook. herb. — Patches several inches wide, conspi- 
cuously white ; thallus filmy, closely investing, here and 
there in flattened elevations. The substeliate fasciculi of 
footstalks usually follow the course of some chink, and are 
. visible to the naked eye ; their tops, when closely in- 
spected, contain immersed the minute apothecia. This 
approaches nearest to C. proboscidcUe, Ach., whose thallus, 
however, is of an ash colour and more floccose, while the 
apothecia are turbinate. The Calicia probably might be 
more naturally placed among the Fungi than the Lichens. 

Graphis, Ach. 

1. Q. anguiUdtformiSf TayL; thallo tenui, membranaoeoj al- 
bido, continue, Isvigato, ruguloso, obscure nigro-limitato ; 
apotheciis sparsis elevato-sessilibus, subsimplicibus, elon- 
gatis, flexuosis, disco atro, rimeeformi, margine thallode 
albissimo, subinflexo. 

Hab. On trees ; St. Vincent's ^ Hook. herb. — Thallus soooe- 



NBW LIGHSN8. 153 

what shining. Lirellie nearly four iihes long, rather ob- 
tuse at each end, and twisted as eels in motion ; they are 
by no means immersed, according to the generic character 
of Acharios. 

Vbrrucarui, Ach. 

\. V. csperat TayL ; thallo illimitato, tartareo, areolato, 
areokurum maif;inibus elevatis, nigro^minosoi siccitate 
atro, madore fosco; apotheciis plurimiSyimmersis, apicibus 
minutia, glabris, aterrimia, poro inconspicuo. 

Hab. On rocks facing the south; Dunkerron, County of 
Kerry.^-Patches often four inches wide, at a distance 
resembling a coarse black powder. Thallus, by transmitted 
light in water, appears a greenish-olive membrane covered 
with coarse black pruina, while the tops of the apothecia be* 
come conspicuously black. The black perithecium passes 
beneath the globose, pale, gelatinous nucleus. In Verrucaria 
Maura^ Ach« the thallus is composed beneath of thick, 
Uack, tartareous matter; besides the apothecia have their 
summits larger, flatter, and not contrastedly black in the 
wet state. 

2. y. imbriday TayL ; ihallo illimitato, tenui, tartareo, eequa- 
bili, rimoso, fiisco-nigricante, madore subolivaceo, sublu- 
ddo ; apotheciis minutis> immersis, poro latiori, marginato, 
nucleo pallide olivaoeo. 

Hab. On smooth rocks near the spray of waterfalls; county 
of Kerry.^Patches seldom two inches wide, thin and lying 
dose to the rook. Thallus smooth, with the lustre of the 
fracture of charcoal ; when wet appearing soft and brownish- 
olive, when dry of a purplish black. Apothecia not distinct 
to the naked eye. The thallus bruised in water shews a 
reddish layer near to the surface. Perithecium pellucid, 
reddish-brown ; there is besides an opaque covering from 
the thallus. 

S. y. mitloMpwa^ TayL ; thallo illimitato, vemicis tartareis, 
minutis conlertis atque confluentibus, albidis, planiusoulis. 



154 NEW LICHENS. 

siodtate sttbrimosis, fuscescentibuB; apothedis plarimuy 
sparsisy basi sabimmersis^ atris, submamillatis. 
Hab. On wet mural rocks, Carig Mountain; County of 
Kerry. — Patches six inches wide. Thallus under water 
▼ery white ; under the lens a sordid greenish hue is here 
and there perceptible. The surface is wrinkled into white 
flattish confluent ridges. Apothecia various in sise, their 
tops often flattened and irregular^ dimpled or globoio- 
conical. The shell is thick, black, opaque and arched o^er 
the nucleus, which b dark from containing numerous 
ovate, opaque, reticulated, separate or clustered thecs; 
besides, the nucleus contains semipellucid subcylindrical 
bodies, mueh longer and larger, without any reticulationi, 
but studded with minute pores. Such, perhaps, are the 
male flowers. This species is allied to Y . gemmtfera, TayL : 
the surface of the thallus, however, is more uneven, there 
is no limit to the patch ; and the apothecia are far larger ; 
while the shell is deficient below the nucleus. 

4. y. rhodoaiictay Tayl. ; thallo subtartareo, tenui, verrucoso, 
verrucis hie illic aggregatis, siccitate purpureo-nigris, ma- 
dore subgelatinosis, rufescentibus, minute corrugatis ; apo- 
theciis sparsis, subglobosis, scabridis, concoloribus. 

Hab. On wet rocks, near Sheen Bridge ; County of Kerry. 
— ^When moistened, the warts appear as rose-brown opaque 
cells connected by a thin substance of a paler colour, lying 
on a layer of pale greenish matter. Pores large. The peri- 
thecium is homogeneous with the warts ; the nucleus very 
pale reddish-brown, gelatinous and striated. It is allied 
to our y . imbrida. 

5. y. lUtoralis, Tayl.; thallo olivaceo-limitato, subtartareo, 
tenui, Isvigato, subcontinuo, rufescenti-atro-purpureo, ma- 
dore subgelatinoso, pellucido; apotheciis minutissimiB,im- 
mersis, subconfertis, porosis. 

Hab. yery common on the sea-shore, on rocks and stones 
wetted by the tide ; Ireland. — Patches sometimes several 
yards in extent Thallus smooth^ sUppery, very thin. Pores 



NBW LICHENS. 155 

of theapotbeciawith an elevated border : there is no second 
perithecium passing beneath the nucleus, which is gelati- 
nous, pale, oblong-spheroidy studded with opaque points 
among which oblong bodies occur. Probably the minute- 
ness of the apothecia have caused this very common Lichen 
to remain unrecognised. 

Endooarpon, Hedung. 

1. B. WightHj Tayt.; thallo crustaceo, tenui, contiguo, ci- 
nereo-virescentiy margine depresso, albidiori ; ostiolis spar- 
sis, depressis, thalli albis, perithecii nigris marginatis, 
nudeo-hyalino, thecis nigris. 

Hab. Madras, Dr. Wight^ Hook. herb. — ^Thallus spreading 
as a continuous, uneven crust, two or three inches in 
diameter; moistened, the surface presents minute, thickly 
set, oblong, green granules; when the thallus is broken 
and beneath the apothecia minute blood-red particles are ob- 
servable. The nucleus issues as a narrow scariose neck 
out of the black marginate pore, which again is surrounded 
by a circular ring of white thallus. This species has some 
resemblance to V. epigeia, Ach., but has neither the sub- 
fibrose thallus, or prominent apothecia of the latter. 

2. K.peltaium, Tayl.; thaUo comeo, foliaceo, orbiculari, pel- 
tate, flavescenti-cinereo, bibulo, areolato, areolis subro- 
tundis, madore minute rugosis, contiguis, subtus atro- 
lanuginoso, margine recurvo, integro demum diffiracto; 
apotheciis sparsis, nucleo immerso lamina nigra emergente 
tecto. 

Hab. Near Zwartkop River; Cape of Good Hope ; Zeyher, 
Hook. A^rft.— ThaUus in contiguous scales, more than one 
inch wide, fixed down by the centre, above which it is 
concave, but with recurved margins; fawn-coloured, un- 
altered by moisture. The apolliecia are few, have no 
aperture above, but a black, slightly convex layer, covering 
a roundish transparent nucleus as in the figures in Acha- 
ritts's lAch. Univ. of a Sagedia. The colour and areolate 
thallus keep this species distinct from E. mfitio/iim, Ach. 



156 NBW LICHENS. 

3, K speireum, TayL; thallo aggregator cartUagineo, peltato, 
rotundato, undulato^ sublobato^ demum convexo, marg^e 
albidoy integro, obscure carneo, Ifevi^ subtos concolori, la- 
nugiaoso i apotheciis submarginalibus, globosis, atns^ basi 
aubimmersis. 

Hab. On the grotmd; Bashman'scountry^Capeof Good Hope; 
Zeyher, Hook. herb. — ^Thallus nearly three lines in diameter ; 
when dry concave; tumid and flesh-coloured when rtioist- 
ened« A vertical section shews beneath a pruinose surface a 
brick-coloured layer, supported on a shallower one of a 
green parenchymatous substance resting on a white cati- 
cular substratum. The apothecia depart from the generic 
character of Acharius, by being without pores and scarcely 
immersed; they consist of a dense blackish perithecium 
containing a hollow semitransparent, brown nucleus^ whose 
centre is filled with opaque whitish matter. The roots are 
remarkable, bdng often four lines long, whitish, the main 
ones thick and acuminate, densely covered with branched, 
excessively fine colourless fibrils. It is somewhat allied 
to the following. It is perhaps Lichen incamaiuSy Thun- 
berg, which Acharius makes Psora dec^iens^ Hoffm. 

4. E. crenahun^ Tayl. ; thallo aggregato, rotundato, cartila- 
gineo, oonvexiusculo, peltato, rufescenti-cameo, pruinoso, 
margine albido, crenato, subtus ooncolori; apotheciis 
marginalibus, confertis, majoribus, semi-immersisi^^rufo- 
cameis. 

Hab. On the ground, near the Salt-pan of the Zwartkop 
River, Uitenhage; Zeyher^ Hook. herb. — ^Thallus scarcely 
two lines wide; the margins raised and firee, white bcK 
neath ; no green parenchymatous matter is observable in the 
layers. Apothecia flattish, half-immersed, covered with a 
reddish-brown pruina; the lamina semitransparent, pale 
brown, resting on a red shallow layer, the entire supported 
by the cuticular portion. Roote as in the preceding, to 
which it is allied, and so recedes from the generic character 
of Endocwrpon : the colour of the orbicular concave thallus 
is similar; bat the border of the present species is crenate; 



NBW LIGHBNI. 157 

and the apotheda are not black, not so sphericali nor so 
much raised above the thallus. 

Trypethblium, Ach. 

1« T. bUeum, TayL ; squamis tamidis, luteis, oblongo-rotan- 
datis, demum confluentibus, convexis; substrate atro, in- 
terstiali, elevato, gemmas albidas granulatas ferente ; ver- 
ncM tenuibus lutescentibus ; apotheciis elevatis, solitariis 
binisye, atris, poro latiori. 

Hab. On bark ; Madras ; Dr. Wight^ Hook, herb- — Patches 
nearly two inches wide. Scales when dry of a tawney ash 
colour, when wet deep tawney, rather evenly scattered : in 
the interstices black tartareous matter rises above the level 
of the scales. The stroma or covering of the perithecium 
is thiui tawney, sometimes disappearing by age : the hard 
black perithecium surrounds the pale gelatinous nucleus. 
To this species the white granular buds on the interstitial 
matter seem peculiar. 

2. T. bicolor^ Tayl. ; crusta pallide lutescenti, tenui, continua, 
inoquali; verrucis subprominentibus, angustis, flexuosis, 
Gonfluentibus, pruinosis, rufesoenti-brunneis, albido-limi- 
tatis ; ostiolis minutis, crebris, subemergentibus, atris. 

Hab. On bark; Howison's Foort, near Graham's Town; 
Zeyher^ Hook. herb. — Patches wide. Crust very thin, with 
numerous evenly scattered smooth convex elevations, in 
the hollows of which the warts occur of a purpUsh-fawn 
colour. Perithecium black, enclosing the pale gelatinous 
nucleus : this exhibits under ^ lens aggregate filiform 
▼easels, among which are some much wider, containing 
numerous colourless, contiguous, spherical sporules. By 
the depressed warts it is allied to T. poromm^ Ach. ; but 
the colour of the crust, different firom that of the verruc88, 
and these last, more elongated and flexuose, easily distin- 
guish our species. 

Variola Ri A, Ach. 
1. Y. cameap Tayl. ; crusta tenui, cinereo-alba, nigro-limi- 



158 NKW LICHBNB. 

tata, minutissime granulata, granulis oonveKiuscUlis, ra- 
gosis, demum erumpentibus ; apotheciis convexis, immar- 
ginatis, pruina alba crassa tectis, disco carneo. 
Hab. On bark; Brazil; Hook. herb. — ^Thallus about two 
inches wide, whitish ash- coloured, not altered by moisture; 
but the discs of the apothecia when wetted assume a 
deeper colour. The surface of the thallus is minutely 
wrinkled or covered with contiguous flattish granules, 
which sometimes bursting at their tops, emit buds in the 
form of a whitish powder. Apothecia of the size of poppy 
seeds, at first covered with a coarse white powder* 

Urcbolaria, Ach. 

1. U. cUrinay Tayl.; hypothallo atro; thallo citrino, squamis 
subrotundis, compressis, sublobatis, minutis ; apotheciis 
immersis, punctiformibus, angulatis, pallidioribus, immar- 
ginatis, subconfluentibus. 

Hab. On rocks, Swan River ; Mr. James Drummond. — 
Patches of crowded scales several inches wide : tlie black 
tartareous substratum rising up in the interstices of the 
scales. In most respects allied to U. Acharii, Ach.; but 
the colour is that of Lecanora ciirinay Ach. Apothecia, soli* 
tary or two together, contorted, occar on each fertile scale. 

2. U. tessellataf Tayl.; hypothallo atro, sparse, crusta ri- 
moso-areolata, subverrucosa, rubella, areolis planis, lesvibus, 
intus flavescentibus ; apotheciis minutis, lamina proligera 
demum ezserta, eonvexiuscula, pallide citrina, margine 
subintegerrimo. 

Hab. On quartz rock ; Swan River ; Mr. James Drummond. 
— Patches wide, closely investing. The areolss may be 
considered crowded flattish warts ; whose margins when 
moistened appear subcrenate; the colour is deep brick* 
red. The thallodal coloured part of the apothecium does 
not pass beneath the lamina. Differs from U. diamortoj 
Ach., by the more orange colour of the thallus and the 
discs of the apothecia being pale yellow, not black. 



NBW LICHBN8. 159 



LSOANORA, Aeh. 



1. L. vigUanBj Tayl.; crasta tartarea, tenui, rugulosa, alba, 
nigro-limitata ; gemmis minatissime granulatis ; apotheciis 
sparais, majoribas, conyexisi disco rufescenti, pniinoso, in- 
tas fuaoo-albidis, margine incrasaato integerrirooi subun- 
dnlato, rufo-cinereo. 

Hab. On bark, Mauritius. Casapi, Peru ; Mathews^ Hook, 
herb. — Patches 1-2 inches wide; thallus thin, assuming 
the irregular surface of the bark on which it grows. 
The buds are minute granules, sometimes tipped with 
brown. Apothecia a little larger than tumep-seed. A 
Tertical section shews a thin dark layer interposed between 
the lamina and white thallodal matter. The black limit to 
the crust, the entire border of the apothecia, and the 
minute granular buds distinguish this species from L. sub- 
fuicoj Ach. 

2. L. fmllejfrana, Tayl.; thalli tartarei granulis confertis, 
planittsculis, subconfluentibus, albido-olivaceis, madore 
Tirescentibus, rainutissimis, inaequalibus ; apotheciis minu- 
tis, oonvexis, aggregatis, disco rufescenti, pruinoso, intus 
albidis, margine pallide fusco, integerrimo. 

Hab. No. 589. On trees ; Buenos Ayres ; Tweedie, Hook, 
herb. — Patch 1-2 inches wide, without any distinct 
border, obscurely pale olive-green, very rough ; granules 
scarcely lobate. ApoUiecia when moistened dark brownish- 
red, interiorly very pale brown. This differs from a moun- 
tain variety of L. tubfuaca, Ach. common in Ireland, by 
the entire border of the apothecia and the crowded tumid 
granules of the thallus. It, perhaps, may be considered 
a Biatora of Acharius. 

S. L. ^ipkora^ Tayl. ; thallo cartilagineo, areolato-riraoso, 
rogoso, albido-cinereo, nigro-limitato ; gemmis minutis, 
granulatis, demum pulverem flavicantem emittentibus; 
apotheciis prolifero-conglomeratis, disco piano, scabro, 
aorantiaoo, margine thallode demum crenulato, gemmi- 
fero. 



160 NSW LICHBNS. 

Hab. On bark ; St. Vincent's ; Rev. L. Otdldingf Hook. herb. 
— Thallus 2 or 3 inches wide, very thin, whitish but with 
a yellow hue from the powder of the buds. Aged apothecia 
frequently proliferous. Beneath a disk of dusky orange 
pruina is a transparent and colourless lamina, resting on 
whitish cortical matter. This may be known from LeeUea 
aurantiacay Ach., by the thallodal border of the apotbeda, 
and by the yellow buds on the surface of the thallus, and 
on the margins of the apothecta. 

4. L. bibula, TayL; hypothallo albo, filaroentoso, implexo; 
thaUi granulis subvillosisy subrotundis, planiusculis, con* 
fertis, pallidissime virentibus; apotheciis sparsis, fusoo- 
rufisi demum oonvezis, maigine thallode tenuiaaimoj 
evanescente* 

Hab. 1648. On bark; Juan Femandex; Hook^ herb. — 
Patches 2 or 3 inches wide ; readily imbibing water ; when 
the thallus swells, the granules have very minute lobes. 
The lamina is very shallow and transparent, resting upon 
much brownish-red matter which gives the colour to the 
apotheda. 

5. L. eomminuta, Tayl. ; thailo disperso, squamis minotis- 
simis, rotundatis, confertis, convexis, subint^errimis, 
pallide sulphureis ; hypothallo tenui, atro ; apotheciis qoam 
thalli squamis majoribus, disco convexiusculo, nigro- 
pruinoso, margine subundulato, integerrimo. 

Hab. On rocks ; Dunkerron, county of Kerry. — Patches two 
inches wide, to the naked eye appearing as the fine powder 
of sulphur scattered on a blackish ground : the colour is 
not altered by moisture : under a- lens the round scales are 
distinct It may be known from L. iniricaia, Ach«, by 
its more dispersed substratum, by the far minuter scales, 
by the convex disk of the apothecia ; and principally by 
the diameter far exceeding that of the thallodal scales. 
This is the variety /3. comminuta of L. miricaia in Fhra 
Htbemica. 

6. L. Dvummandii, Tayl.; thailo granulato-lobato, citrine^ 
pruinoso, lobis brevissimis, concretis, subradiantibiis. 



New LICHRNS. 161 

tamidis, margine decuiris; hypothallo nigrictnte; gemmis 
oaiDntisainiis, granulatis, coBColoribus ; apotheciis inter- 
•tilialibus, majoribus, olivaceo-carneis, planiuaculis^ flexU'- 
onsy margme demHBi creHnlato, albido. 

Hab. On rocks; Swan River; Mr. J. Dnimmoiuf. «— Scales 
agpr^ate, as in L^julyensy Ach. The old thallus becomes 
palTercdent, and whitish. Disks of the apothecia, when 
moistened, greenish. From h./tilgen8, Ach., ours differ 
by tiie minuter thallus, the black substratum and the 
apothecia occurring in the interstices of the scales, being 
too of a greater size and more olvve colour. 

7* L. erytkrosiicUit TayL ; tballo illimitato, leproso, albido, 
demum nigricante ; apotheciis eonfertis, oonveziusculis, 
deroum imraarginatis, saturate aurantiacisi gemmis pulve- 
raeeo-granulatis, eoncoloribus. 

Hab. On bark; Swan River; Mr. James Drummond. — 
Fstches 5 — 6 inches wide ; thallus very thin. Buds and 
dbks of die apothecia reddish •orange ; the latter interiorly 
pale greenish-yellow. More red than any variety of L. 
cUrmOf Ach.: the scales, too, are more distinctly lobed, 
and turn green when moistened. 

Pabmelia, Aek, 

1* P. albo-phmbea, TayL; thallo rotundato albido plumbeo- 
que, lobis linearibus, dilatatis, crenatis, subtus albido- 
fibriUoso atque nigro-tomentoso ; gemmis subrotundls, 
demum ooofluentibu8» pulverem album crassum effunden- 
tibos. 

Hab. Swan River; Mr. James Drummond. — Thallus 1-2 
inches wide : central lobes elongate, convex ; the marginal 
ones rather concave, but their border jdeflexed. Allied to P. 
puheruknta^ Aeh.: the surface, however, is more irre- 
gular, and the buds more prominent When moistened 
the colour is unaltered. 

2. P. jmt/olrur, Tayl.; thallo orbieulari, olivaceo^fusco, suh- 
tos oignwBbriUoso; lobis linearibus, sinuato-radiantibus, 

VOL. VL N 



162 NBW LICHBN8. 

crenatisy laBvigatiSy ragosis ; geinmis subrotundia ; apotbe- 
ciis planiuscuiis, disco ooncolori, margtne subintegerrimo, 
doTso oorrugato. 
Hab. Swan River; Mr. Jame$ Drwnmond. — It requires 
attentive examination to separate the present apecies from 
P. olivaceay Ach. The lobes of the thallus are more elon- 
gated, their surface smooth, never rough with rigid 
points : the margins of the apothecia are quite entire ; and 
their under surface is much wrinkled. When moistened 
the surface of the thallus assumes a yellowish hue. 

3. P. incisa, TayL ; thallo suborbiculari^ Icsvigato, insequa- 
bili^pallidissime sulphureo^ subtus nigricante^ lobis incisiit, 
sinuatis, margine inaequali adscendente ; gemmis margina* 
libtts, granulatisy planiusculis ; apotheciis sessilibus^ mar- 
gine incurvo, tumido, subdiviso, Issvi, disco ooncavo^ 
fhsco. 

Hab. Swan River; Mr. James Drttnufsontf.— Thallus nearly 
eight inches wide : maigins of the lobes usually blackish : 
ladniflB imbricated, attached beneath by very short black- 
ish processes. P. liliaceay Ach., it has the lobes more 
deeply divided ; while the pruina on the surface of that 
species as well as the black fibrils beneath are entirely 
wanting. 

4. P. scabrosa, Tayl.; thallo suborbicdari, inciso, pallidis- 
sime sulphureoj subtus nudo, nigricante, lobis elongatis, 
convexis, breviter laciniatis ; gemtnis angulato-granulatis, 
demum in pulverem album erumpentibus ; apotheciis sub- 
sessilibus, concavis, margine incurve, crenulato, disco 
fuscescente. 

Hab. Swan River; Mr. James Drummond. — ^Thallus 1^2 
inches wide, pale, wrinkled, naked beneath. Buds eentral. 
It resembles P. sasatilUy Ach. ; but the surface is destitute 
of reticulating ridges, and there are no elongated fibrils 
beneath the thallus. 

5. P. atrocapiUay Tayl. ; thallo minuto, conferto, albissimo, 
lineari, angulato, minute sinuato, lobis brevibus, rotun* 
datis, sinubus oblongis, subtus nigro-fibriUosis, trids 



NEW LICHENS. 163 

confertis, atris ; geromis mai^nalibus^ mtnutis, albido- 
pulverulentisy demum ezplanatis. 

Hab. Nepal ; WdOich. — Patches very white, several inches 
wide, but consisting of crowded, minute tballi, scarcely 
exceeding one quarter of an inch in length : the younger 
tballi are simple roundish disks. The grains of the buds 
separate and at length e^cpand into new thalli. No apo- 
thecia observed, 

6. P. Caraceen8%8^T9ij\.\ thallolaxe ceespitoso, albido-virenti, 
tevigato, anguste lineari, dichotomo, supra canaliculato, 
subtus margineque densissime atro-villoso. 

Hab. Caraccas ; /. Linden^ 576. Hook. herb. Near Quito ; 
Professor WiUiam Jameson, 1345. ^ Thallus 5-6 inches 
long : lacinis elongated, channelled, narrow, and thus dis- 
tinguished from P. sinuosa, Ach.; besides it is not sinuato- 
pinnatifid, nor are the sinuses circular. 

7- P. carporrhizanSy TayL ; thallo stellato, nudo, fusco-cine- 
rascenti, minutissime albido-reticulato, subtus atro-fibril- 
loso, laciniia contiguis, subpinnatis, sinuato-lobatis, atro- 
onarginatis, lobulis planis, sinubus ovalibus; gemmis 
grannlatis; apotheciis initio sessilibus subglobosis, demum 
planis, disco rufo, margine tenui, crenulato, extus fibrillis 
atris radicantibua. 

Hab. On bark; Canaries; Dr. Lemann, Hook. herb.-— ThMw 
5 inches in diameter, pale brownish ash-coloured, devoid 
of lustre, lobed like some varieties of P. kevigata, Ach., 
uneven, the more aged parts with transverse splits; 
attached to bark by short dense black fibrils : these at 
length, again appear on the backs of the apothecia and 
fixing them down to the thallus cause them to be quite 
flat. On the edges of the lacinis a few white granules 
may, sometimes, be observed, which, elongating and 
flattening, are converted into thalli. The radicating apo- 
thecia show an affinity with P. ulothrixy Ach., from which 
the sixe, colour and lobes of the thallus, and the black 
fibrils of the under surface are sufficiently distinctive. 

N 2 



1^4 NtfW LICHENS. 

8. P. cwtferta^ TayL ; tballo aggregato, albido, inciso-lobatOy 
laciniis linearibus, subimbricatis, glabris, centraUbus 
eonvezisy anbtus margine ooncolori, medio nigreseente 
atcjne fixuris breribus seabro; gemmis granulatiSf com- 
preasis ; apotheciis tubttlosa^stipitatis, concaviasicnis, mar- 
gine crenulato, demum gemmifero. 

Hab. Van Diemen's Land ; Mr. Borrer^s herbarium. — ^Thalr 
Itts scarcely an inch wide; several such, however, are 
dttatered on bark and form wide patches ; the ladniie, 
especially towards the centre of a patch, tumid but not 
hollow. The buds are frequently marginal; they soon 
assume the flattened form, and expand into new thalli. 
Apothecia rise on considerable^ hollow and wrinkled stalks; 
the disk is very concave and of a light chesnut colour. 
The want of inflated lobes readily distingubhes this from 
V.phyhdeSy Acb^ 

9. P. ccralliphora, Tayl. ; fhaHo stellato, albido-einereo, 
multifido, laciniis approximatis, linearibus, convexiusculis, 
nigro-ciliatis, subtus margine albis, centro fixuris atris 
devincto; gemmis sparsis, eoncoloribus, confertis, initio 
granulatis, statim cylindricis ; apotheciis submarginalibus, 
concavis, disco fiisco-rufescenti, margine crasso^ elevatOi 
gemmis cylindricis densissimis coronato. 

Hab. Casapi; Peru; Maihews, Hook. herb. — Patch aevenl 
inches wide, with the habit of P. epedoea^ Ach. : the 
lacinioB, however, are convex ; and the crowded cylindrical 
buds on the apothecia are very distinctive. 

10. P. cribeUatay Tayl.; thallo orbiculari, cinereo-glauoo, 
rugoso, inciso-lobato, lobuiis cristato-multifidia, crenatis, 
concaviusculis, subtus nigricantibus^ mflatis, foramimilo- 
sis, rugosis ; apotheciis centralibus, majoribus, demum 
planiusculis, disco rufescenti, margine tenui demum crenu- 
lato, extus rugosis. 

Hab. West coast of North America; Menzies. — Patch 2 
inches wide, very uneven. Lobes of the thallos varying 
in breadth, sometimes linear, sometimes fotandate in the 



NEW LlCBfiNS. 165 

centre, with short linear terminal lacinioe. Inferior sur- 
face smooth, inflated and pierced with minute holes, which 
distinguish it from its congeners. 

11. P. crUtifera, Tayl.; thallo orbicolari, albido, elevato- 
rugoso, glabro, lobis rotundatis, depressis, integerrimis, 
subtus margine nudo, glabro, castaneo, medio nigro- 
punctato atque fizuris atris devincto ; gemmis margina- 
libus, confertis, pulveraceis, concoloribus ; apotheciis 
sparsis, concavis, disco pallide castaneo, margine incurvo, 
deroum pulverulento. 

Hab. Calcutta; WaUich. Mauritius; Dr. Wright. Brazil; 
Gardner, Demerara; Mr. Parker y Hook. AarA.— Thallus 
6*8 inches wide, cream-coloured, unaltered by moisture; 
the maigins of the lobes at the central parts with conspi- 
cuous elevated crests of powdery buds. It is allied to 
P. perlata, Ach. ; but the clusters of buds are more 
minute; and the inferior surface is destitute of black 
tricee. 

12. P. cylindophoroy Tayl.; thallo orbiculari, fiisco-castaneo, 
stellato, rugOBo, lobis sinuato-pinnatifidis, subimbricatis, 
laciniia eonvexis, crenatis, margine subtus pallentibus, 
tenuissime viUosis ; gemmis concoloribus, cylindricis, apice 
albidis. 

Hab. Madras ; Dr. Wight j Hook. herb. — Nearly four inches 
in diameter; dusky brownish'oliye, somewhat greener, when 
moistened ; central lobes wrinkled, convex, deflexed, the 
marginal rather concave. Buds often three or more clus- 
tered together; the margins of the laciniee and tops of the 
buds whitish. The cylindrical buds readily distinguish 
this species from P. Aquikty Ach., which it resembles in 
colour. 

13. P. diademataj Tayl. ; thallo stellato, glabro, undulato, 
cinerascente, subtus nigro, ramoso-fibrilloso, laciniis planis, 
linearibus, lobatis, crenatis ; gemmis marginalibus, demum 
explanatis; apotheciis substipitatis, concavis, margine 
gemmis ooronato, disco fusco* 

Hab. Nepal; WaUich.— Thallns five inches wide, cartila- 



166 NEW LICHENS. 

gineo-membranaceous, the laciniae flexuose, imbricated, 
the margins crenate with flat roundish buds, which at first 
appear as specks of whitish powder; beneath are branched 
black tricae. Upper surface brownish-grey. Disc of the 
apotheda dark reddish-brown. Strongly allied to P. jpe- 
ciosa^ Ach., differing by the darker colour, the more uneven 
edges of the laciniffi of the thallus, and by the flattish budsi 
which reappear on the margins of the apothecia, giving 
them a crowned appearance. 

14. P. divaricatay Tayl.; thallo laxe implezo, dichotomo, 
lineari-laciniato, suberecto, laciniis divaricatis, convexis, 
albescentibus, subtus canaliculatis, nigris, tricis atria, sub- 
simplicibus, rigidis, gemmis subnuUis ; apotheciis subpedi- 
cellatis, subterminalibus, disco concavo, margine, subin- 
tegro. 

Hab. Nepal; WMich. — ^About two inches long; the more 
aged parts of the thallus of a tawney hue. Apothecia in 
all stages very concave, sessile on corrugated pedicels ; their 
disc chestnut-coloured, their margins at length ruptured. 
From Banker a leucamela, Ach., the present differs by the 
fewer and more simple tricae ; by the more convex laciniis, 
whose margins, as well as those of the apothecia, are 
entire. 

14. P. echinata, TayL; thallo aggregato, ramoso, adscea- 
dente, tenui, oblongo, concavo, albissime pruinoso, subin- 
ciso, subtus virescenti, tricis albidis echinato; gemmis 
planis, oblongis ; apotheciis stipitatis, concavissirob, demum 
explanatis, atro-purpureis, margine gemmifero. 

Hab. Brazil; Mr. K. LeyUnuPi herb. Pennsylvania; T. 
Drummand. — Thallus minute, covered with a snow-white 
pruina, through which the pale pea-green colour of the 
rest of the thallus is observable, especially when moistened. 
The buds on the margins of the apoUieda are minute 
radiating thalli, echiuated beneath. The green colour of 
the inferior surface is singular. 

15. P. exsecta, Tayl.; thallo suborbiculari,. subpinnatifido, 
inciso-lobato, albido, lobis brevibusj linearibus^ truncalist 



NEW LICHENS. 167 

sinabas circularibus ; gemmis terminalibus, minutis, rotun- 
dis, albidisy medio nigris; apotheciis concayis, rufo-cas* 
taoeis, margine demaro disrupto, incunro. 

Hab. Nepal; Wallich. — ^Thallus scarcely exceeding one inch ; 
aereral, however, are crowded and imbricated, forming 
a considerable patch : the colour becomes slightly brown 
by age. The buds are circular openings at the extremities 
of the ultimate lobes, yielding a white powder at the rim, 
but black in the centre. The thallus is more deeply di- 
vided than in P. lavigata^ Ach. ; the buds are more minute, 
and do not yield a brown powder ; and the apothecia in 
their most advanced stages have no powder on their 
margins. 

16. P. endoleuca^ Tayl.; thalio albido, tenuissimo, adnato, 
subtus nigro-fibrilloso, lobis multifidis, confertis, centrali- 
bus rugosis, marginalibus sinuato-Iaciniatis, laciniis lacero- 
truncatis ; gemmis rainutissime granulatis ; apotheciis con- 
fertisy majoribus tenuioribus, planis, subflexuosis, intus 
albidis^ subtus nigricantibus, disco subfusco, margine sub- 
integerrimo. 

Hab. n. 75. On bark ; Swan River; Mr. James Drummond. 
—Patches 3-4 inches long, Thallus closely investing: 
apothecia prominent and very numerous ; on their margins 
a few white granular buds may be observed. From ours, 
P. uloihrix, Ach. differs by its stellate thallus, its longer 
ladni® : the apothecia, besides, are more concave and radi- 
cate exteriorly. 

17* P* FirankHniana^Tzj].; thalio suborbiculari, inciso-lobato, 
flavo, nude, subrugoso, subtus venoso, nudiusculo, lobis 
rotundatis, incisis, crenatis, planis, margine subplicatis ; 
gemmis terminalibus, cristantibus, flavis, pulveraceis. 

Hab. — Arctic regions ; Franklin's first voyage ; Hook. herb. 
— Patches scarcely two inches wide, usually much less, of 
a brilliant yellow, unaltered by moisture. Under the cen- 
tral parts of the thallus are a few whitish rootlets, but 
wfaidi at length turn black. The sinus between the lobes 
are neariy round. This can scarcely be confounded with 



168 KVW LICnENS. 

p. eaperataj Ach., its thallus is far smaHer, and its bods 
in powdery terminal crests of a bright gamboge yellow. 

18. P.JulveUaj Tayl. ; thallo orbicularis albido-fulvo, minu- 
tissime albo-punctato^ glabro^ lobis rotundatis, sabrogosifl, 
repando- crenatis, subtus lanugine pruinata concolori 
devinctis; gemmis marginalibus, statim lamelUformibus ; 
apotheciis tabuloso-pedicellatis, concavis, disco mfescend, 
margine tenui, inciso-crenato, extus villosis. 

Hab, Casapi; Peru; Mathews^ Hook. herb. — ^Thallus 1-2 
inches wide, pale tawney ash-coloured, the surface some- 
what reticulated with minute white dots ; the colour is 
unaltered by moisture. The buds of the apothecia are 
yillose, like the inferior surface of the thallus. By the 
tubular podetia of the apothecia it is allied to P. perforatcL^ 
Ach. ; differing essentially from that species by its conspi- 
cuous buds. 

19. F.Jisttdatay Tayl.; thallo csespitoso, proeumbente, dicho- 
tomo, multifido, laevigato, albido, laciniis linearibus, con- 
vexis, marine recurvis, subtus atro-fibrillosis ; gemmis 
albis minutissimis, confertis, subconfluentibus ; apotheciis 
sessilibus, concavis, disco caataneo, margine incurve, 
subintegerrimo. 

Hab. Tondil; Argentine Republic; Tweedie^ Hook. kerb. 
Monte Video ; Darwin. — ^Tufts several inches wide ; lacinia 
almost cylindrical. The buds germinate principally at the 
tops of the lobes and expand into minute thalli. 

20. V.filamentosa^ Tayl.; thallo subceespitoso, filamentoso, 
compressiusculo, laciniis dichotomis, divaricatis, intricatis, 
capillaceo-attenuatis, flavis; apotheciis sparsis, disco 
planiusculo, fulvo, margine tenui, albido, iiitegerrimo* 

Hab. On Hepaiiae; Ohio. — ^The only specimen seen was 
minute, but perfect. Tuft scarcely one inch wide : the 
older parts of the thallus whitish, with a feint tinge of 
yellow, the younger more deeply coloured, ultimate seta- 
ceous lacinisB often fascicled. Buds scattered, most 
minute, flattened granules of the colour of yolk of tgg^» 
Apothecia scarcely visible to the naked eye. The colour 



NEW UOHKNS. 169 

^{ Borrera ewiUsj Ach.^ is white, and it is a more eract 
species, 

2h P. Hooheri, Tayl.; thallo aggregate, albo, iinearii sinuato- 
indso, lobulis pinnatifidis, sinubus subcircularibus, subtus 
atro, pannoso ; gemmis minutis, cinerascentibas, granulatisi 
statim cylindricis, demam in thallum expandentibus ; apo- 
tbeciis marginalibus, planis, disco rufescenti, margine 
tenoi, incuryo, demum gemmifero. 

Hab. On bark; St. Vincent's; Rev. L. GuUdingi Hook. herb. 
—The compound patch of thalli is rounded. Lobes 
incised as in P. rimtosoj Ach. ; yet, not only is the colour 
of the thaUus different, but the granulate and cylindrical 
buds are essentially distinctive* 

22. P. inaquaHi, TayL ; thallo aggregate, pallide sulphureo, 
inciso-lobato, laciniis linearibus, flexuosis, ramosis, obtuse 
mgosis, planiusculis, subtus nigrescent!, margine tumenti; 
gemmis granulatis, oonfertb, confluentibus ; apotheciis 
substipitatis, concavis, eztus rugosis, margine demum 
gemmifero. 

Hab. Van Diemen's Land; Mr. Borrer*$ herb. — Several 
thalli, each about one inch wide, occur, forming a large 
patch on the bark of trees, of a pale yellow colour ; lacinice 
imbricated, often dichotomous. Buds usually central. 
Disks of the apothecia dark brown, their mai*gin incurred 
and crennlate. However tumid the terminations of the 
husnifls of the lobes, they are never hollow as in P. phy^ 
9oi€$j Ach. ; the ramification and figure of the lobes is more 
like that of P. incwrva^ Ach. 

23. P, lameUigera, Tayl. ; thallo cesspitoso, compresso, 
gUbro, albido-dnereo, subpinnatim dichotomo, laciniis 
convexiusculis, ultimis brevissimis, obtusis, nigrO'Knliatis, 
sabtus margine albis, centro fixuris nigris devincto ; gem« 
mis maiginalibuBi statim lamelliformibus. 

Hab. On Caaapi; Peru; Mathews, Hook. herb. — Patch 
several inches wide, consisting of numerous substellate or 
cuneate thalli, frequently with palmate lobes, yet, some- 
times, dichotomous and even subpinnate* The aged parts 

VOL. VI. o 



170 nmw uoHttNii. 

ofdiBtiialliiBare 6f a sttokegi^y, ibe ytmi^itr paler, tnd 
8now«white beneath the edges. The segments an not so 
dilated as in P. ieneOa, AA^ and there ave no joredb 
present* 

M. P. bioewyaf Tayl. ; tiballo oiWcnlari, ctnereo-YiresoeDtiy 
ragoso, sublaconosOy lobis peripheriois tenuibos, rotan- 
datis, orenulatis, subtus albido-cinereia ; gemmis gnuralatit 
demum cylindricia $ apotheciis ooncaTis, nudisy disco 
pallide eastaneo, marg^ne incarvo demum crennlato. 

Has. United States; Greene, Hook. herb^-^-ThuiauM S-4 
inches wide, coarsely wrinkled, the intervals again mtnutely 
wrinkled, whitislMMb odoured when dry, greeniah when 
wetted: the inferior surftce is whitish brown. Diffsn 
from both P. eax^UU, Ach., and P. aleurUee, Ach^ by the 
absence of the dense blade tricss beneath, and remarkably 
by the naked apotheda, on the margins and backs of 
which the Irnds do not appear. 

25* P. Unu^ormu, TayU; thallo sordide dnereo, cnspitoso, 
adsoendente, lineari, dichotomo, apidbiis aouminatis, 
subtus i»nalicnlato, fttro, gemmis grannlatis oonfertis tecto 
atque scaberrimo. 

Has. Chiloe; Cuming, Hook. A«r». — ThalH 2*3 indies 
loBg« The buds at first appear as black points, bat soon 
beeone whitish derated granules : short black teices occur 
Tery sparingly on the inferior surface. 

96. P. leucMrw, TayL; thallo orUculari^ albido, de{HMso, 
lineari, raultifido-ladniato, ladniis minutb, approainaatis, 
erenulatis, breviter albo-ciliatis, subtus albis, gemmis con- 
eoloribns, grannlatis; apotheciis marginahbus, {daniuscu* 
lis, disco rufesoenti, margine demum orenulato, estos 
fibrillos dbidos demittentibus. 

Has. On bark ; St. Vincent'a ; Rev. L. GnUdmg, Hook. kerb. 
•^Pbtches 2*3 inches in diameter, exterioriy linear and 
radiating ; at the centre the lobes are shorter : buds in very 
white, round grains. Apotheda sending down white root- 
lets from tbdr backs, which fix themselves to the tballus 
as in P. uUdkriWy Ach. ; but this spedes has the aurfitte 



NBW LI0HBN8. 171 

more brown, die ladnitt of the tbattoa wider, and the 
mugUkB of the apothecia entire. 

27* P* SmAif TayL; thallo subateUato, adnato, ckiereo, 
nodo, rugofiOy lactniia angastis, diflformiboa, peripfaericis 
sInuatCMncisiB, dichotoinia atqae retasis, subtus atro- 
fibrUloaia ; genmus concoloribus gcaniilatis, demam expla- 
natis; apotheoiis sparsia, majoribua, demum phmis, 
margiiie, gemmis compreaso-granulatis, crenolato, disco 
livide porparaaoenti. 

Hab. On bark $ New Orleans ; Book. A^ri^— Thallas resem- 
bling some states of P. Uellarii^ Ach., however, k is 
flatter and neither so stellate or so white. The apothecia 
are exteriorly smooth and are aessile, their margins thin, 
expanding and breaking up, the disk ef a pale leaden- 
ptvi^ish oolour. 

2& P. mflWM' ffl gfa , TayU; thallo cosspitoso, adseendente, sub- 
stellate^ pobescenti, albido-cinereo, ladniia linearibns, 
pinnatifidU, ciliatis, subtoa canaliculatis, albidioribos, 
laBvibua, Tenoso-laounosis ; gemmis grannlatis, tumidis ; 
apotheeiis podioellatia, demum phinis, disco fnsco, mar- 
gine sttbintegerrimo, extns puboMontibtts. 

Hab. From Dr.FUeher; Hook, heri.: also Ganaries; Dr. 
lesMMMhr— Patch S-4 incbes wide, brownish ash-coloured, 
covered with a short coneolorous pubescence, which, 
however, is wanting beneath. Ultimate branches often 
pedate ; lobes very short, their terminations not attenuated 
as in P* viUosOf Acb^ nor terete as in P. ephekea^ Ach., 
whilst the colour of the thallns is very diflferent from that 
of P. MlmdicOf Adu Besides, on none of these three do 
maasiliate granules occur. The apothecia are described 
from Dr. lischer's specimens. 

29. P. wmtabOii, Tayl. ; thallo suborUculato, lavigato, 
cineieo^ lobis difformibus, peripheticis sinuato-ladniatis, 
convesis, subtua foscescentibus, nigro-villosis | gemmis 
maiginaUbus, granulatis $ apotheeiis concavis, disco rufes- 
eenti, maigine lenui incurve, demum gemaaia ansnu- 
lalo. 

o 2 



17^ NEW LTCHBMB. 

Hab.— No. 5. Uitenhage; Zeyher^ Hwk. herb. — ThaDw 
sometimes two inches wide, variously lobed, sometimes 
Knear, sometimes rotundate, but at the periphery usually 
indso-sinuate, .resembling in ita mode of branching 
P. conspersa^ Ach., but in colour and general habit 
approaching P. herbaceoy Ach. The inferior surftoe is 
nearly black, and polished beneath the margins erf die 
lobes. 

30. P. NepalenriSf Tayl. ; thallo cesspitoso, adsoendente, 
Uneari, dichotomo, Issvigato, laciniis elongatis, convex!- 
uscolis, acutis, lutesoenti-albidis, subtus nigris, rugoaiay 
canaliculatis ; gemmis minutis, subrotundis, apioe nigro- 

. panetatis; apotheciis sparsis, substipitatis, disco conca- 
vissimo, castaneo, margine crenulato, inflexo. 

Hab. Nepal; R^a^ScA.— Tufts four inches high. Thallas 
increasing in breadth just before branching; ultimate 
branches lanceolate, beneath furnished with a few scat- 
tered, short, black, scabrous tricn. This species is allied 
to F. fur/kraeeoy Ach.; in which, however, the thallua is 
more flat, and the buds occur in crowded short cylinders, 
which are absent from our plant. 

31. P. opKoglossa, Tayl.; thallo caespitoso, adscendente^ 
rufo, basi flavicante, subdichotomo, laciniis elongato-ellip- 
ticis, subacutis, margine recurvis, ciliatis, subtus camii- 
Gulatis, pulvere conspersis ; gemmis submarginalibos 
statim in tricas apice nigras abeuntibus. 

Hab. Monterey; Cslifomia; Capt. Beechey, Book. herb. — 
Thallus nearly two inches long, segments divaricating; 
above they are broader, flatter, and red, below nearly 
cylindrical and pale greenish-yellow : the powder in die 
channel beneath the lobes is reddish under the red parts, 
but snow-white under the yellowish parts. This has some 
resemblance to Ceiraria Islandieay Ach. ; but the analogy 
of the inferior surface is far greater with the Borrent of 
Acharius. 

32. P. patinifera, Tayl. ; thallo subradiato, lobis lineari- 
''^iongis, rotundatis, lobato-crenatis, albidis, madore 



NBW LICHENS. 17^ 

viresoentibus, Ivdvigato, ineequabili, subtus comigato, 
inargine albido, coeterum scabroso-fuscescenti ; gemmis 
naiginalibas, aubrotundis, planis; apotheciis sessdlibus^ 
planis, castaneis, margine radiato-gemmiferis. 

Hab. Organ Mountains ; Brasil ; Gardnery G. J. Lyon, Esq. 
— T^allns fire indies in ^diameter, deeply and irregularly 
divided into broad linear lobes. The upper suiface has 
shallow unequal and irregular pits. Apothecia of a con- 
spicuous sise. Lobes of the thallus imbricated, but by 
no flseans sinuate. 

3d. P. polycarpa, Tayl. ; thallo orbicularis membranaceo, 
mgoso, albido-dnereo, virescenti, subtus centrum « versus 
nigrescenti, ezterius fizuris nigris devincto, sub ipso mar- 
gine nudoi rugoso; gemmis marginalibus, granulatis, 
aibidis; apotheciis demum concavissimis, extus rugosis, 
disoo castaneo, margine tenui crenato-rupto, incurvo. 

Hab.— On bark; Swan River; Mr. James Drummond. — ^Dif- 
fers from P. Barren, Ach., by the want of cup-shaped 
teceptacles of the buds, and from P. corrugaia, Ach., by 
tibe paler colour of the thallus, and less red disks of the 
apothecia, besides the lobes of the thallus are less rotun- 
date. 

34. P. phmasm, TayL; thallo stellato, cinerascenti, subtus 
snbcoDColori, fizuris nigrescentibus devincto, lobis plu- 
moso-mgosis $ gemmis subglobosis, pulveraceis, aibidis; 
apotheciis minutis, concavis, disco nigro-pruinoso, mar- 
gine crasso, incurvo, crenulato. 

Hab. — On bark; Low Island; Capt.BeecAey, Hook. herb. — 
Thallus 3-4 inches wide, lying closely adnate to the bark ; 
lobes radiating, wrinkled. Beneath a black pruinose disk 
is a colourless lamina with a few erect blackish thec«e, 
resting on a layer of black matter as in Lecanora CeratO'* 
mtSf Ach. ; by which mark this species is certainly distin- 
guished from P. pulverulenta, Ach., and from P. stellaris, 
Ach., as well as by the subglobose whitish soredia. 

35. P» palpebrata^ Tayl.; thallo substelbto, ciuereo, subru- 



174 NKW LIOBBRS*^ 

goso, laciniis rage ramosis^ linearibns, convexis, dnereo- 
dliatis^ gemmis gnuiulatis ; scabro, subtus albo stappeo ; 
apoiheciis podiceUatis, ooncavis, discx) nigresoenti^ mar- 
gine incorro, subintegeirimo, ciliato^ eztoa albido-puife- 
iBceis* 

Hab* No* 1467« Peru; Cuming. Jamaica; Dr. Wrtghi^ 
Hook. herb.'^'ThtSlm 3-4 inches wide. The dliae of the 
apotbecia are short and in a young state lie across the 
disks. Tihe lamina proligera is pale and pelludd, thiddy 
set with dark thecie and emerging above the disk of the 
apoiheda. 

36. P. ioeeaiiloba, Tayl. ; thallo orbieularl, albido^nereo, 
gemmis minutis granulatis creberrimis scabriuscnlo, lobis 
obtuse complicalis, rotundatis, subintegris, margine 
recums, subtus fusoo-nigro glabro, elevato-punctato ; 
apotheciis sparsis, ooncavis^ disco castaneo, margine 
crenuLitOi extus gemmifero. 

Hab. — Pit(»im's Island; Beechey. Mauritius; Dr. Wight. 
Brasili Hook. herb. — ^Thallus several inches wide, pale 
ash-coloured, unaltered when wetted. Buds tipped irith 
a dark brown spot, lober uneven with large convolutions, 
flaodd, somewhat saccate in appearance. Apotheda 
sessile, the border incurved, exteriorly very rough witii 
buds. In characters it approaches P. teortea, Adi. ; but 
the inferior surface is smooth, while the upper is far more 
eonvolute and uneven. 

37* P« subflava, Tayl.; thallo substeUato^ albido-flavesoente, 
mgoso, sublacunoso, subtus ooncolori, fusoo-fibrilloso ; 
ladniis sinnato-lobatis ; gemmis marginalibus, oonfertas, 
elongato-granulatis ; apothedis sessilibus, concavis, demum 
explanatis atque margine gemmiferis. 

Hab. Van Diemen's Land ; Mr. Borre9^9 Jkeri.— ThaDus 
about half an inch in diameter; lobes imbricated and 
aggregated of adjoining individuals forming a wide patdi 
on the bark of trees, dark cream-coloured, somewhat 
pitied and wrinkled; the tops of the ladnis rounded. 



NSW LICHENS. 17^ 

Budi erowdedy sometimes slightly branched. This is a 
nunuter species than P. saxatilis, Ach., nor has it the 
reticulated sorfiioe or retuse lobes of this species. 

S& P. sh^fpeQf TayU ; thallo coriaoeo, suborbiculari, fosco- 
nifescenti, mgoso^ lobis repando-crenatis, intos rufescenti, 
stoppeoy subtos atro, kovigato, ruguloso; gemmis margi- 
nalibus, polyeraceis, demum olivaceis; apotheciis margi« 
nalibusy demum planis, disco atro, hevigato, margins 
tenui, uadubtOy incurvo, demum gemmifero^ extus 
TiUosis. 

Hab. Monterey, California; Beechegy Hook. A^rA.— Tballus 
S-S inches wide, very uneven, the central parts minutely 
wrinkled. Under the shining black cuticle of the inferior 
surface a red membrane occurs ; between which and the 
upper sur&ce of the thallus there is a pale brown, cottony 
substance, which is much compacted. Black tricsB may 
be observed beneath. 

S9. P. 9par$a^ Tayl.; thallo in maculam aggregate, albo, 
minutissimo^ lineari, angulato, varie lacinulato, laciniis 
subconvezis extus latioribns, subtus atro-fibrillosis ; gem- 
mis granulatis, statim planiusculis ; apotheciis sparsis, 
minutissimis, disco subfiisco, marginem album integerri- 
mum demum asquante. 

Hab. On bark; St Vincent's; Bev. L. Guilding, Hook. herb. 
— lliallas appears as a brown spot, on which the minutest 
white shreds or laoinis are scattered : the margins of these 
resemble a succession of white dots which are often oo|i« 
fluent Apotheoia not visible to the naked eye. Allied to 
P. elmnaf Aoh* ; but the thallus is fiur more minute and 
mora scattered. 

40. P. IsfNMMipAa, Tayl. ; thallo suborbiculari, inciso-lobato, 
palUde castaneo, bbis margine undulatis, crenatis, sub- 
elevatis, vetastis mgosis, junioribus in8ai|ttalibus ; gemmis 
albidts, pulverulentis sulcos brevissimos subsimflices 
eemplentibus I apotheciis migoribos, ooncavissimis, msr- 
(iiie tenui, demum disropto, disco pallide wrtaiWN 

Hab. Maoquaify River; Mr. Robert BMe JMr6*-'ThaUus 



176 NBW LICHfiNS. 

3-4 inches wide, nigged, irregularly channelled, the edges 
waved and raised; the lobes subimbricated. From the 
European P* tulcata, TayL, the present may be known by 
its browner colour, more channelled lobes, by the furrows 
in which the buds appear being more slender and more 
simple, whilst the buds themselyes are white. 

41. P. Wdllichianay Tayl.^ thallo orbicular!, albo, glabro, 
subtus atro, hispido, lobis rotundato-sinuatis, crenatis ; 
gemmis concoloribus, minutissime granulatis, demom 
elongatis; apotheciis sessilibus, fusco-castaneis, margine 
rupto, incurvo, gemmifero. 

Has. Nepal ; Wallich, — ^Thallus 8-10 inches wide, coarsely 
wrinkled, smooth, decurved at the margins, whose termi- 
nations are brown and shining, cream-coloured, beneath 
blackish with very short hispid trie®. Lobes cuneate. 
Apothecia central, crowded, very concave, the disk red- 
dish-brown. Ours differs from P. scariea, Ach., by the 
flatter thallus, whose lobes are less deeply divided, and 
more regularly crenate, by the short tricee of the inferior 
surface, and by the pale granulate buds which reappear on 
the margins of the apothecia. 

Cbtraria, Ach. 

1^ C. Cf/rtiM, TayL $ thallo amplo, complanato, procumbentey 
pallide citrino, subtus albidiori, utrinque nudo atque 
IcBvigato, rugoso-lacunoso, lobis late linearibua^ subdicho- 
tomisj canidiculatis ; gemmis marginalibas, gramdatifl^ 
statim complanatis atque thalli marginem fimbriantibos ; 
apothecib minutb, marginalibus, fuscis, demum oonvezis 
atque marginem thallodem subcrenulatum ezctudentibiis. 

Has. On trees; Java; Hook. herb. — Thallus 5-6 inches 
wide. Lobes oblong, subsinuate, their margins at fint 
entire, at lei^h fringed with minute^ concave^ oblong 
buds. Below the thallus are a few, scattered, pale fibres* 
This qiecies has somewhat the habit of a SHeia, but all the 
Isduucal characters of Ceirariu of Acharius. 



NKW LICHENS. 177 



Stiota, Ach. 



1. S. WalUckianaj Tayl.; thallo amplo, suborbiculari, inciso- 
lobato, virescenti-cinereo, rugoso, sublacunoso, utrinque 
laeviy subtos concolori, rugosisaimo ; laciniis oblongis, 
laoeris; cjphellis minutis, confertis, sesailibus, intus 
albis; apotheciis sparsis, mioutis, confertis, disco casta- 
neoj semipellacido, marginem tenuem integerrimum 
ezcludente. 

Hab. Nepal; RTaOicA.— Thallus a foot wide; lobes linear, 
Jacerous, their colour unaltered when moistened. Cyphellis 
higely granular, sometimes confluent. This has the habit 
of S» orygmmaf Ach. ; but the soredia of this species are 
yellow, and the matgins of the apothecia are rugoso- 
crenulate. 

2. 8. rugulomij Tayl. ; thallo csBspitoso, procumbente, cinereo- 
Tiresoenti, linear!, canaliculato, marginato, pinnato, Iaci« 
nils dichotomis pedatisque; subtus nudo, glaberrimo; 
gemmis minutis, granulatu, albescentibus $ apotheciis 
maiginalibus, majoribus, demum planiusculis, disco fusco- 
mfesoenti, margine atque eztus sinuato-rugosia, demum 
gemmiferis. 

Hab. Peru; Hook. Aer&.— Thallus 2-S mches long, pale ash- 
coloured with a greenish hue; no cyphellee or soredia 
obaenrable on the under side. Apothecia, when full grown 
disproportionately large, compared with the narrow laciniis 
of the thallus; they are coarsely wrinkled on the margin 
and on their backs, the wrinkles waved and at length 
bearing minute, granulate, whitish buds. Ours resembles 
some states of S. danuecomii, Ach., also S. digUata, Hook. 
/IL ei Tajfl^f but in no known species are the backs and 
margins of the apothecia so strongly wrinkled. 

9. 8. quercffolia, Tayl.; thallo stellate, inciso-lobato, cinereo- 
glauoo, Iserigato, subtus nigrescenti-tomentoso, lobis 
sinuato-pinnatifidis, sinubus subcircularibus ; gemmis 
marginaiibus, granulatis, statim explanatis; cyphellis 
eoncoloribus, ore demum marginatis, pulvere albissimo 



1JF8 ' NBW LIGHKNS. 

refertU; apotheciis marginalibus^ demmn convezis, disco 
atro-rofoj margine crenulato, extos angulato-inamiI-> 
latis. 
Hab. Ceylon; Hook. herb. — Patches 2-3 feet wide, consist- 
ing of imbricated thalli; colour unaltered by moisture. 
This species is ladniated as Sticta damacomii, Ach. ; but 
the white contents of the cyphellse and mamillated backs 
of the apothecia are sufficiently distinctive. 

4. S. propaginea^ Tayl. ; thallo oblongo, depresso, l«vigato» 
albido-cinereo, madore viresoenti^ subtus conoolori, k>bis 
periphericis sinuato-incisis, sinubus drcularibusi noaigine 
elevatis; gemmis ooncoloribus, marginalibus, granulatis, 
statim elongatis^ linearibus, ramosis; cyphellis minuds, 
albidis; apotheciis minutis, incamatis^ demam convezii 
atque marginem thallodem tenuem crenulatum excluden- 
tibtts. 

Hab. Surinam ; Hook. herb. — ^Thallus 2-3 inches longi m 
the central and entire parts concave or channelled, in the 
exterior extremely subdivided. The minute flesh-coloured 
apothecia are very remarkable. It has some resemhlanoe 
to ^.fiUcma^ Ach.^ but is by no means substipitate* 

5. S. nUida, Tayl. ; thallo stellato, fulvo-cinereo^ hevigato, 
mai^pnem versus dichotomo, lobis linearibus, concavis, 
ajnce bifidis, maxgine integerrimisy nigrescentibuSf subtns 
atro-glaucoy lanuginoso; sorediis minutis, sparsisy flavo- 
albicantibus; apotheciis sessilibus, concavis» extus viUosis, 
disdo rufescentiy maxgine tenui, integerrimO) lanugiaoscH 
crenato. 

Hab. No. 1450. Chiloe; Cuminji^ Hook. Aer&— Lobes &S 
inches long, brownish ash- coloured^ unaltered when wet; 
the under surface dark dun-coloured. Toung i^Kitheeia 
rise as villose globules on the surface. This is plsinly 
allied to S. danMSCormBy Ach. ; it differs, however, by the 
pale yellow soredia on the inferior side of the thallus. 

6* S. Humboldtif Tayl. ; thallo orbiculari, subintcgroj intas 
asureo, utrinque fusco-dnereo atque viUoso, lobis ampUs 
lotundatis; cyphellis oonooloribus; gemmis granuli^ 



NBW LIOHBNB. 17^ 

TiUum albesoentem statim emittentibus; apoihedifl oon- 
ferttSy extas villoris, sparsisy demum planis^ diaco rnfes- 
oenti-fii80O| margine sabintegerrimo^ villoso* 

Hab. No. 259. South America; HumboUU, Hook, herbj— 
Thia apedea baa altogether the habit of S. obvoluia, Ach., 
which was collected by Menziea at the Straita of Magellan ; 
it haa, howerer^ the following remarkable and distinctive 
duuracters; the thallos is unchanged in colour when 
moistened; it haa true concave cypheUie of a pale brown 
colour and the apothecia are scattered, not marginal. 

7* 8. hiieseena J TbjL] thallo orbicularis inciso-lobato, luteo- 
yfindi, l»vigatO| lobia oblongis, sinuato-crenatis, subtus 
fidvia^ villosis; cyphellis concavissimis, intua flavescenti- 
bns; gemmis marginalibus, granulato-pulveraceis, statim 
nmosisy olivaoeo-fuscis ; apothedis sparsis, eztua villosis, 
demum convezis, disco rufescenti, marginem thallodem 
inlegerrimum demum ezcludente. 

Hab. Java; If. Spanoffhe, Hook. herb. Jamaica; JPurtfte.—- 
Tballus 6-8 indies wide» a little greener when moistened, 
indsed almost to the centre, the margins elevated with 
crowded buds, whose duskier olive colour contrasts with 
the greenish tawney surface of the tballus. The buds are 
•caroely formed when they branch out and aaaume a 
browner colour ; a character, joined to the tawney inferior 
surface, which will keep this spedes distinct from all de- 
scribed ones* 

& S. Leyhmdi^ TsyL ; thallo substellato, dnereo-viresoenti, 
•ubtos alfaido^ lobis rotundatis, ladniatis, adscendentibus ; 
gemmis peUuddis, albidis, filiformibus ; apothedis aead- 
libusy concaviusculis, disco castaneo, margine gemmis 
coronato. 

Hab. Braiil; JIfr. R. LeybnuPs A«r&.~Thallua rapidly im- 
bibing moisture and becoming aoft and flacdd, the. upper 
•ui&ce nearly covered with buds in clusters connected by 
a membranoua expannon. The aged apotheda recdve a 
abort podetiom from the tballus; the disk is of a cheatnut 



180 NBW LICHKN8* 

colour when wet, brick red and pninose when dry. 
Lamina proHgera pale, containing vertical cylindrical 
thecae, whose summits scarcely reach to the disk. The 
thallus is furnished beneath with white filiform yessek, 
which appear like the surface of writing paper as viewed 
by a magnifying-glass; there are here, besides, subrotund 
bundles of olive-coloured radicles. There are no cyphelte 
present. 

9. L. lacunom^ TayL ; thallo orbicularis incisolobato, pallide 
virescenti-cinereo, minute lacunoso, lobis radiantibusi 
apice dilatatis, rotundatis, crenatia, subtus pallidis, sub- 
tomentosis; gemmis marginalibus, linearibus, planis, 
pallidis; apotheciis sessilibus, rufis, margine demum 
gemmis ooronato. 

Hab. Brazil; Mr. R. LeylancPi A^&.—Thallas membranar 
ceous, thin, smooth, reticulated and pitted. Beneath 
there are convex papula and a whitish scattered down. 
Apothecia usually marginal. The lamina proligera is very 
thin. No cyphellie present. Buds on the margins of the 
apothecia flat, subrotund, subconfluent. 

10. S. imbricatubif Tayl.; thallo minuto, subimbricato, 
cinereo*viresceuti, rugoso, lobis sinuatis, rotundatis, inte- 
gerrimis, sinubus drcularibus, subtus concolori, subvil- 
loso ; sorediis minutis, flavis ; apotheciis sparsis, demum 
planis, disco subfusoo, margine tenui crenulato. 

Hab. ^' No. 1662, ad arborum corticem in sylvis montium 
editioribus. Insula Juan Fernandez ; Maio, 1830 f* Bertero 
in Hook. herb. — Pktches 2-3 inches wide, consisting of 
several imbricated thalli ; their surface is very uneven, their 
margins decurved and entire, yet sinuate. The interior of 
the thallus is yellow. The apothecia have the habit of 
those of Leeanora subjusca, Ach. The soredia beneath the 
thallus are not easily detected. 

11. S.fimbriatat Tayl. ; thallo substellato, lobato^ lobis ad- 
Bcendentibus, imbricatis, undidatis, indsis, fimbriato* 
crenatis, glauco^cinereis, madore nigro-viridibus, pniino- 



NEW LIOHKNg. 181 

ms; gemmis substipitatis^ subrotnndis, granulatis* ad 
thalli marginem confertb; cyphellis rotundatis oblongisre^ 
concavis, albidis, pruinosis, marginibus elevatis. 

Hab. In woods near KiUarney. — ^The marginal buds become 
flattened and sometimes branched, giving a fimbriated 
appearance to the lobes* The moistened surface is mottled 
by a white proina peculiar to this species. The granules 
of the buds may often be observed to be tipped with dark- 
brown. Pktches 3 inches or more in diameter, loose, 
attached by a central disk. It differs from S. tyhatica^ 
Ach., by the more divided margin of the thallus, by its 
fimbriated appearance, its pruinoso- reticulated surface 
and its very pale glaucous grey colour when dry. 

12. S. erytkroscyphay Tayl.; thallo stellato, inciso-lobato, 
cinereo-viridi, subtus margine concolori, centro nigro- 
viUoso, lobis oblongis, sinuato-crenatis ; sorediis puncti- 
formibus flavis ; gemmis marginalibus, granulatb, demum 
pulverem flavum effandentibus; apotheciis sparsis^ demum 
oonvezis, disco intusque aterrimis, margine eztusque 
rubris^ subvillosis. 

Hab. ^ No. 1609. Ad saxa in collibus, Insula Juan Feman- 
dec, April, 1830;" ^ooJt, Aerft.— Thallus 6 inches wide, 
incised nearly to the centre, surface smooth, slightly con- 
cave, parenchyma white ; young apothecia nearly spheri- 
cal, reddish-orange ; the more aged flat or convex, their 
margin and the thallodal cup reddish, their disk and 
lamina quite black, and thus unlike that of any of its con- 
geners. 

IS. S. Dnimmamltj, Tayl. $ thallo orbiculato, fusco-cinereo, 
subviUoso, inciso-lobato, lobis fertilibus marginem versus 
mgoso-lacunosis, subtus concolori, villoso; gemmis mar- 
ginalibus granulatis; sorediis sparsis, albidis; apotheciis 
oblatis, terminalibus, resupinatis, disco castaneo, sub- 
piano, maif;ine demum lacero. 

Hab. On bark, accompanying Nephroma potariit Ach* 
British North America; ThM. Drummond, Hook. herb. — 



Thallos 4-5 inches mde» dusky finrn-coloined, tlie oentrsl 
parts duskier and neaily smooth, the marginal Tillose 
soredia subglobose, whitish, opening sometimes above 
and displaying a white cavity. Apothecia laige, asore 
wide than long, the disk rery thin, the margin, at length, 
waved. This, as well as S. jyiwiljoa, Ach*, has the i^xi- 
thecia of a Peftidea, bat the Uiallus of iSlicIa of Ach. ; but 
ours is very distinct by the villose thallos, the gfebose 
soredia, the buds few and marginal, and the apothecia 
oblate. 

14. S. dmUsa^ TayL; thallo fusco-cinereo, madore immutato, 
sinuato-inciao, dichotome pinnatifido, lacanosoHretaculato, 
lobis linearibus, maiginatia, eracto-pat^itibas, glabris, 
nitidis, apioe emarginato-bifidis, OBteram int^gerrimisi 
sorediis minuti% albidis; apotheoiis maiginalibos, disco 
convezittsculo^ rofo-fiisoo, margine tenui intq;ennme^ 
eztus papUloso-nigosis. 

Hab. '* No. 476. Chonos Arch^elago; Hirmn. Island of 
Hnerffo ; Dr. Beck.'' Hook. A«ri.— ThaUus deeply divided. 
Sinuses oblong. From 8. pulmonaeea^ Adu, ours is Affe- 
rent by the narrower, more divaricating lobes and the 
white soredia beneath the thalltts. 

15. S. denudaia, TayL; thallo orbicnlari, cineieo-olivaoeo, 
kevigato, complanato, mgoso, subtus villoso^ sinoato, 
late lobato, sinubus minutis drcularibus, lobis imbricatis^ 
margine integenrimis I apothedis maiginalibns initio glo» 
.bosis atque diaphragmate occlusis, demum margine incur- 
vis, gemmis crenulatis, eztus pulveraceis, disco raies* 
centi. 

Has. No. 257. Sooth America; Humboldt. Casqii, Peru; 
Mathewij Hook. herb. — ^Thallus 6 inches wide, uneven but 
not lacnnose. Lobes vary in breadth. Buds not appa- 
rent on the thallus, but observed prolonging into fironds 
on the margins of the apothecia. Ours may be dis- 
tinguished from the numerous varieties of S. jwihsewecMb 
Ach., by the mors considerable dark viUi of the infitfior 



IfBW L1CHSM8. 183 

soifaoe, by the upper not being lacanoae, by the want of 
grmnnlate buds on the thallosy and by the apotheda 
ranaining yery concave even ia old age. 

16* S. eoHihamnia, Tay].; tballo soberecto, sabstipitatOy 
plano^ gkuoeaoenti, madorefuaco, snbtos mfesoenti, sub^ 
TiUoso, sublacanosoj nunosimmo, ramis sinuato-laoina- 
ktia ; cyphellis nollis. 

Hab. On trees and stones ; Joan Feraandes ; Hook, heri.^- 
In flattish tofts. Thallos about one inch bng, much sub* 
divided, the sinuses roundish. Allied to S^fiUcbuif Ach. ; 
oar plants however, is shorter, more subdivided, the ulti- 
mate lacinisB are rounder, the inferior sur&os is more 
viUose and presents no cyphdhs. 

17* S. bieohTt Tayl.; thallo orbiculato, hevigato, inciso- 
lobato, lobis subladniatis, ladniis brevibus, subangulatis, 
rufescenti-cinereo, subtus fusoescenti; cyphellis albidis, 
phinisy maigine elevatis; apotheciis marginalibus^ disco 
rofoy maigine integerrimo, subtus flocoosis. 

Hab. Organ Mountains; Oardner^ O. J. Lyo/ffo herb.—' 
Thallus 4 inches wide, lobes scarcely one quarter of an 
inch broad, the central parts of an ash-grey, the extreme 
of a chestnut brown, but little deepened by moisture. 
The thick dark grey scabrous pubescence of the inferior 
surfiice of the thallus reappears on the backs of the apo- 
thecia* The smooth surface of the thallus and the crowded 
marginal sessile apothecia readily distinguish this spedes 
from S. $ylvatica, Ach. 

Pbltidba, Ach. 

1. P. gUmeeMcmo^ Tayl.; thallo vireacenti-glauco, villoso, 
indsoJobato, lobis rotundatis, integerrimis, subtus albo- 
stuppeo; fixuris nigro-olivaoeis ; apotheciis terminalibus, 
plaais, rotundis, fuscis, subcrenulatis. 

Hab. No. 230. On dead wood ; Diana's Peak, St. Helena ; 
Dr. /. D. Hooker. — ^Thallus scarcdy exceeding \\ inches 
in diameter, whitish-ash-coloured when dry, gkucous 
green when wet. i^K>thecia somewhat convex when aged. 



184 NEW LICHENS. 

This has the apothecia of P. venoaa, Ach., and the UiaUos 
of P. eamnay Ach. ; but the inferior sorfoce differs from 
that of either of these, being snow-white and cottony, 
except where the veins occur. 

3. P. pulverulenia^ Tayl. ; thallo dnereo-Iivido, eleyato- 
punctato, subtus concolori, subavenioi yilloso, lobis sab- 
incisis, retusis ; apotheciis concavis, disco atro-rufescenti, 
margine crenulato, extus yerrucosis. 

Hab. Pilhshum, Columbia; Prqf. W. /oniefOfi.— ThaUus 
suborbicular, flaccid and rugose when wet. Apothecia on 
proper stalks of the thallus. Inferior surface villose as 
in die stict» ; the upper surface is thickly sprinkled over 
with subangular concolorous grains, not observed in its 
congeners. 

3. P. erumpetMy Tayl. ; thallo orbiculari, cinereo-virescenti, 
inciso-lobatOt lobis rotundatis subintegerrimis, subtus 
elevato-yenosis ; gemmis sorediatis, pulverem glaucum 
effundentibus, centralibus; apotheciis terminalibus, sub- 
pedicellatis, rotundis, conveziusculis, atro-purpureis, sub-> 
integerrimis. 

Has. On sides of clay banks ; Dunkerron, county of Kerry. 
— ^Thallus 1-2 inches wide, glaucescent when wet, ash* 
coloured when dry, thin in structure ; apothecia few. 
Buds central, fire or six together, rarely confluent, rounds 
shallow eruptions of the thallus containing a glaucous 
powder. By these buds it is separated from all known 
species. 

DUFOUBEA, Ach. 

1. D.pbmUfea, Tayl.; thallo pulvinato, obscure plumbeo, ex 
centre affixo radiato-ramoso, erecto, lobis subsimplicibus, 
stuppeo-solidis, turgidis, clayatis, hie illic coarctatis im* 
pressisque, basi compressiusculis rugosisque; apotheciis 
terminalibus, subimmersis, planis, immarginatis, disco 
tenuissimo, pruinoso, viridi-atro. 

Hab. On the ground; Bushman^s Country, Cape of Good 
Ho]^; ZsyAer, Hook. A^6.— Thallus in madreporifbrm. 



NBW LICHENS. 18S. 

dusky olive tufts, about half an inch high; tops of the 
lobes rounded : sometimes on the white fractured surface 
whence the apothecia have fallen, several very minute, 
crowded, young, blackish apothecia are observable. Some- 
times two adjoining lobes coalesce, as do the apothecia on 
their summits. Lamina proUgera excessively thin, and 
dark green. Allied to D. prtunosa, Nees ; but the flat 
immersed disks of the apothecia and the tuberculose and 
ooarotate lobes of the thallus keep it very distinct. 

2. D. mi^lea^j Tayl.; thallo csspitoso, solidiusculo, palli- 
dissime cinereo, tereti, filiformi, simplici} longitudinaliter 
comigato ; apotheciis in ramuli brevis apice terminalibus, 
disco concavo, concolori, margine integerrimo. 

Hab. West coast of North America ; Jfen^rte^.— Nearly two 
inches high, scarcely as thick as packthread. It has the 
haUt of Cenomyce gracilis, Acb., but is not so acuminate, 
nor has it pale greenish granular buds. 

CliNOMYCB, Ach. 

1. C. tpharulifera, Tayl. ; thallo foliaceo, minuto, cinereo- 
viridi, subtus albo, laciniis inciso-crenatis ; podetiis cylin- 
drids, angustia, simplicibus, cinereis, subpellucidis, glabris; 
gemmis albidis, minutissime granulatis, statim cylindricis ; 
scyphis brevissimis; apotheciis conglomeratis, minutis, 
coccineis, madore nigris, substipitatis. 

Hab. Demerara ; Mr. C. Parker, Hook. herb. — This species 
appears distinct from C. bacillaris; Ach., by the more 
numerous and conglomerate apothecia, which are scarlet 
while dry, but turn black when wetted ; and by the sub- 
pellucid podetia which are quite smooth, though sprinkled 
with buds. 

2. C, hirta, Tayl.; podetiis erectis, iiliformibus, villosis, 
caespitosis, fdsco-cinerascentibus, compresso-teretibus, 
ramosissimis ; ramis patentibus, flexuosis, axillis imper- 
foratis, ultimis minutis bi-tripinnatis ; gemmis granulatis, 
sttbterminalibus, fuscis. 

VOL. VI. * V 



186 NEW LICHENS* 

Hab. Casapi, Peru ; Mathews^ Hook* herb. — ^Thallus flaccid. 
The podetia are remarkable for being covered with shovt 
white villi, resembling those of the under side of a 8iida 
This reminds one of C. rangtferifuif Ach^' growing, as 
it does, in rounded tufts: but the ultimate brandies 
are not drooping; whilst the villose podetia are very 
•distinctive. 

S. C. diatrypa, Tayl.; thallo casspitoso, erecto, fistuloso, 
dichotomo^ ramosissimo, cinereo-fuscescente, ramis fora- 
minulatis, ultimis acuminatis, fertilibus explanatis;apothe- 
ciis confertis, minutis, disco rufo-fusco, margine tenui, 
demum undulato. 

Hab. Macquarrie River; Mr. R. BaWs Aer&.— Podetia in 
rounded, brownish, rigid tufts, from 2-3 inches high. 
Fertile branches flattened and variously wrinkled. The 
border of the aged apothecia at length assumes the colour 
of the disk. 

4. C. acuta, Tayl. ; thallo foliaceo, minuto, crenulato ; 
podetiis subulatis, brevibus, ramosis, teretibus, fusoo- 
dnereis, subpellucidis ; gemmis confertis rufescenti-albidis. 

Hab. Islands of the Pacific; Hook. herb. — ^Tufts dusky 
brown, rigid, scarcely 1 inch high. The buds may be 
-observed expanding into minute crenulate scales at the 
bases of the podetia ; these resemble in colour and semi* 
transparency shreds of glue : they are much acuminated 
and tipped with black. Allied to C. pityrdBa, b. acund- 
natttj Ach., difiering essentially by the subpellucid and 
brown podetia. 

BCBOMTCES, Ach. 

1. B. Capenniy Tayl. ; thallo tartareo, areolato, cinereo, sab- 
strato tenui, atro, marginante ; apotheciis demum globosis, 
umbilicatis, atris ; stipite immerso. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope; on granite; Hook. herb. — 
Thallus more than two inches wide ; areolae tumid, very 
uneven, often having one or two dark depressed spots 
on the surface, which are rudiments of apothecias ; Uttk 



NBW LICHENS. 187 

altered by moisture.. Apotheda on the scales^ at first 
flat and bordered as in Lecidea, soon, however, globose, 
and excluding the border, roagh, sabpruinose, crowded ; 
diey are supported on a stipes of white cortical matter 
immersed in the crustaceous scales. Disk black, covering 
a very shattow, semi-transparent, striated lamina, resting 
on much Uack matter. Closely allied to B. anomaius^ 
Tayly in Fkr. Hib., which now ceases to be singular for 
having no conspicuous stipes; and which has the crust 
whiter and thinner, as well as more even, while the 
apotheda are paler« and when full grown not so convex. 

2. £• hjfolimis, TayL ; thallo crustaceo, minuto, sublobato, 
pallide flavo-virescenti $ gemmis subrotundis, apice fuscis; 
stipite compresso, subrugoso, madore hyalino, punctis 
opacioribus consperso; apotheciis subplanis, pallidissime 
cameis, margine albido, subintegerrimo. 

Hab. On sandy clay; Swan River; Mr. James Drummond. 
— Pktches wide. Apotheda crowded, variously twisted, 
oftener oblong than round. Stipes about half an inch 
high, from a narrow base expanding upwards, when dry 
opaque, pdlucid when wet, sprinkled with granular opaque 
buds. Like B. rupestris^ Ach., the footstalks of the apo- 
theda are stouter, and remarkably hyaline when saturated 
with moisture : besides, the thallus is in sublobate crusta- 
ceous aeales, 

Albctorxa, Ach* 

I. A. iubereuloia, TayL; thallo cinereo, ligulato, elongate, 
striato, scabro ; gemmis granulatis, convolutis, confertis, 
albidia ; ^K>theciis marginalibus, podicellatis, concavis, 
disco pruinoso^ concolori, margine tenui, undulato, inte- 
gcrrimo* 

Has. No. 1469. Peru ; Cuming, Hook. A^rft.— Thallus 6-8 
inches long, coriaceous, with longitudinal elevated ridges, 
which at length burst along their tops. Podetia very con- 
siderable; hence, though with some doubt, it is uqw 

p 2 



188 NBW laCHBNt. 

feferred toAIeetoria and not to Ramalma, whose Ki^it, 
however, it strongly possesses. 

2. A. virens, Tayl. ; thallo pendulo, elongato, filifonni^ tefeti- 
compresso, subdiohotomo^ implezo, pallide Tirenti, Unc 
canaliculato, ad angulos oompiesso, ramulis nltimis seta- 
ceis, flexuoso-cunratis, apice nigrioantibas; geosmia in 
thalli canaliculo pulveraceis, conooloribos; apethedis 
minutis, convexis, fascis, immarginatis. 

Hab. Sbeopore, East Indies ; ^oJlicA.— Tofts loose, dull 
green^ more than one foot long, rough with short, seta- | 
eeous branches tipped with bUck. It is very bitter, and ! 

imparts a green tinge to the saliva when masticated. 

3, A. tpinoea^ Tayl.; thallo erecto, tereti, Icavissimo, subtos 
canaliculate^ basi cinereo, apice fuscescenti, ramulis fascis, 
setaceis, acuminatis, striatis, reetiusculis ;, gemnus raris, 
granulatis; apotheciis ad thalli angnlos sessilibus, con- | 

. cavis, snbtus Isevibus, disco rufescQuti-fulvo, albido-prui- 
noso, margine tenui, crenulato. 

Hab. Nepal; fTaUkh.'^Tufts loose, 3-4 inches high; thallus 
branched at the base, often dichotomoos above. Apotbe- 
cia as laige as peas, some with a reddish-brown lamina, all 
of them covered with a white pruina* The loruli are 
shorter and stndghter than in any of the congeners. | 

Ramalina, Ach. 

1. R. canaKculatOf Tayl.; thallo caespitoso, glabro, nudo, 
subtus canaliculate, lineari, snbdichotomo, albo-lutesoenti, 
ramulis acuminatis ; gemmis marginalibus granulatis, 
statim spiculiformibus; apotheciis marginalibus, podteel* 
latis, concavis, margine gemmis granulato. 

Hab. Veragua ; Sinclair ^ California ; Mentiea. Tahiti ; 
Beeehey, Hook, Aer6.— -Loosely tufted, pale tawney, nearly 
six inches long; stems split at the margins, and there 
shewing a whitish powder; but the true buds are few, 
marginal and granular, and soon change into spines, the 
young rudiments of thallus : the branches form an obtuse 
angle with the main stem. It may be known from R. /«*- 



Nwr LIOH0NI.' 189: 

t^fUiOf Ach.y by the nartDw, semiterete thfallas; and 
the marginal apothecia not being Ktnited to the upper 
braoehes. 

2. R. ieueosiietay Toyl.; tfaallo pendulo^ glabro, piano, fili- 
fonni, dOdiotomo, longitudinaliter rugosOy oKyaceo-rafes- 
oenti, madere pellucido^ ramulisincurvis; gemmis rointttis- 
aimifl, albis, nnmeroaisfimis ; apotheciis mai^inalibos, 
minutia, planis, mfescentibas, peDucidis, margine tenia, 
integerrimo. 

Uab. Tahiti; Beecbe^j Ha^k. herb.—TuRB 1-S indies long ; 
the younger parts oliye-coloured, the more aged reddish- 
brown. TballuB channelled beneath. In no described 
species are the soredia so minute, so crowded, or so 
white. 

3. R. Mmzieriij Tayl. ; thallo compresso, Isavigato, nndo, 
doDgato, einereo, laciniia filiformibus, plania, reticuloso- 
connatia ; gemmis marginalibus, oblongis, pertusis, statim 
reticulatia ; apotheciis substipitatis, marginalibus, demum 
oonveiis^ subimmarginatis^ Intesoentabus. 

Hab. Monterey, Caltfomia; Mengiea. — ^Tufts pendulous. 
Thallua more than one foot long, varying in breadtii, 
SBsooth, longitudinally striated with whitish Unes. Young 
lobes completely netted. Buds at first granulate, soon 
elongated and stipitete, and their peitused substance ex- 
panding into a net-work. Apothecia occur on the more 
aged branches, semi-pellucid, but their footstalks opaque. 

4. R. jrol^bti, Tayl. ; thallo pendulo, elongato, piano, anci- 
piti, lineari, acuminato, einereo, albido-pnnctato, iffivi, 
nudo, aabragoao, apiee prolifero ; surculis basi angustatis, 
lioearihas, obtusiusculis ; gemmis maiginalibus terminali- 
busque; apotheciis marg^nalibus, dnereo-cameis, demum 
oenrezis atque marginem tenuem integenimum exdu- 
dentibus. 

Uab. Uruguay River; James Btnrdy Hook. A6rA.-^Thallus 
li foot long, devoid of lustre, from a truncate extremity 
sending out three or more new shoots ; when moistened 



190 NBW LICHENS* 

the surface is fonnd to be strewed over with xninnte grey 
soredia, Apothecia of the size of rape-seed. 

5. R. piluKferay Tayl. ; thallo e oentro commuTu cssspitoso, 
cinereo-stramineo, erecto^ linearis piano, longitadinaliter 
rugoso, subtus canaliculato, ramis fiiifonnibus, acnminatis; 
gemmis minutis, oblongis, albidis, pulveraceis ; apotheciis 
concoloribus, minutis^ marginalibus terminalibttsque^ de- 
mum convexo^-sttbglobosis marginem excludentibus* 

Hab. No. 1642. In montibns ezcelsis Insuke Jiian Fer- 
nandez; Hook. kerb. — ^Tufls 1-2 inches high, rounded; 
branches irregular ; laciniae very narrow ; minute depres- 
sions and longitudinal wrinkles occur especially on the 
back of the thallus. 

6. R. peUudda, Tayl.; thallo compresso, Invigato^ nudo, 
linear!, albido, subpellucido, striato, ramis acnminatis; 
gemmis marginalibus, statim lineari-lanoeolatis ; apotheciis 
submarginalibus, concaviusculis, subimmarginatis paUide 
luteis, 

Hab. Brazil; Mr. R. Leyland*s herb. — Tufts pendulous, 
lliallus 6-8 inches long, here and there perforated* Buds 
at first granulate. Apothecia substqiitate, usually mar- 
ginal, the disk pruinose. The thinner and pellucid thallus 
and the thallodal stipes to the apothecia readily dis- 
tinguish this lichen from its European congeners. 

CORNICULARIA, Ach. 

1. C. lata, Tayl.; thallo glabro, albido, tereti, subangulosoy 
ramosissimo, ramis ultimis minulis, subfastigiatis, diva- 
ricatis; gemmis linearibus, utrinque acuminatis, albis, 
elevatis; apotheciis podiodlatis, extus gemmiferis, disco 
concavo fusco^cameo, margine incunro, crenulato. 

Hab. Mexico ; Hook. herb. — ^Thallus 9-S inches in diameter, 
white and slightly greenish, unaltered by mcnature. Apo- 
thecia frequently prolifierous of a single shoot beneath, 
very ooncave ; the disk dark brown when dry, assuming a 
paler colour, and cameous hue when moistened. TIas 
species, which has the apothecia of a Bcrrtra of Adiarius 



NBW LICHBN8. I9l 

on the thallus of a Comicukiria, can scarcely be confounded 
with any other. 

UsNEA, Ach. 

1. U. iumtduloy Tayl. ; thallo cinereo, subcsspitoso, erecto, 
filiformi, dichotomo^ glabro-tnberculato, hie illic diffractOi 
intas albidissime stuppeo-fasciculoso, ramis ultimis breyi- 
bus, spiniformibus, apice nigris; gemmis compressor 
granalatis, Isvibus^ demum pulverem albidum effunden- 
tibos; apotheciisminutis^ nudis, sessilibus, demum planis, 
pminosis, concoloribus, margine demum crenulato. 

Hab. No. 1474 (in part). Coquimbo ; Cwninff, Hook. herb. 
^Tufts dense^ rigid, 1-2 inches high. Thallus cylin- 
drical^ with irregular smooth swellings and depressions ; 
these last appear to be the buds, discharging a white 
powder. This has the branching of an Akctoria, Ach., 
but the central thread of an Usnea. 

2. U. pectinata, Tayl. ; thallo pendulo, filiformi, tereti, cinereo, 
ramis simplicibus, subflexuosis, longissimis, fibrilloso-pec- 
tinatis, aubeomplanatis, fibrillis tenuissimis, confertb, apice 
setaoeis, subdecunris; gemmis granulatis, statim spicoli- 
furmibus. 

Hab. Sylbet; fTafficA.— Tufts 1-2 feet long, matted to- 
gether. Midn stem broken transversely into minute joints. 
This approaches in characters to U. lonffisstma, Ach. from 
Lusatia, which we have not seen ; but from description it 
would appear to be whiter, its stem more scabrous, and 
the fibrils of the branches more tortuous. 

3. U. fikUfica, Tayl. ; thallo pendulo, elongate, lutescenti- 
ochraceo, lasvi, pinnato, ramis patentibus, filiformibus, 
tortuosis, implexis, scabris ; gemmis sorediiformibus, mi- 
nutis, innovationibus hie illic breviter fasciculatis. 

Hab. Norfolk Island; Hook. herb.^^l\ feet long; branches 
capillaceous at their tops: stems transversely broken at 
the bferior parts, quite smooth ; germinating buds clus- 
tered here and there, giving a peculiar and prominent 
character. 



192 NBW LICHBNS. 

4. U. nnUiariai Tftyl. ; thallo caespitoso, ereettusculo, cinereo, 
tereti, ramosissimo; gemmis granulatis, oonfertisAniis ; 
ramis ultimis acaminatis, subglabris ; apotheciis sessilibus, 
concoloribus, pruinosis, demnm planis^ extas scabris^ mar- 
gine nudoj demum crenulato. 

Hab. No. 1477* Arica; Cnming, Hook. AerA.— Thallua 3-4 
inches long, irregularl j and repeatedly branched^ rongh, as 
a file with thickly set whitish grains or buds. Apotheda 
usually proliferous of a single shoot from beneath. By 
the naked apothecia ours is allied to U. mehMtrUka, Acb. ; 
but it is smaller; the thallus is not wrinkled and the 
apothecia are not reticulated beneath. 

5. V.flexuosa^ Tayl.; thallo pendulo, implexo, dnereo^ fill- 
formi, ramosissimo, subnoduloso, ramis brevibus, flexuous ; 
gemmis minutis, granulatis ; apothedis conccdoribosy te- 
nuissimisy planiusculis, pruinosis, margine ramoso-ciliatis. 

Hab. Near Quito ; Prof. W. Jamemn. — ^Tufl soft, 4-5 inches 
long. Thallus very slender, rather smooth, except where the 
granular buds occur. Apotheda excessirely thin : the buds 
on the margin elongating into a ciliary thallus which ia at 
length branched. It is allied to U. florida, Ach., but is 
softer, smoother, finer and more flexuose ; while the apo- 
thecia are almost as thin as cutide. 

6. U. compressay Tayl. ; thallo pendulo, lineari, compresao, 
cinereo, dichotomo, elongate articulato, ramis basi angus- 
tatis, acuminatis, patentibus ; gemmis granulatis ; apothedis 
terminahbus, jdaniusculis, ooncoloribus, pniinosis, margine 
ciliatis, extus laevibus. 

Hab. Nepal, WaUich ; Mysore, Dr. Wight ; Norfolk Island, 
A. Thompson ; Hook. Aa'6.— -Thallus 4-5 inches long, ulti- 
mate branches short, at right angles to the stem, joints 
attenuated at each end, rough with numerous granular 
buds. The flattened thallus and jointed stems distinguish 
this from V.florida^ Ach. 

7. U. densirostra^ Tayl.; thallo ceespitoso, erecto, viridi- 
olivaoeo, abbreviato, ex basi disciformi ramoso, infra in- 
crassato, supra acuminato, ramis subuliformibus, dends- 



KBW I«10HElf8i 193 

simis, subpatentibas, gemmis granulalis statim elonganti- 
bu6 ; apotbeciis terminalibos^ concavis^ diBoo albido, Diar- 
gine gemmis ciliato. 

H AB. No. 686. Monte ^deo ; Darwinp Hook. A«rft.**Scaroely 
2 inches high; branches dothed all round with nearly 
equal and parallel, thickly set^ subulate lacinisB. Apothecia 
■mall. By its stunted growth, its crowded laoinis, and by 
its comparatively small apothecia, it may be distinguished 
both from U. scabrida, Tayl., and U../brtda, Ach, 

8. U. scabrida^ Tayl. ; thallo erectiusculo, scaberrimio, pallkte 
diiereo*flaveseenti, fibrillis confertissimis, cunrato-adscen- 
deatibus, subramosis; gemmis minutissime granulatis, 
statim subttlatis; apotbeciis demum planiusculis, ciliis 
oonfertis maigine dorsoque tectis, disco albido-stramineo, 
pulverulento. 

Hab. Swan River; Mr* Ja$M9 Drummomd. — ^About <me inch 
high, fastigiate, very rough. Apotheda sometimes nearly 
half an inch wide. The fibrils on the thallus and on the 
margins of the apotheda are truly buds elongating into 
new individuals. The abundance of these buds on the 
backs of the apothecia will serve to separate the present 
£rom U. fiorida, Ach. 

COLIiBMA, Ach. 

1* C, iradyofnm, Tayl.; thallo squimioso, squamis frustu- 
loao-areolatb, scabridis, fuscis, minutis, sublobatis; apo- 
thedift minutis, immersis, demum sessilibus, disco con- 
cavo, rufescenti, nigro-pruinoso, margine incrassato, 
soabro, elevato. 

Hab. On limestone ; Dunkerron, county of Kerry. — 
Patches about one inch wide, thin, dosely adnate, blackish, 
cracked when dry. Scales light brown, studded with dark 
points, which, at length, enlarge into flattish granular 
buds. Differs from C. niffrumj Ach., by the want of the 
bluish border ; nor are the scales ramulose towards the 



I 



194 NSW LICHBNS; I 

centre ; nor is the border of the apotheda ihin^ diiiiifigy 
and at length evanescent 5 nor is there any blackish-brown 
matter beneath the lamina proUgera. 

2. C. marUimum, TayL ; thalio pulvinato, gelatinoso-mem- 
branaceo, olivaceo, marginem versus glaucesoentiy lobis 
minutis, imbricatis, rotundatis^ margine incrassatis^ on- 
dulatis^subintegerrimis^ convexis^ minute rugosis; gem- 
mis majoribus granulatis; apotheciis oonfertis, minutisy 
immersis, disco flavescenti*brunneo» 

Had. On limestone near the sea; Dunkerron, county of 
Kerry,— Patches 1-3 inches wide, when moistened nearly ' 

one inch high, when dry flat, thin and membranous. 
Lobes concave beneath, the marginal distinct, the central 
cohering, all of them minutely wrinkled and covered with 
punctiform elevations, which at the edge of the disks of 
the apotheda cause the margins to appear crenulate. The 
substance of the thallus contains numerous, filiform, moni- 
liate, slightiy waved bodies : such as are observable in several 
spedes of Collema, and are made by some botanists to 
characterize the genus Nostoc The disk is dark yellowish- 
brown, pruinose with elevated points; the lamina pale 
brown, thickly striated, resting on a thin concolorous 1 

layer, which, however, is more opaque. This is by far I 

the most gelatinous species known, ' 

3, C. reflexum, TayU; thalio foUaceo, crasso, albido-glaucea- 
centi, minutissime ruguloso, subtus fusco, tomentoso, 
lobulis oblongis, subintegris, margine reflexis, sublacuno- , 
sis; gemmis granulatis; apotheciis confertis, centralibus, 
concavis, disco rufo, margine crasso, elevato, granulate* 
crenato. 

Has. No. 837. Java; ZolUnffer, Hook. A€rd.— Thallus 2-3 
inches wide, substellate, coriaceous, having a white pruina 
on the extreme lobes : surface most minutely and longitu- 
dinally wrinkled, and it has thickly set depressed blackish 
points. On the inferior side is a dark brown down as in 
the StictiB. The present appears sufficiently distinct from 



NBW LICHBNS; 195 

C. eroiperatumj Ach. ; if we may judge by tbe characters ; 
bat we have not seen the plant. 

4. C. eryihrcphihabnumf Tayl. ; thallo viridi-olivaoeo, minuto, 
tenni, adscendente^ lobis confertis, aubimbricatis^ sinuato- 
ladniatisy nmltifidis; gemtnis marginalibus, granulatis^ lates- 
oentibos ; apotheciis planis, podiceUatis, subtns nudis, disco 
nibello, maigine sobintegerrimo, anrantiaco. 

Hab. On trees ; Philippine Islands ; Ouminff, Hook. herb. — 
Tballi aggregated; lobes very thin, ja^ed. The lamina 
is naked beneath ; and the cup which contains it is not 
formed of the thallus. The fine red apothecia, with their 
orange border, render this species conspicuous among its 
congeners. 

5. C. cortieola, Tayl. ; thallo foliaceo, membranaceo, bulloso, 
minutissime rugato, glauco-plumbeo, lobis rotundatis, 
adscendentibus, integerrimis, complicatis, lazis^ flexuosis ; 
apotheciis confertis, disco rufo, margine integerrimo, 
incunro. 

H AB. Ohio ; LeOy Hook. herb. — ^Thallus 3-4 inches wide, mo- 
nophyllous, divided into rounded/ concave, entire lobes : 
when moistened the colour changes to a pale olive ; and 
the surface exhibits short, simple or branched, elevated, 
obtuse wrinkles ; which, however, are not acutely pinched 
up, nor so thickly set as in C. rugatun^ Tayl. ; nor is the 
thallos so pale ; while the lobes are more entire. 

6. C* crasriuecuiumi Tayl. ; thallo foliaceo, gelatinoso, crasso, 
demum gemmis obtuse plicatis tumidis rugoso, fusco- 
olivaceo, lobis rotundatis, adscendentibus, integerrimis, 
Bubtna mgosis; apotheciis sessilibus, majoribus, fusco- 
rufescentibus, margine granulate, demum rugoso-pli- 
cato. 

Hab. Madras; Dr. Wight, Hook. Aa-d.— Patches 2-3 inches 
wide: lobes numerous, ascending, complicated, thick, 
gelatinous, subpellucid when moistened, Apothecia large 
in proportion to the lobe on which it grows, sometimes 
occupying | of its surfiu^ : the disk when dry nearly black. 
Difieni from C.favoeum, Ach., by the more gelatinous and 



196 Nfiw i^ichknb; 

thicker thalla^^ which m wrinkled on botii sidesy as wdl 
as by the ragose and thicker border of the apotbecia. 

7* C. cff^OMfm, TayL ; thaHe oenpitoso^ pQlvinafto, fbaco* 
diivaceo, auborbiciilari, imbrioato-pKcatoy plida oentralifaiis 
erectia^ integMrrimia, utrinqiie elevato-riig08i8» margine 
undulato-plieatis^ asperis, siccitate nigresoentibus atque 
sabtua glaueeaoentip-albieBntsbtta ; apotfxecna iiiaTginidibaSy 
coBoaviBaimisy maigine incrassato^ granulato, disco nigrea- 
centi-porpureo. 

Hab. In forests; Uitenhage; Cape of Oood Hope; Zegher^ 
Hook. herb. — ^ThaUus 1-2 inches wide. TheduiUaa is more 
thick and camose than in C. lacerum^ Acfa. By its margi- 
nal apothecia it is allied to C. fasciculare, Ach. ; but the 
lobes avemore roond^ and never inciso-crenate. 

8. C. ffeaicatwH, Tayl. ; thallo gdatinoso-menabranaoeoy ebB- 
tieo, subtenaci, plumbeo^ ntrinque Teaicato-plicato^ mgoao, 
IoUb proeumbentibus, oblongis, subindso^^crenatis ; gem- 
mis concoloribus elongato-granulatis ; apotheciia masmtis, 
subpoificdlatts, confertis^ fulvis, margine crasso, intq;er- 
rimo, extus gemmis scabro. 

Hab. On aged trees; St. Vincent's; Hook. Aeri.-*Thattas 
S*4 inches wide ; loBgitudinaily plaited when dry ; bat when 
wetted the wrinkles expand into elongated vesicles. Allied 
to C. ruffotfim, TayL It is, however, more procambent : 
the plaits when wetted are more obtose ; and the buds are 
&r larger and longer. 

9. C. olivaceum, TayL ; thallo foliaceo, membranaceo, ntrin- 
qne Isvi, tenuissimOy olivaceo, pellacido, lacnnoso, lobb 
adscendenttbus, integerrtrais ; gemmis marginaUbus granu- 
latis; apotheciis sparsisy subtos nodis, concavis, disco nifo, 
margine crasso, integerrimo, lutescenti. 

Hab. No. 252. South America; Humboklt, Hook. Aerb.*^ 
Thalltts Bhont 2 inches wid^ very thin yelgelatinons when 
moistened^ with elevated ridges containing concave depres- 
sions, pellacid even when dry. The tawney thick shell 
containing the lamina lies on a ring of the thallas, but is 
quite naked beneath. Very like a Nosioe. 



IfOTBB OP ALGA. 197 

10. C. Tkntm, TayL ; thallo foKaceo^ membranaceo, gdati- 
noM| nigoso, amethystino, lobis confertis, erecstiiisoQliB, 
oomplicatb, intq^eminia ; gemmis granulatis, ooinpresaia, 
tmmdia ; apotheciis podioellatis, sobtas nudis^ disoo oon* 
eolcni, raaqgine atque extiis gemmis tumentibus nigons 
eoronato. 

H AB. On trees ; Tahiti ; Beeohey^ Hook. herb^-^PaJbohes several 
inches wide. The younger thallus very pale oUve-green, 
the more aged of an obscare amethystine hue : the buds 
that cover the apotheoia are of different colours in propor- 
tion to their ages, some pale olive^green, others reddish, 
others again purplish-blue. Allied to Siephanophorus 
Kra$i$siiy Flotow, and to 8i. dadaleuSj Flotow; but its 
colour, its pellucid thallus, and its soft consistence like 
that of a lyemelioj serve easily to distinguish it. 



Noie$ qfAvoM^ observed at varioui aUiitidee in Aberdeenakire, 
iff O. DiOKiB, M.D.9 Ledurer on Botany in the UmoereUy 
and King's CoO^e qf Aberdeen. 

The heterogeneous assemblage^ entitled Infueoria^ has of 
late yearn been very much broken up. Botanists of high 
authority have asserted their right to rescue many of them 
from the hands of the Zoologist ; and they contribute in no 
•mall degree to increase the numbers of the Alg^s. It is not 
intended in this paper to enter upon any discussion respect- 
ing the arguments for and against the title of the Deemidiea 
to a place in the Animal kingdom : those in fevour of their 
v^etable nature seem to be stronger than those advanced 
by the Zoologist in laying claim to them. At the same time 
it cannot be denied that both classes of naturalists have 
ahown a tendency to adopt that mode of reasoning called 
» begging the question.^ 



198 NOTB8 OF ALOiE. 

Only a few years have elapsed since the British specMs 
were figured and fully described. To Mr. Ralfe tbe xnent of 
this principally belongs. The more oitcnsire work on the 
same subject, in which he is at present engaged, will be 
an3dously looked for by all who take an interest in these 
beautiful although minute organisms, and it is to be hoped 
will stimulate others to search for these Btars of our fresh 
waters, which in variety and beauty of form cannot be 
surpassed by any of the numerous objects, animal or 
vegetable, presented to us in nature's kaleidoscope. As, 
however, in this utilitarian age, ** mere beauty and fitness" 
may not be deemed sufficient reasons for the study of tbe 
organisms in question, it may be remarked that the physio- 
logist will find in them examples of propagation by sponta- 
neous fission, and by conjugation and subsequ^t formation 
of spores : also that kind of circulation called cyclosis, as well 
as molecular motion. 

Agardh long ago remarked ^^ Algcs inferiores oi*gana sint 
Algarum superiarum," and '^ omnia organa simplidssima 
plants cujusdam (AJga sit vel planta perfeptior) non esse nisi 
Algas simplicissimas ;'' statements, the accuracy of which can- 
not be questioned. The Cellulares of botanists, (a term, not 
strictly correct as usually understood), might be divided 
into the compound, in which numerous cells are assodated, 
either side by side, and end to end, or in linear series alone ; 
and the simple, in which the cells are few or separate. In 
these last it b, that the various phenomena of cell life may 
be most advantageously studied. Admitting the existence of 
intercellular substance in the vascular plants and higher ceU 
btlareSf it is not improbable that the mucilage with which 
some of the simple forms are invested, and the granules so 
common on the surface of others, may be the representatives 
of the substance in question. The modes of propagation 
already alluded to as seen in the simple Cellulares, have their 
homologues also among plants of a higher grade ; spontaneous 
fusion of cells being frequent in them ; and the contact of the 



NOTES OF ALGJE. 199 

end of the pollen-tube with some part or other of the ovule, 
as obsenred in some, presents an instance of conjugation. 
It may not be irrelevant to state also that the development 
and structure of leaves in some of the compound Cellulares 
may assist in the investigation of the same in reference to 
those of vascular plants.* 

I must here acknowledge the assistance derived firom 
Mr. Ralfs' papers in the Transactions of the Edinburgh 
Botanical Society, and from Mr. Hassall's book. The 
altitudes of the localities at which some of the following 
species were collected in August last, had been ascer- 
tained on a former occasion : several of these measurements 
were repeated ; and others made with the mountain Sympie- 
someter. A remark on the mode of collecting may not be 
irrelevant ; for other Botanists may be induced to send contri- 
butions from Alpine districts in other parts of the country. 
A few small phials ought to be provided, each of which is 
numbered : samples of muddy water, and of mud from moist 
places, and of matter adhering to submerged plants, &c., at 
different altitudes, ought to be transferred to these phials, 
the localities being recorded. In this way, if kept cool, Des* 
nudiea will remain fresh for weeks, and can be examined at 
leisure. It may be remarked that a small quantity of muddy 
water, or of mud, in reference to the search for these plants, 
will bear a fidr. proportion to a few acres of surface in refe* 
rence to flowering plants. The contents of the phials must 
be examined drop by drop under the microscope : the thick 
mud being diluted with water. 

Of some species here recorded, only a few examples, not 
more than two or three, were observed: these, however, 
were so fully developed, that I did not hesitate to name 
them; and this is especially true of several found at high 
altitudes. 

I am indebted to Mr. P. Grant for lists of such species 
occurring at Aberdeen, as had not come under my own 

* See IVansaettcms of Edinburgh Botanical Society, 1843. 



SOO NOTKS OF ALOA. 

observation.'!' The genera and species are given in alphabe- 
tical order for convenience sake* 

I. Species foand in the vicinity of Aberdeen : 

Closterittin acerosum, Ehr., C. ComUf Ehr., C. DimuB, Ehr., 
C. Digitus J Ehr,^ C. EhrenberffU^ Mgh., C. lineatumy Ehr., 
C. Lunula, Ehr., C. margaritaceum^ Ehr., C. momUfenmj 
Ehr.j Crostratumy^ht*, C.setaceumt^hr., Cstriolaium, 
Ehr.^ C. Trabecula, Ehr., C. turgidwn, Ehr. 

Cosmarium Botrytis, Mgh., C. crenatwn, Ralfs, C. Cucutms, 
Corda, C. eylindricum, Ralfs, C. margaritiferum, Ralfs, 
C. omatum, Ralfs, C. ovale^ Ralfs, C. quadraiumy Ralfs, 

Cylindrocystis Brebiasonii, Mgh. 

Desmidium quadrangulatum, Ralfs, D, Swartzii, Ag. 

Didymoprium eylindricumy Kutz., D. Borreri, Ralfs. 

Euastnim q^ne, Ralfs, E. binale^ Ralfs, E. circulare, Hass., 
E. Didelta, Ralfs, E. gemmatum^ Ralfs, E. oblongum, Ralfs, 
E. Pe/Zo, Ralfs, E. rostraiumf Ralfs, E. ^piiionifit, Ralfs, 
E. verrucosum, Ehr. 

Gkeoprium disriHens, Ralfs, G. mtfcomm, Ralfs. 

Holocystis osciians, Hass. 

Micrasterias radiata, Hass., M. rotata^ As. 

Pediastram angulosum, Hass., P. JBoTi^antim, Mgh., P. co»- 
strictum^ Hass., P. eUipticum, Hass., P. heptactis, Mgh. 
P. Napoleonis, Mgh., P. teiras, Ralfs. 

Scenedesmus acutus, Meyen, S. dimorphous, Kuta., S. 06- 
/tMttf, Meyen, S. quadricaudatus, Breb., S. iriseriatus, Mgh. 

Staurastrum Arachne, Ralfs, S. bifidum, Ralfs, S. aculeahan, 
Ralfs, S. gracile, Ralfs, S. margariiaceum, Mgh., S. mufro- 
naium, Ralfs, S. muricatum, Breb., S. orbiculare, Mgh.^ S. 
paradoxvm, Meyen, S. tetraeerum, Ralfs, S. iricome, Mgh. 

* Numerous interesting Diatomacea were also met with. One of them 
especially attracted notice, viz. Surirella Campylodiscta : a few examples 
of which were found near Ballater at I6OO feet. I have seen it also from 
the Uigfalands of Banflfshire« where it was discovered hy Mr. P. GfasU 
Kutzing quotes it (Diatomeen, p. 60) as found in fresh water in Mexico. 
The jiiga of other families will be noticed in a subsequent communtcation. 



I^TBS OP ALOJe. 301 

To this genus may probably be added another very fine 
species which Mr. Ralfs calls S. bacillare. 
Tetmemoros Brebissonii, Ralfs, T. granuMua, Ralfs. 
Xanthidium onffeo/ttui, Ehr., X.faaciculatum, Ehr., X^fur- 

eahm, Ehr,, X* polygonum, Hass. 

11. Hill of Fare, fourteen miles west from Aberdeen, at 
450 feet, found by Mr. P. Grant. 

Closterium Diams, C. Digitus, C. imeatum, C. moniltferum. 
Cosmariam Boiryiis, C. crenatum, C. quadratwn, C. marga^ 

rittfemm. 
Euastrom qffine, E. Didetta, E. gemmatum, E. oblongum, E. 

PeliOy E. rosiratum. 
Micrasterias roiata* 

Staarastram mucronatum, S. orbicuiare, S. tetracerum. 
Tetmemorus Brebiasonii, 

in. Pktnnanich Cliffs, forty miles inland, 1000 to 1100 feet* 
Closterium DigUua, C margariiaceum, C. Trabecula. 
Cosmarium guadraium, C. margarii\ferum» 
Cylindrocystis BrebiswmU. 
Staurastrum muricatum, S. tricome. 
Tetmemorus Brebissomi, T. granuiatus. 

IV. Near Linn of Dee, sixty-seven miles inland, at 1 190 feet. 
Closterium Diana, C. Trabecula, C. turgidum, 
Cosmarium margarU\ferum, C. omatum. 

Tetmemorus Brebissonii. 

V. Glen Lui, about seventy miles inland, at 1300 feet 
Didymoprium Borreri. 

Euastrum affine, E. Didelta, E. Pelta. 
Staurastrum bifidum, S. margariiaceum, S. mueronatum, SL 
tricome. 

VI. Hill of Craigendarroch^ forty-two miles inland, at 1340 
feet 

Closterium Digitus, Cw striolatum, C. Trabecular 

VOL. VI. <) 



920 NOTES OF AhQJ^ 

Cosmariam crenatum, C. Cueurbiia, C. nuarffarittferum, C. 

quadratumy C« conatum. 
Euastrum Didelia. 

Staurastram bifidum, S. Incug, S. margaritaceum. 
Xanthidium faBCteukdum. 

VII. Face of the Ekoil, forty-three miles inlands at 1600 
feet. 

Closterium Diammt C. striokUum, C, Trabecula. 
Coamarium Botrytis, C. Cucumis, Q. margariltferum, C. arbi- 

culaium, C. ovale, C. quadraium. 
Euastrum binak^ E. Didelta. 
Scenedesmus triseriaius. 
Tetmemorus grantdatua. 
Xanthidium /(uctaifa/iaiij X./ureaium. 

VIII. Glen Derry, about seventy miles inland, at 1600 
feet 

Closterium aeerosum, C. Oomu, C. DiafM, C. DifUu9, C. 

Lunula, C. mo7it2i/S?rttm. 
Cosmarium CttCttm», C. margariiifarum, C. oma/iiiii. 
Cylindrocystis Brebtssotm. 
Didymoprium Borreri. 
Euastrum affine, E. ftmofe, E. Didelta, E.gemmaium, E. o&- 

longtim, 
Staurastrum ctmvergens, S. iricome. 
Tetmemorus gramdatus, 

IX. Little Craigendall, Braemar, at 2450 feet 
Closterium Diana, C. Digitus- 

Cosmarium Cucurbita, C. margaritifenm, C. amaium, C* 

quadratum. 
Euastrum affine. 
Pediastrum Boryanum. 
Staurastrum margaritaeewn. 
Tetmemorus granulatua. 

X. Lochnagar, at 2600 feet. 
Closterium Digitus, C. Lunula, C. Trabecula- 



NOTES OF ALO^. 203 

Cosmarium margariiifenm. 
Cylmdrocystis Brebmonu, 
Enaitnim DMeffa. 
Staorastrom eorwerffen$. 
Tetmemoms BreUssoniL 

XL Loch Aitchichanf east side of Ben Muich Dhui^ at 2800 
feet. 

Ck)smariiiin margaritifemmf C. omaium- 
Cylindrocystis BrMssonU. 
Eoastram qfine. 
Tetmemorus BrebisionU. 

fThese five species were found in a black mud beneath 
snow^ which also contained a profusion of DiatomacenB^) 

XIL In a marsh supplied by melting snow^ above Loch 
Aitchichan^ at 3480 feet. 
Closterium Digitus. 
Cosmarium Cucurbita, 
Eoastrum affinCf E. Pelta. 
Micrasterias rotata. 
Staurastnun orbiadare. 
Tetmemoms Brebiasomi. 

XIIL Lochnagar, at 3600 feet. 
Closterium Lunula, C. Digitus. 

Cosmarium Cucurbita, C. margaritiferum^ C. quadratwn. 
Euastrum Didelta. 
Micrasterias rotata. 
Tetmemorus Brebisstmii. 

XIV. Lochnagar, at 3700 feet, in a spring well. 
Closterium Diame. 
Cylindrocystis Brebissonii' 
Staurastrum cofwergens. 

(In the same water were found Synura Uvellay Enchelys ini- 
.fitseata} DigUna ? and Trichoda pura, in great numbers and 
quite active, some of them are common at Aberdeen near 
the 8ea*level.) 

Q 2 



204 



NOTES OF ALOiK. 



The following table indicates the number of British spedel 
in each genus, those found at Aberdeen, those at 1000 feet, 
and those at lower than 2000 feet, &c., &c« 



Closterium 


N0.0fipCGiM 

BriUiD 


No. ofroccies 


No.ofipecics 
1000 feet 


Mo.oripeclcs 
2000 ftet 


iNo.oftpcdM 

aooetei 


14 


14 


9 


4 


3 


Cosmarium 


10 


8 


9 


4 


3 


Cylindrocystis 


1 


1 


I 


1 


1 


Desmidium 


2 


2 











DidTmopriom 


2 


2 


I 








Euastrum 


10 


10 


6 


2 


3 


GIs3opriuin 


2 


2 











Holocystis 


1 


1 











Micrasteriaa 


2 


2 








1 


Pediastnun 


r 


4 





1 





Scenedeflmus 


5 


5 


1 








Staurastram 


16 


11 


7 


2 


2 


Tetmemorus 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




4 


4 


2 








78 


68 


37 


16 


15 



The large proportion of the British species occurring ak 
Aberdeen is worthy of remark ; especially as most of them 
reach also the southern extremity of our island. This may 
be owing to the element in which they live, being little liable 
to rapid changes of temperature : even were it the oonverse, 
probably their low vitality (if the expression may be allowed) 
might render them less liable to be affected by such changes. 
The proportion occurring at altitudes above 1000 feet, I 
believe to be in reality much greater than the table indicates ; 
and future observations will no doubt add to the number of 
species. The localities visited were very unfavourable to the 
presence of. Desmidiea: clear springs with gravel, and the 
streams and streamlets flowing from them being less suitable 
habitations than stagnant pools, and slow streams abound* 
ing in mud and peat. This idea seems to receive support 
£rom the observations made by Mr. P. Grant in another part 
of the country, and which are added to these xemarka. At 
the higher altitudes, the individuals of certain species seemed 
tm be less numerous than in the lower grounds: this was 
especially true of PediasirumBorymum: on the other hand, 
Mienuieruu rotoia was very abundant, and the individuals 



NOTES OP ALOiB. 205 

equally large as those found near the sea level. Several were 
observed at high elevations which have not hitherto been 
seen lower, for instance Siaurastrum IncuSy and S. cowoer^ 
t^nij Cosmarium Cucurbita^ and C. orbiculatum. As these, 
however, occur also in the southern parts of Britain, they 
may yet be detected at Aberdeen. 

L In a marsh in the upper part of Caulochan Glen, at 
2742 feet, the following were found : 
Closterium Diatue. 

Cosmarium margarityerum, C. omaium. 
GIsoprium mucosum. 
Staorastnim orUcularey S. tricome. 

To Mr. P. Grant I am indebted for the following lists of 
species, collected in Banffshire, and on its borders. 

II. Near Lioch Builg, 1600 feet more or less. 
Closterium Ehrenbevyii, C. monUi/erum, C. striohtum. 
Cosmarium Boirytis^ C. crenatutn. 

Euastrum affine, £. genimaiutn. 
Soenedesmas quadriseriatua. 
Staurastmm orbiculare. 
Tetmemorus grannUaius^ 

III. Glen Livat, altitude unknown. 

Closterium acerosum, C. Digitus^ C. Lunula, C. Uneafum. 
Cosmarium Botrytis, C. margariiiferum. 
Scenedesmus quadriaeriaiua. 
Tetmemorus gr^nulatus. 
Xanthidium furcatum. 

IV. Source of the Alyniach, at 3000 feet, more or less. 
Closterium digituay C. Dum«, C. Lunula, C. monUiferum. 
Cosmarium Botrytia, C. CucurHta, C. qmdraium. 
Cylindrocystis Brebiaaoniv 

Desmidium Swarizii. 

Didymoprium Borreri. 

Euastrum Didelia, E. gemmaium, E. affine, E. oblongum, 

E. Pelta, E. roalraium, E. apinaaum^ £. verrucoaum. 
Micrasterias rotaia. 
Pediastrum anguloaumy P. conatrklum. 



306 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

Soenedesmus qmdrisenaius. 
Staurastrum paradoxum, 
Tetmemonis BrebiisoniL 

{To be ctmtinued). 



BOTANZCAI. INFORMATION. 



Death of M. Benjamin Delessbrt. 

We have the melancholy task of announcing the 
recent death, in Paris, of the great Mectenas of Natural 
History, and especially of Botany, M. le Baron 
Benjamin Delessert, which took place at his hotel 
in that city on Monday the 8th of this month. Hia 
loss will be severely felt thicoughout the scientific 
world ; while to his own family and friends, to whom 
he was endeared by the most amiable manners and the 
most generous disposition, it wiU, be irreparable. It 
is some consolation to know that he has made provision 
for the maintenance of his vast Herbarium and Li* 
brary, so that they wiU be still available,] as heretofore, 
to the public good. 



Catalogue of Mr. Geyer's CoUeeiion of PlanU gathered in 
the Upper Missouri, the Oregon Territory, and the 
intervening portion of the Rocky Mountains; hif 
W. J. H, 

{Continued from p. 79). 
Leguminosa, Jub$. 
!• Vicia Americana^ Muhl. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am, 1. p, 157- 
Torr. et Gr. Am, 1. p. 269.— var. foliis latioribus magis 
obtusis. 



M«. OETER's ROCKT mountain PI.ANT8. 207 

Hab. Thickets and rich grassy vallies of Kansas River, (n. 
75). — Far. Valleyof the Kooskooskee. (n.338). — Avery 
variable species in the form and apex of the leaflets : I fear 
the v. Oregona and V. iruncata of Nuttall are mere forms 
of the same* 

1. Lathyms venotus, Mnhl. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 274. 
L. decaphyllusy Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p.*159. Hook, in Bot. 
Mag. t. :il33. L. Californicus, Undl. Bot. Beg. t. 1144. 

Hab. £)evftted meadows, Cosur d'Aleine valley, near St. 
Josephs, (n. 624). — Much confusion still exists among the 
LcUhgri of N. America. The plant here intended is clearly 
the L. deeaphyUui of Hooker, and the L. Califomicus^ 
Lindl. 

2. L. ocktoleuem^ Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 159. Torn et 
Or. Am. I. p. 275. L. pisiforoMs, Bichards. in App. Ftankl. 
Joum. ed. 2. p. 28. 

IIab. Along the foot of the wooded mountains, in high cold 
plains of the Nee Peroes Indians, in fertile meadows. 
Corolla ochroleuoous'. June. (n. 412). 

3. L. omaiua, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 277« 

Hab. Scattered' almost over the whole of the Missouri terri- 
tory, along the banks of rivers. It forms dense groups 
by itself, in the high fertile Prairies of Kansas, near Platte 
RivCT. Flowers very large^ fragrant, white, rose, also 
pink or crimson. The Pawnees collect the young legumes 
for food. (n. 255). 

4* h. pofymorpkus, Nutt. — DC. Prodr. 2. p. 371. T<ht. et Gr. 
Am. 1. p. 277* i>« decaphyllus, Ph. {not Hook.^ according to 
Torr. and Gr.) Vicia stipulaeea, Ph. {according to Torr. and 
Gr.) 

Hab. High dry openings in the woody mountains of Cceur 
d'Aleine River. Flowers varying from pale rose to pur- 
plish, (n. 312).— Three varieties are included in Mr. 
Oeyer^s specimens under this: 1. With leaves broadly 
ellipticaL 2. Leaves narrow elliptical. 3. Leaves lanceo- 
late, Uoear or linear-filiform. 

1* Qlycyrrhisa l^dota, Nutt. — Sims, Bot Mag. t. 2150. 



MR. QEYEB's rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS^ 

Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 138. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 
298. 
H AB. Gravelly banka of rivers, Missouri and Or^on Terri- 
tory. July, August, (n. 65). 

1. Psoralea lanceolata, Ph.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 135. t. 
51. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 299- P. elliptica. Ph.— P. are- 
naria, Nutt. DC. — j3« magis firuticosa) ramosaque, foliis 
minoribus. 

Hab. Covering, together with Rumesfvenosus^ the drift-sand 
hills of Lower Platte, and binding the sand by its long 
creeping roots. June. Corolla bluish-white, (n. 170). — 
0. Drift-sand plains at the mouth of the Walla WaHa 
River. Roots very long ; caudex woody ; forming laige 
prostrate bushes, binding with their branches as well a» 
with their roots, the loose sand together. Corolla light 
blue. June^ July. (n. 653). 

2. P.Jhribunda, Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 300. 

Hab. Fertile elevated plains of the Lower Platte, with P. 
esculenia and '^ Coreopsis palmata.*' July. Flowers deep 
blue. (n. 67). 

3. P. esculenia, Ph. Am. 2. p. 475. t. 22. Torr. et Or. Am. 1. 
p. 202. 

Hab. Fertile plains of the whole of Missouri and Daootah 
territories, growing with P.Jhribunda. July. Flowers pale 
blue. This is the Prairie-tumep of travellers ; the bread of 
the Sioux Indians, (n. 58). 

4. P. hypogaa, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 302. 

Hab. On the ^ Black Hills,'^ near the passage of* Hone 
River/' not far from the IHatte. *^ Di£ferent from the 
P. esculenia, which ceases to the westward.^' Corolla Ugbt 
blue. (n. 269). 

1. Trifolium eriocephalum, Nutt.<-*Torr. et Or. Am, 1. p. 
313. 

Hab. High swampy meadows in the Nez Peroez mountains, 
(n. 379)« — A most distinct and fine spedes. 

5. T. aUissimum, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. I. p. 130. t. 48. Torre 
etOrrAm. l.p. 313. 



UR. OSTER's liOCKY MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 209 

Hab. Escavated water-courses of Trappe-rock: Tableaux 
Highlands of Spokan, and Coeur d'Aleine River. July, 
(n. 472). 

3. T. Andinumy Natt— Torr. et Or. Am. I. p. 314. 

Hab. On an isolated calcareous cliff between Sweet Water, 
and Big Sandy River of Upper Colorado. August, (n. 105). 
—A very carious and rare dwarf alpine species^ only pre- 
viously found by Mr. Nuttall. 

4. T. Umgipea^ Nutt.— Torr. et 6r. Am. 1. p^ 315.-/3. 
UU^olium\ foliis majoribus fere late ovatis subrhomboi- 
disve. 

Hab. Stony banks of Flathead River. September. Heads of 
flowers white, (n. 283). jS. Open Pine* woods on the undu- 
lating ridge of Cceur d'Aleine Mountains, near St. Josephs, 
(n. 659). Mr. Oordon finds the same species on the upper 
sources of the Platte River. The roots are much branched 
and intricatedy running under the soil and sending out sto- 
lones. The first leaflets of these stolones in a» are small and 
obcordate ; the rest linear*oblong or lanceolate, acute at both 
ends : — in jS. the leaves are very broad, and the plant assumes 
mudi the character of T. rqpena : but the calyces are always 
hairy, and the segments much longer and narrower. 

5. T. eyathifmrn^ Lindl. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 133. t. 
50. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 320. 

Hab. Stony meadows in Pine woods and along rivulets in 
the high plains of Spokan and Flathead Rivers. Flowers 
pale red or whitish, (n. 639). 

6. T* microeephahm^ Ph. Am. 2. p. 478. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 
l.p. 132. Torr. et Gr. Fl. I. p. 317* — var. bipedak; omni- 
bus partibus majus, involucris foliis stipulisque duplo 
majoribus. 

Hab. Exsiccated water-courses ; plains of Spokan and Flat- 
head Rivers. Corolla lurid-white or reddish, i . (n. 640). 
-"iHir. Water-courses in the sterile plains of Tshimakain, 
Spokan country, trailing through dense grasses, (n. 678).— 
The variety here noticed exactly agrees with the a, except 
in the larger size of all the parts. 



210 MR. 

1, Hosackia decumbent, Benth. — Hook. Fl.Bor. Am« 1. p. 
34. Totr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 324. 

Hab. The only flowering plant seen daring summer on the 
vast stohy Table Land of the Spokan countryy mostly 
rootiil|g in the crevices of Trappe masses. It forms dense 
mass^) one foot in diameter. In sandy woods it grows 
erect, (n. 553). 

2. H.* Purshiana, Benth. — Hook, et Am. Bot. of Beech. 
Voy. p. 137. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 327. 

Hab. Gravelly banks of rivers, and water-com'ses in the plains 
and mountains of Missouri and Oregon territories. A 
variety, with one leaflet only, occurs in the fields and farm 
yards about Fort Colville. June, July. (n. 578). 

1. Astriigalus Hypogloitis, L.— Engl. Bot t 274. Hook. Fl. 
Bor. Am. 1. p. 148. — var. robustuai major, robustior. 

Hab. Low fertile meadows, river valley of Laramie's Fork, 
Upper Platte. July. Corolla pale lilac (n. 127.) Var. 
High gravelly plains of Upper Platte near Laramie's 
Fork ; seen also on the west side of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, very abundant on the Upper Missouri, Teten River. 
Colour pale purple (n. 126.) — ^Tlie lai^ state of this plant 
seems to me identical with A. adsurgensy and is very near 
the O. enobrychoides from Altai. 

2. A. pauciflorus, Hook. Fi. Bor. Am. 1. p. 149. Torr. et Gr. 
Am. 1. p. 31^9. 

Hab. On olay-banks in the small springy meadows in the 
desert of the Upper Platte River. June. (n. 3.) 

3. A. gradUs, Nutt — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 229. — 0* erecius, 
elongalus. 

Hab. StQny, arid ridges of the Upper Platte, rare. June, 
July, (n. 74.)— /3. Gravelly hills, Upper Platte, with 
^ Polygalm aiba and Calymema angusii/oUa." This b the 
liqu^rioe-root of the Teton-Sioux Indians. June. (n. 223.) 
— Habit of Psoraka and of some PJuuub^ especiaUy of 
Ph. elongaia^ Hook. The true plant of Nuttall. Var. ^. 
is a taller and stronger growing state. 

4. A. carfocarpusy Ker, Bot. Reg. t. 176. Hook. FL Bar. 



MB. OBYBR's rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS/ 211 

Am. 1. p. 150. Torr. et 6r. Am. 1. p. 331. A. sncculentus, 
Richards. App. Frank!, ed. 2. p. 29. lindl. Bot. Reg. 1. 
1324. 
Hab. Fertile plains of Kanzas River, near Vermillion Riyer, 
in stony sunny situations. Corolla pale purple. Legume 
otbI, large, fleshy. Stems prostrate. June. (n. 128.) 

5. A. ^^kumiliaj* Geyer, mst.; cano^^sericeus, radice fusiforroi, 
foliis omnibus radicalibus petiolatis pinnatis, pinnis | 
undam longis, obovato-ellipticis utrinque plerumqae acutis, 
stipulis — ?, scapis folio brevioribus paucifloris, legumine 
(undam longo) ovato acnminato pilosulo camoso crasso 
compresso ruguloso apice uncinato deflexo. 

Hab. On a stony ridge ia the Black Hills, (n. 125.) Upper 
Platte River, Gcrdon. — ^This appears to be a very distinct 
species from any hitherto described ; but from the imper- 
fect state of the spedmens, I am obliged to speak with 
caution. One spedmeais in the collection of Mr. Gordon 
from the Upper Platte; from the scape of which the 
flowers or legumes have fallen: the other is from Mr. 
Oeyer and has a solitary legume, a good deal resembling 
that of A. cartfocarpus. The great size of the leaflets of 
the entirely radical leaves and their silky clothing are 
characteristic of the spedes. 

6. A. glareotu», Dougl. in Hook. Fl. Bon Am. 1. p. 152. 
Torr. et 6r. Am. 1. p. 334. 

Hab. On a calcareous rock, called <^ South Bluffs," near Horse 
Kver of the Upper Platte. June» (n. 39.) 

7* A. leucqpkyttuBF, Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 336. 

Hab. On layers of stiff, ferruginous clay-banks on the Trappe 
Mountain declivities ; Upper Kooskooskee. May. (n. 378.) 
—This plant is evidentiy allied to A. Canadenrii, but has 
the flowers in longer spikes and nearly erect. The calyx 
is sprinkled with blade silky hairs. Fruit subcylindrical, 
compressed, nearly an inch long, glabrous with a deep 
AtfTOw on one dde and a keel on the other suture. It 
seems to agree with the description of A. leueaphyllua; a 
plant said to be found by Douglas in California. 



212 

8. A. DrummandUj Dougl. in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. I5S. 

t. 57. Torr. et Or. Am. 1. p. 337. 
Hab. Fertile elevated plains of Platte River near Laramie's 

Fork. July. Two feet high, very bushy; corolla always 

white, (n. 52.) 

1. Oxytropis Lamberiij Ph. — Nutt. Gen. Am. 2. p. 98. Hook. 
Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 147. Torr. et Or. Am. 1. p. 339. 

Hab. Elevated gravelly plains of Kansas and Lower Platte 
lUvers. This species of Aairagalus varies with all die 
beautiful colours exhibited in Laihyrus. It generally grows 
in company with ^^ Pentsfemon albidus/^ and *' Sida coe- 
ctfteo.'^ June. (n. 770 

2. O. sericea, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 339.— jS. foliis 
omnibus obovato-ellipticis. 

Hab. /3. On the Black Hills near Fort Laramie. Corolla of 
the same colour as the flowers of Apios tuberoaa, (n. 256.) 

3. O. campestrU, DC. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 147* Torr. 
et Gr. Am. 1. p. 341. — /3. speciosoj Hook. I. c. 

Hab. /3. On the fertile elevated plains of the Platte River^ 
with Psoralea esculenia and canescens. Flowers yellowish- 
rose colour, often pure white, or having the vexiUam 
tipped with violet. June. (n. 5.) — These are superb speci- 
mens, a foot or a foot and a half long. Spikes much elon- 
gated, especially in fruit. Leaves and calyces very silky. 
Mr. Gordon finds the same noble variety on the Upper 
Platte. 

4. O. muUieeps, Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 311. 

Hab. Stony ridges along the hills of Upper Platte, growing 
with MamiUaria sinqilexy very rare. July. (n. 120.) 

5. O. deflexa, DC. lUchards. App. Frankl- Joum. ed. 2. 
p. 28. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 148. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. 
p. 342.— jS. aericea, Torr, et Gr. Am. 1. c. 

Hab. In a small meadow on the Upper Sweet Water River 

Mountains, rare. August, (n. 108). 
1. Phaca CMpUosOy Nutt. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 143. t 

55. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 342.— 1/3. foliis duplo triplo mi- 

noribus vix flores superantibus. 



MR. GBTBR's ROCKT MOUNTAIN PLANTS* 213 

Ha&. fit Stony plains, on the nortb and south Forks of the 
Platte. Corolla always white. Geyer. n. 166.— I do not 
see how this can be distinguished from P. CiSspUosa. It 
has much smaller leaves, and shorter petioles. P« argo- 
phyUa^ on the other hand, judging by original specimens 
from Mr. Nuttall, has broader leaflets than P. aespUosa^ 
and is I fear a mere variety. 

2. P* ^ericeOf Nutt— Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 343. 

Hab. Calcareous cliffs and rocky ridges, Upper Platte River, 
growing with ** Evohmlus argenteus. Corolla reddish. June. 
(n.l61.) 

3. P. lanffifolia, Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 346.— Pso- 
ralea longifolia-, Ph. DC. Orobus longif. Nutt, Oen. Am. 
2. p. 95. O. ? longifol. DC. Torr. in Am. Lye. N. York, 2. 
p. 180. 

Hab. Rare. On drift-sand of the plains of Upper Platte, 
growing in groups and binding the sand-hills with its 
long filiform roots. Corolla lurid. Legume much inflated, 
whitish-green, dotted with pale purple, (n. 22). A most 
curious and beautiful species : found also by Mr. Gordon, 
(in the Lower Platte Sweet Water River) who observes 
that the large pods are spotted like a bird's egg. 

4. P« mmua (Gey. mst.) ; annua simplex erecta v. ramosa 
prostrata caneacenti-hirsuta, ramis flezuosis, foliis.pinnatis, 
foliolis linearibus obtusis> racemis axillaribus copiosis flori- 
feris folio brevioribus fructiferis sublongioribus, floribus 
parvis ochroleucb, calycibus sericeis corollas dimidiam 
ttquantibtts^ leguminibus ovatis membranaceis inflatis 
(} unc. longis) sarsum curvatis acuminatis. 

Hab. On firm clayey banks, among ^Artemisia cana?* in 
the drift-sand phdns of the Upper Platte River. Grows 
in masses; flowers yellowish-white. June. (n. 1.) — ^An 
annual species, apparently very distinct, especially by the 
(comparatively) small size of its inflated membranaceous 
ieticulated glabrous legumes. The same species, however, 
was gathered by Mr. Gordon in the Platte and by Mr. 
Douglas in 1835 ; but the station is not mentioned. 



214 MB. GBTER's BOCKT MOUNTAllf PLANTS. 

5. V.pedmaiaj Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 142. t. 5i« Toir. 
et 6r. Am. 1. p. 347. 

Hab. Orayelly bank of LuittKe River. TWo leefc \a^ 
biifihy. July. (n. 50.) 

6. P. Mrafeo/a, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 145. Torr. et Gr. 
Am. 1. p. 349. 

Hab. On a small fertile tract of the plains of Sweet Water 
River. One of the most showy of the genos^ two feet 
hi^, forming large bushes. Colour varying from pure 
white to purple violet. July. (n. 21.) 

8. P. moUiarima, Nutt.— Torr. et 6r. Am. i. p. 350. Astn- 
galus Purahii, Dougl. in Hook, ft Bor. Am. 1. p. S36. 
Twr. et Gr. Am. I. p. 336. 

Hab. Sandy sterile woods of Spokan River and Kooskoos- 
kee. A prostrate plant. July. (n. 562.) — I think NuttaQ 
is correct in referring this to Phaca and I willingly adopt 
his name. 

1. Homalobns multiflorus, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 361. 
Phaca nigrescens, Hook. FL Bor. Am. 1. p. 143. Ervimi 
multiflorum et Astragalus tenellus {mpart) Ph. (fide Torr. 
et Gr.) — Homalobus dispar, Nutt. 

Hab. On a clayey saline bank near Laramie lUver, Upper 
Platte. Common on the Upper Missouri, where it forms 
very lai^ patches. Corolla white. June. (n. 56.)— This 
does not accord in general habit with the rest of the genus 
HomalobuB ; and I think it is better retained in Phaca till 
that genus shall be more thoroughly revised. Mr. Nuttall*s 
original specimens of H* dispar are not di£ferent from 
this* 

2. H. eampestris, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Or. 1. p. 351. 

Hab. Found under Artemisia cana in the drifl-sand plains, 
between Platte and Sweet Water Rivers. July. Corolla 
straw-coloured. Plant perennial. Geyer, (n. 106.) 

3. H. orthocarpus, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 351. 
Hab. Gravelly plains of the south Fork of Platte River, with 

Lupinus puriUua and Polygala alba. Flowers lurid. June 
Geyer. (n. 2.) 



MB. GBTBR8 ROCKY MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 215 

4. H. deenmbrnt^ Natt. — Terr, et 6r. Am. 1. p, 352. 

Hab. Sandy slopes of the volcanic Table-lan^Sf , towards 
Spokan and Columbia River. Corolla pale lilac. July, 
(n. 475.) — H. tenuJjfoUuf/yxAffjkg from Mr. Nuttall's speci- 
men, is scarcely different from this. 

5. H. braehycarpus, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 352. 
Hab. Forming large patches, on the calcareous cliffs of the 

Rocky Hills of the Upper Platte near the Forks. June. 
(n. 171.) — ^This is named Phaca mnpliqfoUa, Nutt., by 
Mr. Geyer ; and it seems to accord sufficiently with the 
description of that species which, Drs. Torrey and Gray 
observe has the habit of Homalobm. 

1. Kentrophyta montana, Nutt. — Torr. et Gr. Am. I. p. 353. 
— i3. viridi8f K. viridis, Nuit. Torr. et Gr. L c. 

Hab. /3. Gravelly denuded sunny places, in the drift-sand 
pfadns of Upper Pbtte, with '' (Enothera cormoptfolia** 
Flowers bluish* white. June. (n. 123). — Very variable in 
the hoary or silky covering. Splendid specimens, and some 
quite white with silky down, were found by Mr. Gordon, 
in the Upper Platte, (n. 7^0 Mr- Doi^las also gathered 
this plant in 1835, but the exact locality is not recorded. 

1. Hedysamm eanescenf^ Nutt. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. 
p. 257. 

Hab. On deep ferruginous gravel, banks of a small river 
near the *' Red Buttes," between Platte and Sweet Water 
Wvera, rare, and seen nowhere else. Standard rose colour, 
wings bluish-lilac, June. (n. 71*) — Exactly according with 
Mr« Nuttall's specimens, both in leaves, flower and fruit, 
and with specimens found by Mr. Gordon on the Upper 
Platte. 

1. hxk]imvM laxyiaruB^ Dougl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1140. Hook, 
n. Bor. Am. 1. p. 164. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 377. 

Hab. Rocky ravines of the granite mountains. Sweet Water 
Kver. Sufiruticose, three feet high, very bushy. Stan- 
dard blue ; keel purplish, white or yellow. July- (n. 29.) 

«. WoHotuB, Nutt — L. Arbustus, Daugl in Bot. Reg. 1. 1230. 



S16 MR. OEYBR's ROCISY MOtTXTAIN PLANTS. 

Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. IGI. L. laxiflorus, /3. folicxras, 
Torr. et Gr. l./>. 877- 
Hab. Dry open Pine woods, Nez Percez Highlands. Msny 
stems arise from one root. Flowers blae and yellowish. 
June. (n. 423.) 

3. L. ttlbicaulisj Dougl.— Hook. PI. Bor. Am. 1. p. 165. Torr. 
et 6r. 1. p. 878. L. falcifer, Nutt. in Hook, herb, 

Hab. Loamy, calcareous, sunny places, Kooskooskee Valley, 
(n. 390). 

4. L. purittua, Ph.— Hook. Fl. Bor., Am. 1. p. 162, Torr. et 
Gr. 1, p. 374. 

Hab. Gravelly hills on the Platte, very abundant, growing 
with Oaura coccineaj Sida coccinea^ and (Enoihera pimuUi^ 
fida. Standard azure, wings yellow or brownish. May, 
June. (n. 225.) 

5. L. polyphyllus, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1097, et,t. 1377. (/3. 
albiflorus). Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 164. 

Hab. High plains of the Kooskooskee River. May, Jane, 
(n. 391.) 

1. Thermopsis rhomb\f6Uay Nutt. {under Thermid^y Gen. 1. 
p. 283. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 128. t. 47. Torr. et 
Gr. Am. 1. p. 388. Cytisus rhombifolius, PA. 

Hab. Denuded places in the fertile valley of *' Black's Fork," 
Upper Colorado. Root ligneous, strong and creeping. 
August, (n. 224.) 

2. T./aAacea, DC— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 148. Torr. 
et Gr. Am. 1. p. 388. Sophora fabaoea, PalL AMtrag^ 
t. 90./ 2. 

Hab. Shady woods and open valleys, Nez Percez country. 
Root many yards long, thick, creeping, very tenacious. 
Legumes erect. Plant 1-3 feet high. May. (n. 365.) 

3. Th. mon/ana,— Nutt. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 388. 

Hab. Calcareous slopes of the **Bhick Hills,'^ near the 

Platte, rare. May, June. (n. 254.) 
1. Sophora sericea^ Nutt. — Torr. et Or. Am. 1. p. 390. 
Hab. Stony high plains and gravelly hills of Upper Platte. 



MB. GBTBB*8 BOCKY MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 217 

Boot creeping, very long and tenacious. Racemes of 
flowers always central and sessile. Flowers white. July 
(n. 258.) 

ROSAOB^I JU$8. 

1. Phinus Amerieanaj Marsh. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 407. 

P. nigra, Aii.-^Ph» — Bot. Mag. t 11 17- Cerasus nigra, 

Hook. FJ. Bor. Am. I. p. 167. 
Hab. Fertile sheltered valleys, under Pines: only seen in 

the Coeur d^Aleine country. Without flowers or firuit. 

April, (n. 496.) 
1. Cerasus mottisy Dougl. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 169. 

Torr. et 6r. Am. I. p. 410. 
Hab. Slopes of the fertile grassy mountains^n tiie Coeur 

d'Aleine country, between Upper Spokan and j^ vOreilles 

Rivers. Small tree, scarcely 10 feet high. April, (n. 288.) 

1. Spiraea eptdifolia, L. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 171* 
Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 413. 

Hab. Rocky shady places, valley of Kooskooskee River. 
Eight feet high ; with arcuate branches. June. (n. 558.) 

2. 8. betuktfoUa, Pall. Fl. Ross. t. 16. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 
L p. 172. — S. chamcedrifolia, PA. 

Hab* Stony alpine declivities, Spokan Mountains, common : 
never more than 2-3^ feet high. June. (n. 657-) 

3. 8. aruBfoKay Sm. in Rees, CycL— Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1. 1365. 
Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 173. 

Uab. Fertile slopes of the mountains. Upper Oregon ; very 
conunon. (n. 567.) 

4. 8. dumoM, Natt— S. discolor, Ph. {fide Torr. et Gr,)— 
8. ariscfolia, /3. discolor, Torr. et Gr. Am. l.p.AlG. 

Hab, Stony and sandy places of Platte River; a shrub, 
from 2-10 feet high: and at the mouth of Walla- Walla 
River, Upper Oregon. June. (n. 228.) — ^These are speci- 
mens of a dwarf shrub, with leaves smaller than those of 
a gooseberry, and the foliage and panicles very different 
from those of S. arti^/ia, with which Torrey and Gray unite 

VOL. VI. B 



218 MR. obybr's rocky mountain plants. 

# 

it. Nuttall's^ Geyer's and Gordon's Bpecimens (the latter 

from the Upper Platte) are uniform. 
5. S. Menziesii, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 173. Torr. et Gr. 

Am. 1. p. 415. 
Has. Thickets in the plains of Spokan River Valley, along 

rivulets. Flowers rose-pink. Shrub 4-5 feet high. June. 

(n. 432.) 
1. Geum macropkyUumj Willd.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 421. 

G. strictum, /3. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. l-jb 175. 
Has. Shady banks of streams and thickets. Upper Missouri 

and Oregon territories. June. (n. 251.) 
1. Sieversia trijlara, Br. — Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2858, et 

Fl. Bor. Am. i. p. 176. Geum triflorum, PA. — Torr. ei 

Gr.Am. I. p. 423. 
Has. Moist grassy slopes of mountains and all over the 

prairies of Upper Oregon, May. (n. 296.) 
i. Cercocarpua beiuloides ? Nutt. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 

427. 
Has. a shrub of 12-15 feet, growing on a precipice of the 

first Trappe mountains, opposite the *^ Red Buttes" between 

Platte and Sweet Water Rivers; July. (n. 195.)— This plant 

is without flowers or fruit ; and Mr. Geyer had marked it 

^Alnus cuneaia,'* Gey. ; but it has the stipules of a Ro> 

saceous plant, and exhibits adl the appearance of a sterile 

shoot from Cercocarpus beiuloides, Nutt. in Hook, herb.; 

though the leaves are larger (2 inches long) and more downy, 

especially beneath. 
1. Purshia irideniaiOj DC— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 170. 

t. 58. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 428. Ugarea tridentata, PA. 

Am. I. p. S3, i. 15. 
Hab. Stony plains of Lower Platte River, mostly on decH* 

viUes. Seen again at the mouth of Walla-walla River, 

Upper Or^on. 3-6 feet high. June. (n. 272.) 
1. Sanguisorba mmta, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 429. 

Poterium annuum, Nuii. in Hook.F1. Bor. Am. 1. p. 198. 
Hab. Loamy, stony, sunny water-courses, Spokan high- 



MR. OBYBIl*8 ROOKY MOtTNTAIN PLANTB. 219 

lands, with Hosackia Pur$hiana. The seedling plants have 
tawny-coloured leaves in the winter. July. (n. 4670 

L Fragaria Vvrgimanay Ehrh. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1% p. 
184. Torr. et Gr. Am, 1. p. 448. F. Canadensis, 3fr. 

Hab. Mountains of Spokan and Cosur d'Aleine Rivers, (n. 
612.) — On these specimens a pair of small leaflets (not 
opposite, but alternate) resembling the bracts at the base 
of the pedicels, exist below the leaflets on the petiole ; and 
Mr. Geyer observes that they are oommon. 

1. Potentilla Nwvegica^ L. — Hook. Fl* Bor. Am*. 1. p. 193. 
Torr. et 6r. Am. I. p. 436. 

Hab. Meadows at Black's Fork, Upper Colorado, growing 
with CtenUana punctata. August, (n. 217.)— A common, 
bat very variable species. This specimen is tall, (a foot 
high), stout, with leaflets nearly 2 inches long. 

2. P. £ffii»a, DougL— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 189. Torr. et 
Gr. Am. 1. p. 437- 

Hab. On an isolated calcareous peak, near the ^' Wind River'' 
Mountains, August, (n. 99.) and clayey hills about Fort 
Laramie, with GutOerezia Euthemia ; rare. June, July. (n. 
69.) 

S. P. goigypima^ Nutt.— P. arachnoidea, Dougl, et Lehm. met. 
twrf. — P. effusa, y. gossypina, Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 
437. 

Hab. Fertile meadows and plains in the valley of the Platte, 
near Laramie's Fork. Jaly. (n. 119.) — Mr. Gordon's spe« 
cimens of this plant, from the Upper Platte, in my pos- 
session, are named by Mr. Nuttall ; and they are assuredly 
quite distinct from P. ejgfwCf with which Messrs. Torrey and 
Grey unite P. jfossypina. Mr. Douglas found it in the Walla- 
Walla, at the base of the Blue Mountains, and named it 
(and Dr. Lehmann, to whom the N. American PoteniUUB 
were submitted, sanctioned the name) P. arachnoidea ; but 
he remarked *' the imperfect state of the specimen does 
not allow it to be accurately described." It was therefore 
omitted in the Flora Boreali-Americana. 

r2 



I 

220 MR. QBTBB^S ROOKY MOUNTAIN PLANTS. | 

I 

4. P.JIabelltfofink^ Nutt.— Hook. Flor. Bor. Am. 1. p. 192. i 
t. 66. p. gracilis, jS. flabelliformiBy Tbrr. ei Gr. Am, l» p. 

440. 
Hab. My specimen of this has no number, nor habitat; but 
a note accompanies it, indicating that it was found along 
with P. finsa ; viz., in the Spokan country. 

5. P. Permsyhanica^ L — y- bipinnatifida, Ibrr. ei Gr. Am, 

l.p. 438. P. bipinnatifida, Dougl in Hook. Fl. Bar. Am. \ 

I. p. 188. 

6. P.feaa, Nutt.~Torr. et Or. Am. 1. p. 446. 

Hab. Granite mountains. Sweet Water River; and on 

Spokan River, found only on rocks, (n. 637-) 
1. Rubus NutkanuSy Mo;.~Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3453, and 

Fl. Bor.Am. 1. p. 183. 
Hab. Deep shady fertile woods, east and west side of the 

Rocky Mountains, adong rivulets : — abundant on the hills 

of the Upper Platte, June. (n. 148.) 
1. Amdanchier Ckmadenm^ (Mespilns, L.) — i. alnifoH^, Tbrr. 

et Gr, Am. I. p. 473. Am. ovidis, /3. subintegrifdia. Hook* 

Fl. Bar. Am. I. p. 202. Am. florida, LbuU. Bat. Reg. i. 1589. 
Hab. Mountains, Upper Missouri and Oregon territories; 

collected near the snow line of the Nez Ptoses country. 

June. (n. 489.) 

Onagrabiba, Juss. 

1. Epilobium angusiifolium^ L,— Hook. El. Bor. Am. 1. p. 
205. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 487. 

Hab. Willow thickets, Upper Oregon and Missouri teni- 
tones, above lat 44®. (n. 229.) 

2. E. mffruticonm^ Nutt.— Torr. et Or. Am. I. p. 488, 
Hab. Oravelly banks of Flathead River; seen nowhere 

else. Root creeping, (n. 113.) — One of the moat remark* 
able and distinct of the genus^ cmly previously found by 
the indefatigable Nuttall. 
2. £. teiroffomm, L.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 206. Torr. 
et Or. Am. 1. p. 489. £. glandulosum, Lehm, 



IfR. GBTBIt's ROOKY MOUNTATN PLANTS* 221 

Hab. Swampy meadows; Table lands near Kooskcmskee. 

Jane. (n. 518.)— As I have elsewhere remarked, I cannot 

distinguish £. fflandulatum from E. ietraganum. 
S. E. eohraium^ MahL — Lehm. in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. 

p. 206. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 489. 
Hab. Swampy meadows , Missouri and Oregon territories, 

above lat. 44o., growing with E. lati/blium. July, Aug. (n. 

281.) 

4. E.pabiftre, h.-^fi. albiflorum, Lehm. — Hook. Fl. Bar. Am. 
\.p. 207- Torr. ei Or. Am. l./?.490. E. lineare, Muhl 

Hab. Swampy springy meadows, Sweet Water River. July, 
(n. 275.) 

5. E. mm«/tfin, Idndl.«--Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 207- Torr. 
etGr. Am. l.p. 490. 

Hab. Sandy arid slopes of the Spokan Mountains, near 
Tshimakaine; rare: growing with Clarkia jndobella. July, 
(n. 545.) 

6. E. pamadaium, Nutt.~Torr. et Gr. Am. I. p. 4dO. 
Hab. Plains of Upper Oregon, common. July, Sept. (n. 

S80.) 

1. CBnotbera DrmmnondU, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3361. Torr. 
et Or. Am. 1« p. 493. yii . t ^ v » ^ * 1 1 * .,» • .» <^^/^ 

Hab. On the last ranges of the Missouri limestone hills, in 
the valley of Upper Kansas River, growing with Pent- 
Hemon grandiflorw} rare. (n. 268.) 

2. (E. nnwto, L.— ^3. minima, Nuii.^ffook. Bot. Mag. t. 
3392. (E. minima. Ph. 

Hab. High arid stony plains, between Sweet Water River 
and Wind River Mountains ; rare and scattered, (n. 647.) 
—A most variable species: in a young state the ap- 
peaianoe is very different from that of the older and fully 
fimned plant. 

S> CB. jrinnatifida, Nutt.— Torr. et Or. Am. 1. p. 494. CE. 
albicaulis. Ph. 

Hab. Fertile elevated plains of the Upper Platte, mostly on 
the beapa of earth before the burrows of the '^ Prairie 



MarmoV' growing with Solanum ir^lorum: sometimes 
in loose sand. June, July. Flowers white, (n. 37.) 

4. (E. coronopifoUay Torr. Ann. Lye. N. York, 2. p. 201, (not 
of Nutt.) Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 495. 

Has. Drift-sand plains. Upper Platte ; and sterile stony 
table landsj growing with Opuniia Hiasurica, Flowers white. 
June, July. (n. 38.) — I fear too near the preceding. 

5.. CE. trichocalyx^ Nutt.— Torr. et 6r. Am. 1. p. 494. 

Hab. On a gravelly spot near the Forks of the Platte, in the 
valley. Corolla white. July. (n. 175.) — Mr. Oeyer alludes 
to this as a hybrid between CE. albicaulis and (E. pitmati' 
fida : but to me it appears to be a most distinct spedes 
and quite according with the CE. irichocafyx^ Nutt. Mr. 
Gordon also finds the identical plant in the upper valley 
of the Platte. Root creeping. 

6. CE^paUida, Dougl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1142. Hook. Fl. Bor. 
Am. p. 210. 

Hab. Sunny gravelly slopes of Upper Platte River. Flowers 
white, larger than those of CE. albicaulis. July. (n. 176.) 

7. CE. guttulata. Gey. mst. ; subcanescens sufTruticosa cos* 
pitosa e basi prsedpue ramosa, ramis gracilibus ascenden- 
tibus nunc ramulosis^ foliis approximatis oblongo-lanoeo- 
latis remote dentatis erectiusculis. floribus axillaribus soli* 
tariis majusculis sessilibus folio duplo triplove longioribus, 
ovario elliptico tubo calycis subduplo breviore, petalis 
(roseis maculosis) late obcordatis, stigmate cruciatim 4* 
partito. ^ ... * - c^ ^' • • ' 

Hab. Sunny borders of exsiccated situations, plains of Upper 
Platte, growing with Uppia cun^foUa, Rare and new ? CTo- 
rolla rose-colour, with variously sized purple doti. Stems 
prostrate or ascending. June. (n. 178.)— Mr. Gordon also 
finds the same species in the Upper Platte. Quite a new 
species, as Mr. Geyer suspected, with something the habit 
and foliage and flowers (in size) of CE. palUda^ var./3. lepto- 
phylla, r. et Gr* (CE. leptophylla, Nutt.) ; but of a much 
more fruticose and wiry habit : the branches and calyx and 



MR. GBYBR'b rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 223 

leaves are generally clothed with white appressed hairs. The 
bark is more glabrous, and never loosens, and peels off, as 
in the species just mentioned. The flowers scarcely droop 
before expansion : the upper portion of the calyx bursts on 
one side all the way, and the segments cohere at the point 
and bend back. I cannot point out any species to which 
it is particularly allied. 

8. GB. aUncautia, Nutt.-^Hook. Fl. Bor. Am, 1. p. 210. (not 
Ph.) Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 495. 

Hab. Sparingly scattered over the whole range of the deserts 
of Upper Missouri and Oregon territory: often 4 feet 
high, and very bushy. Corolla white. July. (n. 47*) 

9. (E. triloba^ Nutt.— Sims, Bto. Mag. t. 2566. Torr. et Gr. 
Am. 1. p. 499*. - y\ , LC A^4i^. , •'A.^ 

Hab. Springy moory places on the high cold plains of the 
Nes Percez Indians, at Salmon river. Root fusiform, 
having the same taste as that of (E. biennis. June. (n. 
406.) 

10. (E. C€B9pUo9a^ Nutt. — Sims, Hot. Mag. t. 1593. 

Hab. Clayey calcareous slopes of the argillaceous bitumi- 
nous slate-hills of Upper Platte. Flowers large, white, 
turning rose-coloured. Rare on the Platte, but abundant 
on the Missouri, along with '* Astragalus galegoides" (n. 
160.) — ^The (E. moniana of Nuttall seems almost to unite 
the CE. margmata of that author with (E. caspiiosa. 

11. OS. btvanduktfoUaj Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 501. 

Hab. Grows within a narrow limit near the junction of the 
north and south fork of the Platte, on decomposed calca- 
reous rocks, with Phaca simpUc^folia. Flowers the colour 
of Carihomus iinctcrius. (n. 16.) — ^A very distinct and rare 
species ; but allied, as Messrs. Torrey and Gray justly 
observe, to the Mexican CE. Hartwegi of Benth. : they 
pobt out the distinguishing characters^ The fruit exists 
on beautiful specimens gathered by Mr. Gordon in the 
Upper Platte: it is about an inch long, sessile, linear- 
davate, terete, or obscurely angled, with a four-cleft sum- 
mit 



MB. OBTBR 8 ROCKY MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 

J 2. (E. serrulaia, Nutt i3. Douglasii, Torr. et Gr. et Am^ 1. 

p. 502'. (E. leucocarpa^ Lehm. in Hook. FL Bor. Am. l.p, 

502. 
Hab. Gravelly elevated plains, Upp^ Kansas and Lower 

Platte Rivers, growing with Psoralea eseuienta and eo- 

nescens. Jane. (n. 165.) 

13. CE. densijiora, Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1 1593. 

Hab. Stony water-courses, Spokan plains, growing witk 
Hosackia Pursfdanoj rare. Flowers purple. June. (n. 591.) 
— A very peculiar plant, with deeply cleft petals and the 
habit of a Ly thrum. 

14. CE. scapoidea (Cbilismia), Nutt.^Torr. et Or. Am. 1. p. 
506. 

Hab. Slopes of the calcareous argillaceous hills of the Upper 
Colorado. July, August, (n. 94.) — A most remarkable 
looking plant, extremely unlike any other (EnoUera*, found 
also in die Rocky Mountains by Mr. Gordon. Mr. Geyer's 
specimens are 8-9 inches high. 

15. CE. corUoriOy Dougl.^Hocdc. M. Bor. Am« 1. p. 214. 
Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 511. 

Hab. Growing under bushes of Eremontioy in the sandy 
saline desert of Upper Sweet Water River. July. (a. 45.) 

1. Grayophytum diffiunm (Trichomeria), Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. 
Am. p. 513. 

Hab. Sandy pine-woods at Tshimakaine, Spokan country. 



<j>- 



.-.J- 



July. (n. 546.) 

2. G. ramoriisimwn (Trichomeria), Nutt.-4;Torr. <^ Gr. Am* 
i. p. 513. — a. strictipes; capsulis brevioribus pedicellisqoe 
fiructiferis refractis.W*^. cff^Ieartiiii; ovariia canesoentibus, 
capsulis loug;iori))us pedicellisque fructiierb stricte eieetis. 

Hab. a. Scattered here and there over the whole range of 
drift-sand plains, at the foot of the eastern range oi the 
Rocky Mountains. Flowers pale rose*colonr. June, July, 
(n. 4») Upper Platte, Mr. Gordon. — /3. Stony sandy plabs. 
Valley of Tshimakaine, abundant on the Upper Colambis. 
Corolla pale rose-colour or white, July. (n. 5470 — What I 
have here made varieties will probably constitute distinct 



MB. GBYBR's rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 225 

species ; and the characters seem very constant. The two 

kinds are mixed in the specimens of G. ramorisrimum sent 

me bf Mr. Nuttall. 
3. 6. racemaaum (Trichomeria) Nutt* — -Torr. et Or. Am. 1. 

p. 514. 
Has. Desert of the Platte. — Sent by Mr. Geyer separately, 

bnt marked as probably belonging to n. 45, (Enothera 

eonioria, (equally perhaps a Gayophyium, if that genus is 

good for anything) ; but it is in reality a very different plant : 

found also by Mr. Douglas in 1835 in the upper branch of 

the Columbia, 
i. Clarkia rhomhoidea^ Dougl. — Hook. ¥1. Bor. Am. 1. p. 

214. Lindl. Bot Reg. t. 1981. 
Hab. On dry gravelly shady slopes of the high mountain at 

Tshimakaine, Spokan country. July. (n. 658.) 
2. C]nxk\ApulcheUa, Ph.— Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1100. Hook. 

Bot. Mag. t. 2918, and Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 214. 
Hab. Barren plains of mountain slopes, Upper Oregon, 

towards Ck)lumbia River; very abundant. June. (n. 563.) 

1. Gaura coccinea, Nutt. — Hook. FL Bor. Am. I. p. 208. 
Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 518. 

Hab. Gravelly elevated plains of Lower Platte, growing with 
(Enothera serrukUa. Flower3 white, turning scarlet, fra- 
grant at night. June. (n. 172.) 

2. O. parviflora^ Dougl.— Hook. FL. Bor. Am. 1. p. 508. 
Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 519. Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3506. 
G. mollis, NuiL in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2. p. 200. {not 
U.B.K.) 

Hab. Fertile meadows of Horse River, Upper Platte, near 

Laramie's Fork. July. (n. 55.) 
I. CiroBa alpina, L.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 215. Torr. 

et Gr. Am. 1. p. 527. 
Hab. Moist mountain woods on the Upper Columbia River. 
July. (n. 430.) 



VOL. VI, 



226 MR. 



HALORAGBiB, Br. 



1. Callitriche au/ttmno/t^, L. C. linearis, PA. C. aquatica, 
y. Engl. Bot. t. 722, (right-hand figure.) 

Hab. Pools in low meadows along rivulets, valley of Upper 
Clooks or Flathead River, Upper Oregon, (n, 109.) 

2. C. ierresiris, DC— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 217- C.brc- 
vifolia, PA. 

Hab. Mixed with Galium trifidum. (n. 200.) 

LOASBJSj JU88. 

1. Bartonia onui/a,^ Nutt. Gen. Am. 1. p. 297. Mentaelia 
ornata, Torr. et Gr. Am. \* p. bZA. Bartonia decapetala, 
.Sims^ Bot. Mag. /. 1487. Bartonia leevicaulis, DwgU in 
Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 221. /. 69. 
Hab. Cataracts at Spokan River, abundant, and 2-3 feet 
high ; also on sandy declivities of the mountains of the 
same district, and there low, and covered with sand for half 
its height. It is, too, sparingly scattered over the undu- 
lated Prairie region, between Spokan and Lewis Rivers, in 
ravines. July, Sept. (n. 451.) 

The leaves of this species are very variable, more or less 
acuminated at the apex, and in the lobes; the young 
flowers have the floral leaves often densely crowded about 
the calyx, which afterwards become distant by the elongation 
of the peduncle. Douglas' description of the seeds as 
" winged'^ of the B« hevicaulisy in opposition to the character 
of '' nearly without margin'^ of Mr. Nuttall, combined with 
the white flowers of B. omaia, represented by Dr« Sims, 
(from a dried specimen, under the name of B. dec4ipetala)f 
together with the statement of this author that the flowers 
open *^ after sunset,^' have led to the formation of another 
species, (B. lavicaulis)^ on very insufficient grounds. 1£ the 
admirable description of the original B. omaia, given by Mr. 
Nuttall, be carefully perused, we shall, I think, find little or 
nothing at variance with our plant, which is certainly the fovi- 
caulis of Douglas and Hooker. Sims never saw the plant 



MR. GEYER's rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 227 

growing, and his assertion that it blooms '* after sunset*' is 
derived from Pursh, who also nerer met with it in a living 
state, and whose conduct in regard to it is justly exposed 
hj Mr. Nattall, /. c. Mr. Nuttall expressly says that the 
flowers expand towards sunset, and that they are ^'yel- 
lowish-white :** Mr. Qeyer indeed observes " that they open 
daring sunny houfs, and are of a lurid golden yellow.^' 
These are the only discrepancies^ if such they can be called ; 
and I think there cannot be a doubt that B. kevicatdis 
must merge into B. amata. 

2. B. nudoy Nutt— Ph. Am. 1. p. 328^ and 2. p. 274. Ment- 
selia nuda, Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 534. 

Hab. Sterile, sunny and stony declivities of the high plains 
of the Upper Platte, near Fort Laramie. Corolla strami- 
neous. July. (n. 2G5.} 

3. B.pundla, Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 535. 

Hab. On decomposed bituminous slate rocks and calcareous 
day-slates of the Upper Series of the chalk formation ; 
growing with Stanleya viridiflora. Corolla bright yellow. 
July, August, (n. 95.) — A very distinct species, with, how- 
ever, much the habit of the Chilian B. albescens^ Gill, in 
Hook. Misc. 3. p. 327- 

4. B. aOncmUa^ Hook. Bor. Am. 1. p. 222. Mentzelia albi- 
caulis, DougL — Torr. et Gr. Am. I. p. 534. Trachyphytum 
albicadilis, Nuii. mst. Acrolasia bartonoides, Presl. Relig. 
Hmk. V. 2. p. 39. t. 55. 

Hab. Precipices of the high calcareous cliffs at Ham's Fork 
of the Upper Colorado, rare. Flowers bright yellow, (n. 
368.)— Messrs. Torrey and Gray refer to this species the 
TVachifphytum gracile of Nuttall ; but my specimen from 
that gentleman has a very different habit, with narrow and 
deeply pinnatifid leaves. The foliage, however, it must be 
confessed, is very variable in the Barionias. It has else- 
where been observed (Bot. Miscellany, v. 3. p. 327), that 
there is probably an error of Presl in attributing his 
Aerohuia bartonoides to Chili. 

5. B. mierantha, Hook. et Arn.in Bot. Beech. Voy.p.343.t. 85. 

s 2 



228 MR* qeybr's rocky mountain plants. 

Hab. In accumulated yegetable soil on the yast amygdaloid 
Trappe masses about Kooskooskee Biver, very common. 
June. (n. 663.) — ^This exactly accords with an original 
Californian plant. 

GaOSSUI.ARI£iB, DC. 

1. Ribes oafyacanthaides ? L. — Hook. FL Bor. Am. 1. p. 230. 
Torr. et Gfr. Am. 1. p. 546. 

Hab. Meadows in the narrow valley of the Upper Sweet 
Water River, forming dense thickets* Berries of an 
agreeable flavour, 2-6 feet high. July. (n. 135.) — I name 
this doubtfully, as there is no flower and imperfect fruit. 

2. R. lacustrCf Poir. — Hook. FL Bor. Am. 1. p. 232. Torr. 
et Gr. Am. 1. p. 548. 

Hab* Shady rivulets overhanging cascades in the Spokan 
mountains at Tshimakaine, rare: branches long and 
slender, berries small. Shrub 4-5 feet high. (n. 426.) 

3. R. viscosissimttmf Ph. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 234. t. 
76. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 551. 

Hab. Coeur d'Aleine mountains, at an elevation of about 
2,000 feet above the level of the river, growing in gronps 
in open places at the top of the mountain^ sheltered by 
dense forests. April, (n. 293.) 

4. R. eereum^ Dougl. — Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1263. Hook. FI. 
Bor. Am. 1. p. 2008, and in Bot. Mag. t. 3008. Torr. et 
Gr. Am. 1. p. 551. R. inebrians, LindL Bot. Reg. i. 1471. 

Hab. Naked granite mountains, Upper Sweet Water River, 
with Rhus tri/oliata, and under Pinus rerinosa. July. (n. 
227.) — These specimens are barren. 

5. R. iriflorum, Willd. Hort. Berol. t. 61. Hook. Fl. Bor. 
Am. 1. p. 230. R. rotundifolium, Mx. according to Terr, 
et Gf.Am. I. p. .547. 

Hab. Deep shady woods and rocks, in the high plains of 
the CcBur d^Aleines; common. Six to eight feet high. 
April, (n. 330.) 

6. R. Hudsonianum, Richards. — p. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 
233. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 549. 

Hab. /3. On a rivulet in the high cold tablelands of the Nez 



MR. OEYER 8 ROCKY MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 229 

Percez, near Salmon River; rare. Four to six feet high. 
Racemes always erect (in these specimens,) long and with 
numerous flowers. Berries brownish-red. (n. 507.) 

7. R. divaricaiumy Dougl.— Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1359. Hook. 
Fl. Bor. Am. 1, p. 231. 

Hab. Ravines and thickets, Kooskooskee valley. A robust 
shrub or small tree, 8-15 feet high, very thorny. Stems 
9-4 inches in diameter. Berries very large, glabrous, dull- 
red, (n. 393.) 

8. R. aureum, Ph. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 235. Lindl. 
Hot Reg. t. 125. 

Hab. Stony banks of Kooskookee River. Elight feet high. 
July; in fruit, (n. 394.) 

PoRTULACBiB, JuS9. 

1. Lewisia redivivaf Ph. — Nutt. in Journ. Acad. Philad. 7* 
p. 32. t. 2. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 228. Bot. Misc. 1. 
p. 344. t. 70. Bot. of Beech. Voy. suppl. p. 334. t. 36. Torr. 
et Gr. Am. 1. Suppl. p. 677« 

Hab. Stony volcanic plains and sandy woods. Upper Oregon, 
abundant; and at Flathead and Spokan Rivers. The 
upper part of the thick branched tap-root is a receptacle of 
clusters of flowers ; each cluster, before the flowers expand, 
is sonrounded by a circle of linear, canaliculated and some- 
what fleshy leaves, which remain five or six days, when 
they wither and the flowers open, but only during sunny 
weather. Soon the corolla withers also, the petals twist 
spirally and form a sort of calyptra over the fruit. After- 
wards, the peduncle dries up with the persistent calj^ 
down to the joint, when the wind carries it' off, and the 
seeds are thus dispersed over the plains. Six weeks alone 
is the period of vegetation of this remarkable plant, 1st of 
May to the middle of June. (n. 424.) 

I. Claytonia lanceolaia, Ph. Fl. Am. 1. p. 175. t. 3. Hook. 
PI. Bor. Am. 1. p. 224. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 199. 

Hab. Alpine sandy pine woods, Upper Oregon. Flowers 
rose-coloured, (n. 630.) 



230 MR. geybb's rocky mountain plants. 

2. C. spaikulata, Dougl.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 226. t. 
74. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 200. C. dichotoma, Nuti. out. 
in herb* Hook. 

Hab. Wet rocks, Upper Oregon ; abundant on the rocky 
island at the Kettle Falls of Upper Colambia. June. (n. 
648.) 

3. C. linearis, Dougl.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 224. t 71- 
Torr. et Or. Am. 1. p. 203. — 19. minus, gracilis, pedicellis 
brevioribus. 

Hab. Wet clayey stony and sunny places about springs ; on 
the declivities of Coeur d'Aleine Mountains, along the 
valley. May. (n. 300.)— 13. Wet rocks, Upper Or^on, 
with the small FrUillaria and ^^ CoUinsia minima** March, 
April, (n. 317.) 

4. C. alsinoides, Sims, Bot. Mag. p. 1309. Hook. Fl. Bor. 
Am. I. p. 225. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 199. 

Hab. Shady springy grounds and swamps, in woods, Coeur 
d'Aleine Valley. April, (n. 321.) 

5. C. perfoliata, Donn. — Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 1336. Hook. 
Fl. Bor. Am. p. 225. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 200. 

Hab. Swamps along springs and rivulets in the thickets 
of Willow and ^^PopiUuscandicansf^yBiley of Coeur d'Aleine 
River. May. On wet sunny rocks, abundant at Kettle 
Falls, Fort Colville, (n. 310) ; Upper Columbia River, 
with FHtillaria, Platycarpum, CoUinsia and Draba cuneaia. 
March, May; abundant, (n. S87.) 

6. C. Chamissonis, Eschsch. in Spreng. Syst Veget. 1. p. 
790. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1 . Suppl. p. 676. C. aquatica, NutL 
Torr. et Gr. Am. i.p. 201. 

Hab. Ponds In the Spokan plains at Tschimakaine. With 
bulbiferous stolones. Corolla white. Sept. (n. 531.) — A. 
distinct and well marked species. 

CRASSULACBiB^ JuSS. 

1. Sedum sienopetalum, Ph.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 228. 
Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 560. Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York. 
2. p. 205. 



MR. GBTBR's rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 281 

Hab. Moist rocks and sands^ Upper Missouri and Oregon 

territory. June. (n. 373.) 
1. S. DaugkuH, Hook. FL Bor. Am. 1. p. 228. Torr. et Gr. 

Am. 1. p. 558. 
Hab. Trapperocks^ Kooskooskee. July. (n. 5(M.) 

Paronychib^, Si. HU. 

I. Paronychia Jamesii, Torr. et Or. Am. 1. p. 170. P. dicho- 
toma ? Torr. w Ann. Lye. N. York. 2. p. 290, (not NtUt.) 

Hab. High stony phiteaux of Upper Sweet Water River, with 
'' Phlox muscoides." July. (n. 144.) 

PHILADELPHBiG, DC. 

1. Philadelphus LewisU, Ph. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 

220. Torr. et Or. Am. 1. p. 595. 
Hab. Stony and shady ravines; mountains at Kooskooskee. 

Very fragrant; 8-10 feet high : branches robust and stiff. 

June. (n. 559.) 

Saxifrages, Juss. 

1. Saxifraga integrtfoliay Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 249. t. 86. 
Torr. et Or. Am. 1. p. 572. 

Hab. Stony plains, Upper Oregon ; very common. March, 
April, (n. 625.) 

2. 8. FirgimemiB, Mx. Torr. et Or. Am. 1. p. 571.— P. ver- 
naUa ; minor, foliis latioribus, panicula laxa. S. vernalis, 
WiUd. Hori. BeroL t. 43. Hook. FL Bor. Am. I. p. 248. 

Hab. Shady precipices, Trappe valleys, along the tributaries 
of the Kooskooskee River. May. (n. 366.) 

3. S.punciaia^ L.? — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 251. S. cBSti- 
valis, FUeh. in Herb, nostr. — Torr. et Gr. Am. I. p. 567. 

Hab. Shady precipices, Trappe rocks, along the tributaries 
of Lower Kooskooskee. May. (n. 363.) 

1. Heuchera micranihaj Dougl. in Bot. Reg. 1. 1302. Hook. 
FL Bor. Am. 1. p. 236. Torr. et Or. Am. 1. p. 579. 

Hab. Dry shady aJpine situations, alpine slopes along Koos- 
kooskee River ; rare. June. (n. 566.) 



MR. GBYER^S ROCKY MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 

2. H. Americttnay L.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 577«— v*''- 
minor. 

Hab. Var. On the first ranges of the high Trappe-rock moun- 
tains^ opposite the " Red Butter/' on the Upper Platte and 
Sweet Water Rivers. July. (n. 118.) — ^This was gathered 
by Dr. James up the Missouri ; but the species does not 
seem to have been found before in mountain regions. 

3. H. Richardsoni, Br. in Richards. App. Frankl. Joum. p. 
53. t. 29. Hook. FL Bor. Am. 1. p. 237. 

Has. Rocks and sandy stony declivities^ Upper Columbta 
River. Mature leaves coriaceous. May. (n. 388.) 

4. Mitella irifida, Grab.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 24 1 . t. 82. 
Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 587* Lithophragma nudicaule^ NutL 
msi> 

Has. Shady alpine woods, Coeur d'Aleine Mountains^ near 
St. Josephs. May. (n. 623.) 

5. Lithophragma parviflora, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 
584. Tellima parviflora. Hook. Fi. Bor. Am. 1. p. 239. 
/. 78. A.— 13. micrantha, Torr. et Gr. — L. micrantha, NutL 
mst. in Torr. et Gr. et in herb, noatr. 

Has. a. and j3. Open mountain slopes, rocks and stony 
plains, Upper Oregon. March-May. (n. 619.) 

UMBELLIFBRiE, Ju88. 

1. Eryngium sr/tctfMtii7i ; aquaticum subelatum, caule striato 
superne dichotome diviso, foliis lanceolatis longe (radical!* 
bus longtssime) petiolatis cuspidato-acuminatis spina- 
loso-serratis penninerviis reticulatis nervis primariis pa- 
rallelism petiolb costisque latissimis articulatis radicalibus 
teretibus caulinis planis canaliculatisve spinuloso-ciiiatisy 
foliis involucralibus capitula parum longioribus lanceolatis 
r^dis basi spinoso-pinnatifidis. 

Hab. Very abundant at the stony edges of the Spokan River, 
and Skitso^ and Cceur d'Aleine Lakes. Flowers a true 
amethyst colour. Aug. Sept. (n. 583.) — A remarkable and 
distinct species, with tufted fibrous roots. '^ In April the 
young plants are wholly submerged, and present the ^• 
pearance of some articulated Juncus; the leaves, or rather 



MR. OBTBR's rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS- 233 

the petioles, being similarly terete and jointed. On emerg- 
ing above the water, these petioles expand into laminefr at 
the top, retaining the jointed swollen character in the costa. 
The radical petioles are 8-10 inches long: those of the 
stem, in proportion as they are out of the water, become 
flattened and the margin spinuloso-ciliate.'' The nerres 
uf the leaves branch off chiefly from the base or lower 
portion of the costa and run upwards, parallel, or nearly 
so, with the costa, and then are united by lesser reticu- 
lated ones. The stem is 1-2 or more feet high, the upper part 
dichotomously divided, with a solitary pedunculated head 
in the axil, and a pair of spreading, nearly sessile leaves at 
the fork : at the upper forks, deeply divided or laciniated. 
Heads of flowers about the size ofahasel-nut; their scales, 
or partial bracteas, purple, trifurcate. 

2. Cicuta virasay L. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 259. Torr. et 
Gr. Am. 1. p. 610. 

Hab. Thickets, border of the Upper Clarke River, near 
Flathead Gate, or Porte d'Enfer. (n. 219.) 

1. Edosmia Gatrdneri^ Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 312. Aleenia 
Gairdneri, Hook, et Am. BoU Beech. Voy. SnppL p. 349. 
Edosmia montana, pnealta et Oregana, NtUt. {sec. Torr. et 
Gr.) 

Hab. Grassy mountain slopes and neglected fields, from 
Colville to Vancouver. The Nez Perccz Indians collect 
the tuberous roots and boil them like potatos. In rich 
meadows they are the size of one's finger, and are very 
agreeable, with a cream-Hke flavour, (n. 576.) 

!• Angelica? (Thapsium, Gey.) veriicUlaia^ Gey. mst. ; folits 
ndicalibus longe petiolatis biternatim divisis, petioli sul- 
timis quinatim pinnatis, pinnulis oblongo-ovatis (unciali- 
bus et ultra) grosse serratis, umbella subsexradiata, radio 
medio longiore latioreque foemineo erecto reliquis mascu- 
Bnis radiatim dispositis, fructibus (immaturis) obovatis 
profunde sulcatis, stylopodiis magnis, stylis patenti*reflexis 
loDgitudine fructus. 

Hab. Shady grassy borders of pine woods, on high plains of 



234 MB. gstbr's rockt mountain plantb. 

the Nez Percez Indians. June. (n. 414.)— Of the Genus 
of this I am exceedingly doubtfiiL The immature fruit 
and leaves are not unlike those of some Angelica ;l>ut there 
are no large sheathing bases to the petioles. My speci- 
mens are very imperfect : they consist of a fusiform root, 
clothed, especially above^ with dense, coarse, long fibres, 
the remains of former petioles : — there is only one root leaf; 
the main petiole of which is about a span high, semiterete, 
channelled, striated, glabrous, as is the whole plant ; this 
divides into S at the top, and each of those again into 3, 
bearing generally 5 oblong-ovate, membranous leaflets, 
opposite and slightly petiolate : — the extremity of a flower- 
ing branch has a whorl of about four pinna^ and la- 
ciniated, sessile, small (2*3 inches long) leaves, within 
which is an umbel of 6 rays, the centre ray is twice as 
long and 4-5 times as stout as the others, each bearing an 
umbel of many petiolated umbellules of fertile flowers, 
yellowish white, the stylopodia very large, much broader 
than the ovary : the oUier £» rays are sterile, (having no 
trace of pistil), and are each terminated by a com- 
pound sterile umbel, the whole forming a whorl around 
the central ray, whence Mr. Geyer's specific name. There 
is besides a separate fertile umbel, with very immature, 
deeply sulcated, obovate fruit* The umbels and umbel- 
lules have no involucral scales. 

1. Cymo^ptems glomerattta, DC. Prodr. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. 
p. 623. Selinum acaule, Psh, — ^Thapsia glomerata, Nuii. 
—Ferula Palmella, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. I. p. 268. 

Has. Clayey hills of Upper Platte; rare. July. (n. 512.) 

2. C. monianus, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 624. 

Hab. Argillaceous, cretaceous and saline banks in the saline 

desert of Upper Platte; prostrate. Root farinaceoas, 

eatable. June. (n. 513.) 
1. VeucedsokVLm leiocarpum, Nutt. — Seseli leiocarpum. Hook. 

Fl. Bor. Am. I. p. 262. /. 93. 
Hab. Stony places, valley of Kooskooskee, with species of 

Eriogonum. (n. 4110 



MR, GEY£R'8 AOGKY MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 235 

2. P. ambiguumy Nutt. — ^Toir. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 626. 

II AB. Sandy woods and plains, Upper Columbia River: the 
** Bucuii roor of the Indians. April, May. (n. 458.) 

3. P. tritematum, Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. I. p. 626. Seseli 
trilematum. Ph.— DC— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 204. /. 
94. Eulophus triternatus, Nutt. 

Hab. a. Grassy stony and loamy open slopes of the CoBur 
. d'Aleine Mountains, (n. 314.)^. leptocarpuntj Torr. et 
Grr. 1. c.— P. leptocarpum, Nutt. (probably a good species.) 
Grassy prairies of the Nez Percez Indians, in large wet, 
open, stony places, (n. 557*) — y. leptophyllum ; segmen- 
torum foliis angustioribus ; crevices of Trappe masses, on 
the slopes of the high plains of Kooskooskee River : only one 
spedmen found in flower. July. (n. 505.)^Of the variety, 
leptoearpum, as it is here called in deference to Messrs. 
Torrey and Gray, Mr. Geyer observes that the tuber 
u subglobose, firom 1-4 inches in diameter, highly farina- 
ceous, and the principal food of the Indians, who only 
gather it in the flowering season. In the same prairies, 
Mr. Geyer remarks, the Gamass bulbs attain the unusual 
size of 3-3i inches in diameter. 

4. P. (Ferula, Gey.) farinosum, Gey. mst. ; humile glabrum 
glaucum tubere globoso farinaceo, foliis bi-tritematim 
divisis, segmentis (uncialibus) linearibus obtusis basi at- 
tenuatis, petiolis basi membranaceo-dilatatis caulem su- 
perantibus, umbells radiis valde insqualibus, involucelli 
squamis setaceis, floribus albis, fructibus immaturis ezacte 
ovatis, calycis dentibus obsoletis. 

Hab. On an isolated rock in the Cceur d'Aleine Mountains, 
on wet clay, with Sedum stenqpetalon and Platyspermwn. 
April, (n. 325.)— A small, but apparently a very distinct 
species, though without mature fruit it is impossible to 
frame a good character : it is leafy from the base. The 
beads of flowers are less compact, more umbellate than 
is usual in this genus. 

5. P. (Ferula, Gey.) /enuunmiim, Gey. mst. ; humile gla- 



236 

brum, tubere oblongo, follis gracillimis ternatim diTisis, 
segmentis simplicibus vel trifidis linear!- angostbsimis 
acuminatis, petiolis folio longioribus basi longe membra- 
naceis, umbellae radiis ineequalibus, involuoelli sqaamis 
setaceis, fioribus capitatis albia, fructibus valde immatoris 
oblongis. 
Hab. In wet swampy small prairies (high 6old region), sur- 
rounded by lofty mountains, CcBur d'Aleine country, 
growing with n. 305. May. (n. 302.) — About 8-10 inches 
high, remarkably slender, leafy from the base. The 
sheaths very long, peculiarly thin and membranous. The 
peduncles long and slender, exceeding tlie leaves in length; 
the rays much elongated as the inflorescence advances. 

6. P. keviffatum^ Nutt. — Torr. et Qr. Am. 1. p. 627. 

Hab. Wet spongy stony and somewhat shady places, slopes 
of Coeur d'AIeine Mountains, thousands growing densely 
together ; biennial, (n. 298.) — Flowers deep yellow. 

7. P. fieniculaceum, Nutt. — Torr. et Qr. Am. 1. p. 627. 
Ferula fceniculacea, Nutt. Hook. 

Hab. High fertile pkdns of Lower Platte and E^anssas Rivers, 
with Hymenqpappus corymbosus. May. (n. 24370 — ««»■• ?• 
Torr. ei Gr. L c. Clayey banks in the desert of Upper 
Colorado, with Calochortus luteus. (n. 191.) 

1. P. macrocarpumj Nutt- — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 628. 

Hab. Clayey stony water^courses on the high plains of the 
Coeur d'AIeine, Spokan and Nez Percez. Quite prostrate. 
Flowers chalky white ; root somewhat fusiform, throwing 
up many stems. June. (n. 301.) 

1. Leptotsenia dis$eciay Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 630. 
— P./oliosum; segmentis angustioribus* 

Hab. Fertile slopes of the mountains, Nez Percez, near the 
snow-line. Three to eight feet high. June. (n. 517.) 

2. L. muUifidOy Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 630. 

Hab. On Trappe rocks, growing with Berberi$ Aquifolium in 
the Upper Oregon. Peduncle of the umbel often 2 feet 
long ; flowers brownish-red (when male, according to my 



MB. OBTBR's rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 237 

specimens), or yellow (when female.) Leaves very large, 

3 times tritemate, and then very compound. The young 

sprouts have a pleasant taste, and are collected by the 

Indians as soon as they appear. 
1. Heracleum lanatum, Mx. — Hook. Fl. Bor. A.m. 1. p. 26D. 

Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 632. 
Hab. Shady places along the banks of rivulets, hills of the 

Platte River. June, July. (u. 78.) 
1. Osmorrhiza bremstylis, DC. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 638. 

Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 271. t. 96. Urospermum Clay- 

toni, Nutt. 
Has. Shady plains, thickets of the Kooskooskee valley. 

June. (n. 367.) 
1. Glycosma occideniaHSf Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 639. 
Hab. Moist rocky woods, mountain-slopes towards Coeur 

d'Aleine River valley: possessing the strong odour of 

Fennel. April, (n. 610.) 

1. Musenium divaricatum, Nutt. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 642. 
Seseli divaricatum, Ph. — SimSf Bot. Mag. U 1742. 

Hab. Clayey saline water-courses of the hills of Platte, near 
the junction of the two Forks. Very common on the 
Missouri. July. (n. 129.) 

2. M. /aitf|/b/i«m, Nutt— Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 220. 

Hab. Stony saline plains, Upper Platte. Has a very long 
vertical and thick root. June. (n. 220.) 

CoRNBiB, DC. 

1. ComuB sericea^ L.— L'H^rit. Com. p. 5. t. 2. Hook. FL 
Bor. Am. 1. p. 276. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 652. 

Hab. With the willows of the Upper Platte and Oregon 
Territory; growing to the height of 15-20 feet. Always 
shrubby and with many slender stems. '* Bais rouge?' of 
the Voyageurs. The Indians of the Oregon make their 
salmon nets from the young shoots. The Teton Sioux 
Indians of Upper Platte smoke the inner bark of it for 
tobacco, (n. 194.)— This is not the larger-leaved variety, 
called C. oceidenialii by Torrey and Gray. 



2S8 MR. gbter's rooky mountain plants. 

LORANTHAGE^, Ju8S, 

1. Arceuthobium Oxycedri^ Bieb — Hook« Fl. Bar. Am. 1. 
p. 278. t. 99. Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 655. 

Hab. Parasitic on Pinus panderosa, (only.) It often destroys 
growing trees of two or three years* growth, if they are in 
any other way previously injured. Large trees are some- 
times covered with it and stunted in their growth. The 
small Pine squirrel feeds on it. August, (n. 5770 

CAPRIFOLIACEiE, JuSS. 

1. Symphoricarpus occidenialisj Br. in Richards. App. Frankl. 

Journ. ed. 2. p. 6. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 285. 
Hab. Thickets, Oregon and Missouri territories. July. (n. 

631.) 

1. Itonicem ifwohicraiaf Banks. — Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1179. 
Hook. PI. Bor. Am. 1. p. 284. Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 9. 

Hab. Dense shady woods at << Black's Fork/' Upper Co* 
lorado, under Populus candicans : 6-10 feet high. (n. 85.) 

2. L. ctendea, Muhl.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 283. Torr. 
et Or. Am. 2. p. 9. 

Hab. High cold northerly declivities of the Coeur d'AIeine 
Mountains, with Myginda myrtifoUa. A small very 
branching shrub, about 3 feet high. May. (n. 304.) — ^Tbis 
is the most western station yet detected for it. 

RuBiACBjc, Juts. 

1. Galium trifidum, L.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 22. G. Clay- 
toni, Mx. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am, \.p. 988. 

Hab. Springy swampy meadows, north of lat. 44^. : often in 
water, and not unfrequently growing with Mimulus gut^ 
tatu$ and Poa aquaiica* July. (n. 200.) — ^The specimens 
are small, but I think clearly belong to this species. 

2. O. boreale, L.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 289. Torr. et 
Gr. Am. 2. p. 25. G. septentrionale, Boon, et Sch. 

Hab. Stony places and high prairies throughout Missoori 
territory and Upper Oregon. July. (n. 149.) 



XR. obtbr's rocky mountain plants. 239 

VALERIANBiE. 

1. Valeriana sylvaticaj Banks. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 
291. Torr. et Gr. 2. p. 47. 

H AB. High cold wet prairies^ within the Cceur d'Aleine Moun- 
tains. Root somewhat creeping, aromatic. May. (n. 308.) 

1. V. eduKs, Nutt— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 48. Patrinia 
oeratophylla, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. I. p. 290. 

Hab. Wet meadows, high plains of Upper Oregon, as far 
east as the Bear River. Leaves variable, very succulent, 
glaucous. Root thick, a good deal resembling that of a 
Fiuranep. When baked, like Gamass, it is an agreeable food 
to the Indians, but very disgusting to white people, having 
the nauseous odour of chewed tobacco. Hence it is called 
'' Racemo de tabao'' by the trappers. May. (n. 337.) 

1. Vlectn^ congesia,T)C. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 291. 
Undl. Bot. Reg. t. 1095. 

Hab. Sunny declivities of stony mountains, Upper Oregon ; 
common. April, May. (n. 627*) 

COMPOSITiE, JU3S. 

Trib. Vbrnoniacba. 

(Two plants are in the collection (nos. 138 and 184) marked 
by Mr. Geyer as ** Vemoniee ;'* but we have mislaid our 
specimens, and cannot name them in this place : we 
trust to do so in the Supplement, together with two or 
three others which we already find have escaped us in their 
proper place.) 

Trib. Eupatoriaoba, Lcsm. 

1. Briekelia^ofuS/Zora, Nutt— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 80. 
Eupatorinm grandiflorum. Hook. FJ. Bor. Am. 2. p. 26. 

Hab. Sunny gravelly places, banks of Spokan River, near 
the Great Falls, growing with Bartonia omata. It pos- 
sesses an aromatic odour, resembling that of Pyenanihemum 
m/frntoHum. (n.452.) 

2. Brickelia obUmgtfoUa^ Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 80. 



240 iiR. qbyer'b rockt mountain plants. 

Hab. Sunny gravelly places, banks of Spokan River, with 

BrickeUagrandiflora. July. (n. 453.) 
t. Adenocaulon bkohr. Hook. Bot. Misc. 1. p. 19. t. 15. 

Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 308. Torr. et Gn Am. 2. p. 94. 
Hab. Deep shady fertile mountain slopes, Spokan country. 

August, (n. 523.) 

Trib. AsTBROiDBJi, Lett. 

1. Dieteria coronopijblia, Nutt — Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 101. 
Chrysopsis (Pappochroma) caronopi/olia^ Nutt. in Joum. 
Acad. Philad. 

Hab. Amongst '* Siipa avenacea?^ and Juncea^ sandy valley 
of Upper Platte. Rays purplish azure ; disc golden yellow. 
July. (n. 185.) — Mr. Gordon found this plant in the same 
locality and extending to the Black -snake Hills. 

2. Dieteria dwaric€Ua^ Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 100. 
Hab. Barren plains and pine-woods. Upper Or^;on, very 

abundant, mostly with ^ Calochorius nuuroearpus and Coit- 
tua coccinea/* Biennial. July-October, (n. 586.) — Very 
variable in size and ramification. 

1. Aster conapicuus, Lindl. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2* p. 7* 
Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 108. 

Hab. Borders of pine- woods, Coeur d'Aleine River and at 
Fort Colville. July. (n. 4470 

2. A. kevis, L.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 116. 

Hab. Meadows, Spokan and Columbia river valleys. Aug. 
(n. 638.) 

3. A. kuvi/olbu, Nees.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2. p. 10. Torr. 
et Gr. Am. 2. p. 138. 

Hab. Willow thickets. Upper Oregon. July-October, (n. 
633) ; — and saline clayey places. Upper Sweet Water River, 
with Chenopodium ^ubiptcatum. July, (n* 201.) 

4. A. modesius, Lindl in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2. p. 8. Torr. 
et Gr. Am. 1. p. 145. 

Hab. Rare about springy groves in the plains of Upper 
Columbia. July. (n. 5870 

5. Aster Xylorhiza^ Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p, 158. Xyloihiza 



MR. 6BTBR S ROCKY MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 241 

villosa, NutL Trans. Am. Phil. 8oc. {N. Ser.) 7- p. 
298. 
Hab. Saline clayey water-courses in the argillaceous hills 
between Platte and Sweet Water Rivers. Many stems 
spring from the same root. Rays whitish. July. (n. 115.) 

1. Erigeron comporiius, Ph. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2. p. 17- 
and in Linn. Trans. 14. p. S74. t IS. (var. smaller.) Torr. 
et Qr. Am. 2. p. 168. — /3. mq/or. 

Hab. About cataracts of Clarke's River and the adjacent 
gravelly pine-woods or plains. June. (n. 197^ in part.) 
/3. Sandy plains and crevices of rocks, oataracts of Flathead 
River, (n. 350.) In both vars. the rays are white, tinged 
with rose. 

2. Kpedaius, Nutt.— Torr. et Qr. Am. 2. p. 18. 
Hab. With E. compositus. (n. 197.) 

3. E. aerUf L. — var. glabraius. — ^E.glabratus,^o^e.— ffoo^. 
FL Bor. Am. 2. Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 18. p. 169. 

Hab. Springy sunny meadows^ between Platte and Sweet 
Water Rivers; rare. July. (n. 27.) 

4. E. beUidiaatrum^ Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 170. 
Hab. Scattered very sparingly in rich meadows of the Upper 

Platte valley. June. (n. 19.) 

5. E. PhUadelpkicuSy L.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 171. E. 
purpureus, Ait. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2. p. 19.) 

Hab. Fertile plains about Fort Colville, near thickets; rare. 
July (n. 571.) 

6. £. speciosusy DC. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 173. Stenactis 
speciosa, Lind. Bot. Reg. t. 1577. Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3007. 
E. glabellus y. mucronulatus, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2. p. 19. 

Hab. Fertile vaUeysj Upper Oregon ; very common. June, 
July. (n. 364.) 

7. E. glabellus, Nutt— Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2933, and Fl. 
Bor. Am. 2. p. 19. Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 173. 

Hab. Banks of rivulets, plains of Flathead River, Upper 
Clarke^s. September, (n. 182,) and fertile sunny spots in 
the grassy valley of Lower Plate ; rare. June. (n. 140.) 

VOL. VI. T 



242 MB. OBYBR's EOCKT l^OUNTAIN PLANTS. 

8. E. coneinnus^ Torr. et Or. Am. 2. p. 174. Ditasis? ccm- 
cinna. Hook, et Am. Bot. Beech. StqfpL p. 350. 

Hab. Dry sandy rocky sunny places^ Kooskooskee yalley. 
June ; rare. (n. 392.) 

9. E.pumilus, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 203. L. hir- 

SUtUSy PA. 

Had. Denuded ferruginous loamy declivities of the Nes 
Percez highlands, towards Kooskooskee River. July. (n. 
203.) 

10. E. diverffensy Torr, et Or. Am. 2.^ p. 175. E. divari- 
catus, NuiL {non Mx.^fid. Torr. et Gr.) 

Hab. Only in the gravelly calcareous plains, Laramie River, 
Black Hills, Upper Platte. Rays white, (n. 2770 

11. E. strigoms, Muhl — Hook. FLBor. Am. 2. p. 18. Torr. 
et Gr. Am. 2. p. 176. 

Hab. Stony arid plains; valley of Kooskooskee River. July. 
(n. 469.) 

12. E. filifoKuSy Nutt.— Torr. et Or. Am. 2. p. 177- Diplo- 
pappus filifolius, Hook. FL Bor. Am. 2. p. 21. 

Hab. Sunny borders of pine-woods, plains of Spokan River. 
Rays white or rose. (n. 478.) 

13. E. caspitosusy Nutt.— /3. grandifiorus, Torr. et Gr. Am. 
2. p. 179. Diplopappus grandifiorus. Hook. Fl. Bor, Am. 
2. p. 24. 

Hab. Clayey slopes of the hills of Upper Platte with Pai/- 
stemon undvlatua. June, July, (n. SO,) and at the foot of 
Trappe rocks, valley of Kooskooskee. June. (n. 502.) Rays 
white. 

1. Townsendia incana^ Nutt. — ^Torr. et Or. Am. 2. p. 186. 
Hab. Deep sandy desert between Platte and Sweet Water 

rivers, under Opuntia Missourica. July. (n. 221.) 

2. T. grandiftora, Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 186. 
Hab. Clayey hills of Platte, and also in the adjacent sandy 

plains. July. (n. 49.) 
1. Solidago strictaf Ait. — Hook. Fl* Bor. Am. 2. p. 4. Torr. 
et Or. Am. 2. p. 204. 



MB. OBYER's rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 243 

Hab. Sterile plains all over Missouri Territory, Upper 
Oregon, Dacotah, Iowa and Wisconsin territories, and also 
northern Illinois and part of Michigan. July, Aug. (n. 
205.) 

2. S. CanadensUj L— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2. p. 1. Torr. et 
Gr. Am. 2. p. 223.— var. pubescentia caulis et foliorum 
pauciore, capitulis minus manifeste secundis* 

Hab. Poplar groves, Upper Columbia valley. August, n. 
594. — This is a form between S. Canadensis and S.ffiganieay 
/J. Torr. et Gr. 

1. Linosyris lanceolata^ Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 233. Chryso- 
thamnus lanoeolatus, Nutt. Trans. Phil. Soc. (N. Ser.) 7* p* 
324. 

HaB' Saline stony plains. Upper Clarke's and Flathead 
Rivers. Sept. (209.) 

2. L. viscidiflora, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2. p. 24. (Crinitaria). 
Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 234. — /J. Torr. et Gr. 1. c 

Hab. Arid stony saline slopes, near the river- valley of Black's 
Fork of Upper Colorado. Resinous and glutinous. Aug. 
(n. 102 and 206.)— fi. Sterile plains of Upper Clarke's 
River, growing with Artemisia tridentata.^^ Sept. (n. 
207.) 

1. Stenotus nudticaulis^ Nutt. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 
238. 

Hab. Saline clayey exsiccated water-courses in the argil- 
laceous bills between Platte and Sweet Water rivers. July. 
(n. 116.) 

1. Aplopappus lanceolatus, Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 241. Donia 
lanceolata. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2. p. 25. Homopappus 
(Actinapboria) multiflorus, Nutt. 

Hab. Stony places from Sweet Water River to FlatHead 
River. July-September, (n. 6670 

2. A. NuitaUii, Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 242. Eriocarpum 
grindelioides, Nutt. 

Hab. Sandy stony plains at the Upper Sweet Water River, 
and on rocks. July. (n. 114.) 

T 2 



244 MR. obyer's rocky mountain plants. 

1. FyrrocomBL carthamoideSf Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 306. 
t. 107. Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 243. 

Hab. Moist sterile places, high plains about Tshimakaine, 
Spokan country. August, (n. 588.) — These spedmens 
differ from the original ones in the smaller capitula, 
which are sometimes racemose, and almost destitute of 
bracts. 

1. Chrysopsis villosa^ Nutt.-^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 255. 
Amellus villosus, Ph, Diplopappus villosus. Hook. Ft. 
Bor, Am. 2. p. 22. — /3. minor ; capitulis ceque cum foliis 
duplo minoribus. 

Hab. Sandy stony banks of streams and high woods, Mis- 
souri and Oregon Territory : also in Illinois. June-August. 
(n. 415.) — j3. On the granite masses of the Sweet Water 
River, only fringing the fissures. July. (n. 70 

1. Diaperia proli/era, Nutt. in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (N. 
Ser.) 7. p. 837. Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 264. Evax prolifera, 
Nutt. in DC. Prodr. 

Hab. Sandy elevated plains of Horse River, near the Platte 
and Fort Laramie, covering the bare soil for some distance. 
June. (n. 279.) 

Trib. Sbneciokidbjb. 

1. Silphium ? lave ; glaberrimum glutinosum elatum, caule 
superne dense folioso striato, foliis submembranaceis 
radicalibus ovatis seu elliptico-ovatis subito in petiolum 
brevem attenuatis plurinerviis subintegerrimis nervis pa- 
tentissimis approximatis, caulinis (superioribus) ovatis 
subobtuse acuminatis basi semiamplexicaulibus, floribos 
glomeratis in axillis supremis, involucri foliolis imbricatis 
ovato-lanceolatis membranaceis reticulato-venosis. 

Balsamorhiza silphioides, Gey. mst. 

Hab. Stony plains of Coeur d'Aleine and Spokan countiy, 
in loamy exsiccated places. Stems reclining. Leaves usually 
lyrato-attenuated towards the base, very stiff. Plant par* 
taking of the resinous nature of Silphium ierebinthaceum. 



MR. GBTER's rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 245 

Rays 8affron*yeIlow. May, June. (n. 395.) — This noble 
specimen affords but a solitary expanded flower, which, 
without destruction, cannot be dissected to determine the 
Genus. Mr. Geyer was disposed to refer it to Espeletia, 
Nutt., (Balsamorhiza) ; but it accords better in habit with 
SilpUum. Mr. Geyer speaks of the leaves as "stiff;*' 
rendered so perhaps by gummy exudation, for they are, 
when dry, peculiarly thin and papyraceous for a plant of 
this group : the plant is too everywhere glabrous. The 
root-leaves are about a span long, on short broad footstalks, 
and there is a singular contraction below the middle, 
whenever they become decurrent into the petiole, which 
did not escape the notice of Mr. Geyer. The flowers are 
large : the rays, in a dried state, orange*yellow : the invo- 
lucres almost hemisphcerical, of many imbricated, but 
not close-pressed membranous striated and reticulated 
scales. 

1. Iva axillaris f Ph. Nutt. — Hook. Flor. Bor. Am. i. p. 309. 
t 106. Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 287. 

Hab. Saline clayey slopes of the high calcareous hills of 
Upper Platte ; in such situations it is a small shrub, in 
saline swampy meadows and in drift sand it assumes an erect 
habit and is herbaceous. Fragrant. July. (n. 159.) 

1. Ambrosia artemisiafolia, L. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 291. 
A. elatior, L. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. I. p. 309. 

Uab. Stony water-courses, Spokan plains; rare. July. (n. 
551.) 

1. Franseria Hookeriana, Nutt. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 294. 
Ambrosia acanthocarpa, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. I. p. 309. 

Had. Growing with Iva axillaris in the drift-sand plains of 
Walla-walla River. August, (n. 652.) 

1« Wyetliia tfcaftra ; tota scaberrima, foliis lineari-lanceolatis 
sessilibus 3-nerviis mucronatis, involucri squamis lato- 
Bubulatis marginibus aculeolato- scabris. 

Hab. Clayey argillaceous declivities of the high hills of 
Upper Colorado River. ** Radical leaves about one foot 
long, oblong-lauceolate, exceedingly stiff and scabrous.'' 



246 MR. OBYBR^S ROCKY MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 

Jaly. (n. 96.) — A most distinct and well-marked spe- 
cies ; the stems and midrib of the leaves almost white. 
The plant is everywhere quite rough and harsh, especially 
the margins of the leaves and of the scales of the involucre. 
The leaves are 3-nerved, the nerves become confluent within 
the margin, so as to form two lateral nerves within the 
margin and parallel to it. 

1. Balsamorhiza incanUf Nutt. — Torr. et 6r. Am. 2. p. 801. 
Hab. Open pine-woods on the ascent to the Nez Percez 

highlands. — Radical leaves a foot and a half long. Root 
thick; eatable. Scapes 1-2 feet high. June. (n. 419.) 

2. B. hettanihoides, Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 302. Espe- 
letia helianthoides, Nutt. in Joum. Acad* Phil. J. p. 98. 
^.4. 

Hab. Stony plains and ridges, Missouri and Oregon terri- 
tories. Root very long and thick ; eaten by the natives. 
May. (n. 521.) 

1. Rudbeckia occidentalism Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 
313. 

Hab. In a narrow rocky ravine in the extensive prairies 
which separate the Spokan and Cceur d'Aleine mountains ; 
rare. July. (n. 574.) 

1. Helianthus^^/fofam, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 319. 
Hab. Argillaceous bituminous hills of the Upper Platte and 

in the adjacent sand-plains. July. (n. 22.) 

2. H. rigidus, Desf.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p, 322. 

Hab. Stony elevated table-land, between Platte and Sweet 
Water rivers, growing with Astragalus hypoglottis. July, 
(n. 34.) 

3. H. occidentalis ? Riddell.— Torr. et Gr. 2. p. 323. 
Hab. On a stony ridge of the hills of Upper Platte, growing 

with Eriogonum umbellatum. July. (n. 204.) — This is a 
small and incomplete specimen \ but seems referable to the 
H. occidentalis. 

4. H. Nuttallii, Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 325. H. Califomicos, 
Nutt. {not De Cand.) 

Hab. An annual species growing in the neglected fields of the 



247 

Flathead Indians. Six feet high. Rays long. Sept. (n. 
274.) 

5. H.ffiffanteu8, L.—- Hook. Bl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 312. Torr. 
et Gr. Am. 2. p. 325. 

Hab. Fertile valley of Sweet Water River at Rock Inde- 
pendance. July. (n. 66.) 

6. H. qtdnquenervis; foliis ovatis acuminatis integerrimis glabris 
5-nervibus caulinis oppositis in petiolum brevem atte- 
noatis radicalibus longe petiolatis in petiolum sensim de- 
carrentibus, pedunculis pubescentibus, squamis involucri 
interioribus ovato-lanceolatis exterioribus longioribus an* 
gostioribus subfoliaceis ciliatis, capitulo inter maxima, 
radii flosculis longis sulphureis. 

Hab. Stony ridges, hills of Upper Platte, with Bahamorhiza 
hdianthoides ; rare. (n. 33.) — I regret to establish a new 
species on a solitary specimen which does not afford a 
spare flower for dissection ; but neither in Helianthus^ nor 
in any allied genus, can I find a species resembling this. 
The radical leaves including the petiole are above a foot 
long, and as well as those of the stem, have the midrib 
with two pairs of conspicuous nerves inserted below the 
middle. The flowers are more than 3 inches across. 

1. Coreopsis (Calliopsis) Atkinsoniana^ Dougl. in Lindl. Bot. 
Reg. t. 1376. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 311, Torr. et Gr. 
Am. 1. p. 311. 

Hab. Stony borders of Upper Columbia and Spokan rivers. 
July, August, (n. 644.) 

1. Cosmidium ^/(/b/i2<m, Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 350. H. Co* 
reopsis. Hook. Bot. Mag. t 3505. 

Hab. Sand hills of Lower Platte, growing with Rumex ve- 
notus and Psoraka tenuiflora. July. (n. 57.) 

I. Gaillardia aristaia, Ph.— Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2940 and Fl. 
Bor. Am. 2. p. 315. 

Hab. Plains of Upper Platte, in the most sterile and exposed 
sitoations, and in Dacotah, Missouri and Oregon terri- 
tories, growing with ** Artemisia frigidaf* and " Mammillaria 
simplex:* (n. 35.) 



248 MR. OETER's rocky IffOUNTAIFT PLANTS. 

1. Cheenactis DougUtsiij Hook, et Am. Bot. of Beedi. Voy. 
Suppl. p. 354. Terr, et Gr. Am. 2. p. 371- Hymcno- 
pappus Douglasii, Hook. Fl, Bar. Am, 1. />. 316. Macro- 
carpus Douglasii, NutL in Tram. Am. PJdL See. 7- P* 375. 

Hab. Only one specimen found, growing with "Barioma 
omata^^^ at the Great Falls of Upper Spokan Rirer. 
July. (n. 552.) 

2. C. achillea^olia, Hook, et Am. Bot. of Beech. Voy.Snppl. 
p. 354. Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 371. Macrocarphos achillei^- 
folius, Nuit. L c. 

Hab. Amongst Opuntia Missourica in the high sandy plains 
between Platte and Sweet Water rivers. July. (n. 142.) 

1. Hymenopappus corymbosuSy Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. ^7^. 
Hab. High fertile plains of Lower Platte and Kansas Rivers. 

May. (n. 2460 

2. H. tenuifolius, Ph.— Torr. Gr. Am. 2. p. 373. 

Hab. Gravelly hills, Lower Platte, growing with Evohubu 
argenteta and Polygala alba. June, July. (n. 214.) 

3. H. MeuBj Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 373. 

Hab. Amongst Opuntia Missourica in the great sandy plains 
between Platte and Sweet Water Rivers. July. (n. 141.) 

1. Bahia leucophylla, DC. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 375. Tri- 
chophyllum integrifolium. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1.^. 316. T. 
multiflorum, Nutt. 

Hab. Covering the declivities of Trappe and Basalt moun- 
tains on the Kooskooskee and Cosur d'Aleine rivers. May. 
(n. 561.) 

2. B. oppontifolia^ Nutt. (under Trichophyllum) — ^Torr. et 
Gr. Am. 2. p. 376. 

Hab. Scattered in a small range of fertile plains around the 

granite mountains, between Platte and Sweet Water ritcrs. 

July. (n. 6.) 
1. Actinella acaulis, Nutt — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 382. Gail- 

lardia acaulis. Ph. 
Hab. Sunny cliffs of argillaceous calcareous rocks, hills of 

Platte, near the junction of the two forks. June, July* ("• 



MR. OEYBR8 ROCKY MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 249 

1. Helenium autumnale, L.— Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2994, and 
Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 317. 

Hab. Borders of sloughs, valley of Columbia River, about 
Fort Colville. August, (n. 589.) 

1. Blepharopappus ^cad^y Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 316. 
Torr. et 6r. Am. 2. p. 301. Ptilonella scabra, Nutt, 

Hab. Stony loamy sunny declivities of the mountains of 
the Coeur d'Aleine and Kooskooskee rivers ; very abun- 
dant. May. (n. 346.) 

I. LagophyUa ramoHssima, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 
403. 

Hab. Stony sunny places, Kooskooskee valley. Kays spread- 
ing with the morning sun. June. (n. 408.) 

1. Madia rocemo^a, Nutt. (under Madarella.) — ^Torr. et Gr. 
Am. 2. p. 405. 

Hab. Stony sunny places, Kooskooskee valley. Rays spread- 
ing in the evening sun. (n. 409.) 

1. Matricaria discoideOf DC — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 413. 
Tanacetum? suaveolens, Hook. Flor- Am. I, p. 327. t. 

no. 

Hab. Indian camps, valley of Kooskooskee River; very 

rare further north. Odour of Tagetes; always discoid. 

. <J . May. (n. 886.) 
1. Artemisia dracunculoides, Ph. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 

416. A. dracunculoides, var. glauca, Bess, in Hook, Fl, 

Bor. Am. 1. p. 326. 
Hab. Common in stony plains on the west side of the Rocky 

Mountains. Seen at the Devil's Lake in 1839. Sept. (n. 

668.) 
U A. Canadenriif Mx.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 417. A. de- 

sertorum, var. Hookeriana, Bess, in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. 

p. 326. A. campestris. Ph. — Richards. 
Hab. Sandy places, banks of Upper Clarke's or Flathead 

River; rare- Sept. (n. 212.) 
3. A. tridentata, Nutt.— Torr. et Or. Am. 2. p. 418. 
Hab. About the central ridge of the Rocky Mountains and 

up from the Platte A. cana is predominant : on the west side 



250 MR. OXT£R'b rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 

of the central ridge A. trideniata prevails^ cana haying 
disappeared about the sources of the Columbia. — A shrub, 
1-12 feet in height, with steins 5-6 inches in diameter. 
Sept. (n. 654.) 

4. A. pedatifida, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 419. 

Hab. On the highest rocky table-lands, near the sources of 
Missouri River, covering small tracts. Flowers bright 
orange. June. (n. 14.) — Mr. Oordon finds the same species 
in the Upper Platte. 

5. A. Ludofriciana, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 420.<^A. 
Purshiana, /3. Bess, in Hook. Fl, Bor. Am. l.p. 822. 

Hab. Thickets in sunny, sandy or sterile places ; common over 
the whole territories of Missouri, Dacotah and Oregon; from 
St. Louis to the sources of the Mississipi and across to the 
Upper Columbia. Collected at Flathead River (Upper 
Clarke's). Sept. (n. 1770 

6. A. vulgaris, L.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2. p. 421. Torr. et 
Gr. Am. 2. p. 421. 

Hab. This is sent separately from, but bears the same 
number as the preceding, A. Ludoviciana, indicating that 
it is from the same locality. 

7. A. biemis, Willd.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 325. Toir. 
et Gr. Am. 2. p. 423. 

Hab. Saline loamy exsiccated places in the defiles of the 

calcareous hills of Black's Fork of Upper Colorado. Aug. 

(n. 103.) 
8 A.Jriffida, Willd.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 321. Torr. 

et Gr. Am. 2. p. 424. 
Hab. High stony and table-lands, from the Upper Missouri 

(St. Anthony's Falls) to Flathead River, mostly with Gotf- 

lardia pinnaiijida. Sept. (n. 112.) 
1. Gnaphalium decurrens, Ives. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. 

p. 328. Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 426. 
Hab. On accumulated mould, granite mountains, high plains 

of CoBur d'Aleine and Spokan country. July, Aug. i . 

Subviscid. (n. 643.) 



MR. QBTER's rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 251 

2. 6. aUenumf Hook, et Arn. Contr. to F. S. Am. in Hook. 
Bot. Joum. 3. p. 329. 

Had. Arid sandy woods near Tshimakaine, Spokan country. 
July. (n. 542.)— This is identical with the pretty O. alienum 
described by Dr. Amott and myself from Mr. Cuming's 
Chilian collections. We called it ^* alienum," from its 
being so extremely dissimilar from any other S. American 
GnaphaKum. It is equally unlike any North American 
one, having the habit of an Elichrymjm, and the upper 
scales of the involucre bright rose-colour, the rest pale 
yellowish. 

3. Q. paluitre, Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 427. 

Hab. Muddy margins of ponds, Nez Percez valleys. June, 
(n. 672.) 

1. Antennaria margaritacea, Br. — Hook. FL Bor. Am. 1. p. 
329. Torr. et Or. Am. 2. p. 429. Onaphalium, L. 

Uab. Shady moist mountain-woods, Cmur d'Aleine River. 
June. (n. 436.) 

2 A tfioica, Gsrtn.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 329. Torr. 
et Gr. Am. 2. p. 430.— /J. parvifolia, Torr. et Gr. A. parvi- 
folia, Nuit. 

Hab. Sandy and stony pine-woods, highlands of Spokan 
River, July, (n. 486.) and sunny sterile ridges, ITpper 
Platte, covering the surface of the ground with its nume- 
rous stolones. July. (n. 444.) 

3. A. luztdoides, Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 430. 

Hab. Sandy pine-woods at Tshimakaine, Spokan country. 
July. (n. 536.) 

4. A. dimorpha^ NuU. (6iui/7Aa/tiim).^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 
43U 

Hab. Shady sandy pine-woods, Spokan River. August, (n. 
479.) 

1- Senecio exaltatus, Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 439. 

Hab. Fertile grassy slopes of Cceur d'Aleine Mountains in 
light pine-woods : it varies very much in the shape of the 
leaves, especially in the pubescence, which in sliady woods 



252 MR. GBTBR's ROCKT mountain Pl^ANTS. 

is very long and flocoose, almost like spider's web. May. 
(n. 297.) 

2. S.fa8tiffiaiu8j Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. 439. 

H AB. Rocky borders of Spokan and Columbia Kvers ; not 
very common. Stem and leaves purplish-glaucous green. 
August, (n. 575.) 

3. S. hydrophUus, Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 410. 
Hab. Fertile sunny deep grassy borders of Black's Fork of 

Upper Colorado, near Fort Vasco ; rare. Stems hoUow, 
two feet high. August, (n. 250.) 

4. S. Serroy Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 332. Torr. et Gr. Am. 
2. p. 441. S. longidentatus, DC Prodr. 6. p. 418. 

Hab. Rich meadows, valleys of Kooskooskee and Spokan 
Rivers. Two to three feet high ; many stems rising from 
one root. July. (n. 473.) 

5. S. rapifoUuSj Nutt.^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 441. 

Hab. In the fissures of the granite mountains of Sweet 
Water River 3 rare, except at Fort Independance, where it 
occurs with *^ Jplopappus,'* (n. 7*) Leaves purplish, (n. 
10.) 

6. S. aureus, L.— Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 333. Torr. ct 
Gr. Am. 2. p. 442. var. e. Balsamits, Torr. et Gr. S. Bal- 
samitae, Muhl. 

Hab. Var. e. Grassy spots in the stony vaUey of Sweet 
Water River. July, (n 202.) 

7. S. canusy Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 333. t. 116. Torr. et 
Gr. Am. 2. p. 443* — var. I . minor; minus incanus, foliis caa- 
linis omnibus sinuato-lobatis. 

Hab. Wet stony places, Gamass prairies, Nez Percea high- 
lands, growing in dense tufts. June. (n. 484) ; and stony 
ridges, hills of Upper Platte. July. (n. 483.) — var. In a 
saline pool on a pile of rocks, with Sedum stenopetalumj in 
the plains of Upper Platte and Sweet Water rivers. 
Lieaves deep green. July- (n. 198.) — ^The spedes of the 
group to which S. aureus, S. tomentosus and 8. eanui 
belong, are almost inextricable. 



MR. GETBR'S rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 253 

Hab. Gravelly hills of Kanzas and Lower Platte Rivers with 

Eiichrtma grtmdiflora. May. (n. 252.) 
1. Tetradymia canescensy DC. in Deless. Ic 4. t. 60. Hook. 

et Am. Bot. Beech. Voy. Suppl. p, 360. Torr. et Gr. Am. 

2. p. 447. 
Hab. <31ayey banks in the desert of Upper Colorado, with 

Artemisia cana and tridentata, August, (n. 63.) 

1. Arnica Chamissoms^ Less. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 449. A. 
montana, a. Hook. FL Bar. Am. 1. p. 330. 

Hab. Scattered over the high fertile plains near Koos- 
kooskee River; not common. June. — I fear this is 
nothing more than one of the numerous varieties of A. 
montana, L. 

2. A. cordtfolia. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 831. Torr. et Gr. 
Am. 1. p, 450. 

Hab. Light open pine-woods along the valley of Coeur 
d'Aleine River, in warm protected situations, growing in 
masses. April, May. (n. 309.) 

Trib. CYNARBiB, Lu$. 

1. Cirsium undulatumy Nutt. (Carduus). — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 
2. p. 456. C. Douglasii, DC. 

Hab. Fertile plains of the Lower Platte and Missouri rivers. 
June. (n. 122.) 

2. C. Hookerianwn, Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 457. 
Carduus discolor, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. I. p. 302, (in part.) 

Hab* High plains, Upper Oregon and Missouri territory. 
June, July. (n. 325). — I fear too near the preceding. 

IVib. CiCHOBACBii, VaiU. 

1. 8cor»onella (§. Ptilophora, Torr. et Gr. mst.) nutans, Gey. 
tnst. (under Crepis); glabra, radice tuberosa fiisiformi, 
caule elongato gradli folioso, foliis basi amplexicaulibus 
linearibus integris varie pinnatifidisque infeme apiceque 
longe attenuatis, peduncuUs gracilibus, capitulis in ramos 
tiltimos seu pedunculos solitariis apice paululum dilatatis, 



254 MR. okybr'b rocky mountain plants. 

involucri foliolis exterioribus siibquinque ovato-acuminatis 
brevissimis puberulis, P^PP^ squamis oblongis albis setis 
plumosia triplo longioribas terminatis. 
Hab. Dry sunny loamy declivities of Spokan and CoBur 
d'Aleine mountains. Root (nearly as large as the little 
finger) succulent and almost transparent, full of a bitterish, 
milky juice, eaten raw by the Indians. It renews itself 
every year. Heads nutant before flowering. June. (n. 
876). — ^A very distinct species of Scorzonella (if ScorzoneBa 
be really distinguishable from Calais), and forming a sec- 
tion of Messrs. Torrey et Gray, on account of the [du- 
mose awns of the pappus. In general habit it a good deal 
resembles some of the narrow leaved varieties of Scorzo* 
nella laciniata, Nutt. {Hymenonema f lacinieUum, Hook.) 

1. Stephanomeria minor, Nutt. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 472. 
Lygodesmia minor. Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 205. t. 
103. A.) 

Hab. Sterile sunny sandy declivities and on the tableaux 
of Trappe rocks, high plains of Spokan River. Rays pale 
lilac. August, n. 440. 

2. S. runcinata, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 473, 

Hab. Decomposed calcareous rocks, Upper Platte; rare. 

Grows also in the fissures of claystone rocks at Scott's 

Bluffs. June, July. (n. 43.) 
I. Hieracium Canadense, Mx. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 47 B. 

H. umbellatum. Hook. FL Bor. Am. \.p. 300. 
Hab. Borders of pine-woods, valley of Columbia River near 

Fort Colville. Common also in Illinois and Michigan. 

August, (n, 593.) 
1. Lygodesmia grandiflora, Nutt. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 

485. 
Hab. Gravelly and sandy slopes of the high plains near the 

banks of Platte and Laramie's Fork ; rare. Rays of a 

rose colour ; large. Growing with Calochortus biieus. July. 

(n. 156.) 
1. Malacothrix sonchoides, Nutt. — ^Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 

486. 



MR. OBTER's rocky MOUNTAIN PLANTS. 255 

Hab. Sterile stony and sandy plateaux near Rock Indepen- 
dance on Sweet Water River ; rare : apparently the only 
locality. July. (n. 40.) 

]• Crepis runcinata, Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 487- Hieracium 
mncinatum, Jamea in Long, et Torr. Crepis biennis, /i. 
Hook. Ft. Bor. Am, 1. p. 297. DC. Prodr. 7, p. 163. Cre- 
pidium mucronatum, Nutf. 

Hab. Saline stony plains of Upper Platte, near Fort La- 
ramie. July. (n. 222.) 

2. C. glauca, Nutt. (under Crepidium). -^Torr. et. Or. Am. 2. 
p. 488. 

Hab. Moist sandy and swampy [meadows of {Upper Platte 
and Sweet Water valley : oflen growing with '* Dodecatheon 
tnieffrtfolium. July. (n. 155.) 

3. C. occidentalism Nutt— Torr. et 6r. Am. 2. p. 488. Psi- 
lochasna occidentalism Nutt. 

Hab. Stony argillaceous sunny ridges, hills of Upper Platte, 
mth '* Eriogonum umbeUatum ;'' rare. Jidy. (n. 179*) 

4. C. acuminata, Nutt.— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 489. 

Hab. Found in the dry shady pine-woods at the base of the 
Spokan Motrntains, Tshimakaine. July. (n. 336) ; and 
loamy plains within the desert of Upper Platte and Sweet 
Water riversi with Lygodesmia, 156, and Calochortua bUeus. 
^erj common on the Upper Columbia^ July. (n. ISO.) 

1. Troximon cuspidatum, Ph.— Torr. et Or. Am. 2. p. 489. 
T. marginatum, Nutt. 

Hab. Sunny protected situations, open pine-woods at Tshi- 
makaine, Spokan River valley ; rare. July. (n. 398.) 

2. T. glaucum, Torr. et Or. Am. 2. p. 490. /3. dasycepha- 
lotn, Torr* et Gr. I. c. T. glaucum, a. Hook. Fl. Bor* Am. 
1. p. 300, and in Bot. Mag. t. 3462. 

Hab. Pine-groves about Tehima ravine, Spokan country. 
July. (n. 666.) 

3. T. ro$eum? Nutt.— Torr. et Or. Am. 2. p. 490. 

Hab. Rocky declivity towards a deep ravine near Lapwai, 
at Kooskooskee River. The only specimen found. June. 



256 MB. gkyer's rocky mountain plants. 

(n. 446.) The involucre is downy in this specimen, and 
the florets unezpanded. I am doubtful of the identity with 
T. roseutn. 

1, Macrorhynchus ChilensiSt Less.—M. heterophyllus, Nutt. 
—Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 493. 

Hab. Sunny rocky slopes of the mountains along the valley 
of Cosur d'Aleine River. Rays deep yellow. The flowers 
only expand once and for a few hours at noon. (n. 292.) 
— ^This is identical with the Chilian M. Chilemis. 

2. M. cynthioides ; glaberrimus, radice parva tuberosa^ foliis 
omnibus radicalibus glaucis subdistiche insertis anguste 
lanceolatis integerrimis basi attenuatis equitantibus apice 
longe acuminatisy scapo nudo foliis longiore. 

Hab. Sandy and saline moist places in the valley of Upper 
Sweet Water River. July. (n. 245.) The pappus is quite 
that of Macrorhynchus ; but the flowers are too young to 
determine the beaked nature of the fruit. I cannot 
refer it to any described plant. 

4. Mulgedium pukhellumy Nutt. — Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 
498. M. pulchellum, and M. heterophyllum, NtUi. Son- 
chus Sibiricusy Richards. — Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 293. 
Sonchus pulchellus, Ph. Lactuca integrifolia, Ph. 

Hab. Amongst thickets of Rosa parvifolia, along the sandy 
low banks of Lower Platte; also at the Kooskooskee. 
July. (n. 147.) 

2. M. kucophaum^ DC— Torr. et Gr. Am. 2. p. 499. Son- 
chus leucopheeus, WUld.'—Hook. FL Bor. Am. I. p. 293. 

Hab. Thickets, valley of Upper Columbia River. Six to 
ten feet high. ^^ Rays dull orange-yellow*'' S • Aug. (n. 
596.) 

{To be continued). 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 257 

BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 



Malva vbrticillata, lAnn., detected in a cam-field in 
fFaki, by Jambs Motlbt, Esq. 

{fnth a Figure, Tab. VII.) 

During the Bumnner of 1845, James Motley Esq. dis- 
oo?ered in a corn-field at Llanelly, GlBmorganshire, a Malva^ 
which he and Mr. Borrer and myself for a long time were 
disposed to consider an undescribed species, though from its 
locality, not unlikely to have been imported with grain or 
seed of some kind from the continent. ** It is indeed/' writes 
its discoverer to Mr. Borrer, "quite a mystery how this 
plant could get into the field,'' where indeed very few 
specimens have been found. "It varies in height from 
a few inches to (in my garden) between 3-4 feet. When in 
this tall state, its habit is peculiar, being very erect, and the 
stem, until autumn, simple: if luxuriant, the flowers are 
▼ery much crowded and almost sessile, 8-10 in number, but 
when the plant is smaller, one, two or three, (usually two), 
and borne on longer stalks. The number of carpels varies 
considerably ; but so far as I have seen, they all possess the 
same peculiarities of structure, whether few or many." 

Mr. Borrer had the kindness to communicate to me 
a small wild specimen from the field at Llanelly, and one, 
sbottt twice the siae, raised from wild seed, and of which 
the upper three-fourths of the plant is here represented. 
(Tab. VII.) The most remarkable characteristic of the 
species is the absence of margin (or angle to the margins) 
Id the carpels, so that there are deep grooves or channels, 
as it were, between them, and they only seem to touch or 
unite at the axis of the entire fruit. There is, further, a 
slightly elevated dorsal line on each carpel, and hues radiating 
St the sides from the axis and extending to the rounded 
nutfgins. In my own rich Herbarium I could not at first 

▼OL. VI. u 



258 BOTANICAL INPORMATTO?9. 

detect the species, and was on the point of paUisbing it 
as new, when, on examining carefnUy the fruit of Make 
verticillata in the Linnaean Herbariom, I did not hesitate 
to refer Mr. Motley's plant to it. The Linnsan sample 
seems to be a cultivated one, and China is the country given 
as the habitat. Native wild specimens I hare not seen; 
but I possess the same species from the Botanic Garden 
of Glasgow ; and the " Malva microcarpa** of Montbret, from 
Egypt, does not appear different. The M. veriidOaia of 
Turczaninow,* from Dahuria, in my Herbarium, has no 
perfect fruit; Bemhardi has constituted of that a new 
M.pulchella- 

I am happy to have my view of the identity of this plant 
with the Linneean M. verticUlata confirmed by so careful 
an observer as Mr. Borrer, who writes thus, — ^" I have 
looked again at the Linneean specimen of Maha veriiciUaia^ 
and agree with you that it seems the same species as the 
Welsh intruder; though the cuneato-cordate base of the 
larger leaves, their unproduced middle segment, and broader 
and more rounded crenatures^ rather staggered me. The 
carpels look just like the unripe ones of ours. The stem is, 
as Jacquin figures, and Cavanilles describes it, ' spica densa 
aphylla terminatus,^ which is not the case in the Wdsh 
plants. Cavanilles, however, represents it as leafy to the 
summit ; and it is observable, that both the Lirinaean spe- 
cimen and the figure in Jacquin show one branch with 
naked clusters like the main stem, and one with small leaves 
among the flowers. I can well suppose that the leaves have 
fallen off from the others." 

Since the fruit is nowhere, so far as I am aware, correctly 
delineated or described, the accompanying representation and 
the following specific character may not be unacceptable 
to the readers of our Journal. 

• In Herb. Nostr. and Turcz. Cat. PI. Baikal, n. 273. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION* 259 

Malva VERTICILLATA, L. 

Annua, erecta, foliis longe petiolatis cordatis subprofunde 5- 
angulatis angulis lobisve obtusis crenato-serratis, floribus 
axillaribus fasciculatis brevi-petiolatis y. subsessilibus, pe* 
talis calycem (demum fructus omnino tegentem) paulo 
superantibusy carpellis 10-12 in orbem totidem-lobatum 
dispositis orbiculari-reniforaiibus glabris dorso uninerviis 
inarginibua rotundatis lateribus alte radiatim venosis-yenis 
dorso (nisi ad margines) obsoletis. 
M. verticUUUa^ Linn. Sp. PI. p. 970. Jacq. Hort. Tab. 40, 

Cav. Ic. 2. p. 78. t. 25. f. 3. De Cand. Prodr. 1. p. 433. 
(Tab. nostr. VII. Fig, 1. fruit ;/. 2. single carpel ;/. 3. seed : 

— magnified. 
Has. China, (lAnnaus.J 

Although the discovery of this Mallow in Wales has thus 
been, I trust, a means of enabling us in future better to 
distinguish the species, I fear we must not yenture to con- 
sider it a native of Great Britain. It is not described even 
as naturalized anywhere in Europe. " Is it not odd, how- 
ever," Mr. Borrer further remarks, "that Malva crispa 
should ever have been thought a var. of this ? It is rather 
remarkable that Mr. Motley has seen the M. crispa in the 
same field, but concluded that it was from its being kept in 
gardens for garnishing dishes at table. Is it possible that 
after all they are but yars. ? I do not recollect the fruit of 
M. crispa.^' — In regard to M. crispa, though it is said to be 
a native of Syria, I possess only a cultivated specimen in my 
Herbarium from our English gardens ; and the fruit of that, 
though nearly resembling that of M. verticillata, is yet 
different. The margin of the carpels is not rounded off, but 
comes to an angle, so as not to present a distinct furrow 
between the carpels ; the back of the carpels is consequently 
flatter ; and the radiating lines from the sides do not become 
obsolete at the margins, but extend across the back to the 
dorsal line: such is the case with the excellent figure in 
Reichenbach's " Icones Fl. Germ, et Helv. Malvaceee, Tab, 

166. n. 4834.'* 

u 2 



260 BOTANICAL INFORMATIOlf. 

Mr. Waison^s Cybele Bbitannica. 

We are glad to be able to announce the recent appearance 
of the first volume of another important work, bearing on the 
geographical distribution of Plants, from the pen of H. C. 
Watson, Esq. ; entitled ** Cybblb Bbitannica j orBritiih 
Plants and their Geoffraphical Relations.^' 

A Table of the Contents of this volume, and a specimen to 
show the author's mode of treating the Distribution of 
species,— selecting for this purpose a plant whose distribu- 
tion requires further inquiry,— are here subjoined; that our 
readers may form some idea of the value of the information 
given. 

CONTENTS OF VOL. L 

Intboductoby Explanations, page I. 

Objects of Geographical Botany, 1.-— Explanation 
of the name * Cybele,' 2,— Comparative neglect of 
Geographical Botany, 8. — Botanist's Guides^ 4. — Same 
Author's earlier writings, 6«— Reasons for publication, 
7.— Explanations of the present work, 8. — Significa- 
tion of the terms * Area* and * Census,' 10. — Elxplana- 
tion of the ' Provinces,' 14. — ^Ascending or Climatic 
Zones of plants, 19. — Agrarian and Arctic Regions, 
33. — ^Zones of the Arctic Region, 36. — Zones of the 
Agrarian Region, 37. — Types of Distribution, 43.— 
Notice respecting certain views announced to the 
British Association by Mr. Edward Forbes, 55. 

Explanations op thb Fobmula, page 56. 

Index and Nomenclature of the Cybele, 56.— 
Omission of maps, 57- — Provincial area, 57« — South 
and North limits of the species, 58. — Estimated census, 
58. — Range of latitude and Geographic type, 60.^- 
Region and Zonal range, 61. — Lowest and highest 
limits, 61. — Range of mean annual temperature, 62.— 
Civil claims of the species, 63. — Local situations of 
growth, 65.-*Oroission of the Geological relations of 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 261 

the species, 67-— Difficulties of preparing the first 
Cybele, 67, 68.— Request for corrections, 68. — Pro- 
nnnciation of the name Cy-be-le, 69. 
Distribution op Specibs, page 70. 

Ranunculacees, 70. — NymphaBaceae, 100. — Papa- 
▼eraceaB, 103. — Famariace®, 109. — Cruciferce, 114. — 
Resedacese, 168. — Cistaceae, 170. — ^Violaceie, 174. — 
Droseraceae, 183. — Polygalaceae, 186. — Frankeniaceae, 
186. — Elatinaceae, 188. — Caryophyllaceae, 189. — ^Lina- 
ceae, 286. — Malvaceae, 238. — ^Tiliaceae, 243, — Hyperi- 
caceae, 245. — Aceraceae, 254. — Geraniaceae, 256. — Bal- 
saminaceae, 268. — Oxalidaceae, 270. — Celastraceae^ 272. 
— Rhamnaceae, 273. — Leguminosas, 274. — Rosaceas, 
330. — Onagraceae, 369. — Haloragiaceae, 877- — Lythra- 
ceae, 383. — TamariscaceaB, 385. — Cucurbitaceae, 385. — 
Portulacaceae, 386. — Illecebraceae, 387. — Berberaceae, 
391. — Grossulariaceae, 392. — Crassulaceae, 395. — Saxi- 
fragaceas, 404. — Araliaceae, 421. — CornaceaB, 421. — 
Umbelliferae, 423. 
Appendix, page 465. 

Note explanatory of the resemblance between the 
' Types of Distribution' adopted in this work, and the 
< Floras' of Professor Edward Forbes, page 465. 



{Example of the *^ Distribution of Species.") 

143. El»atinb hbxandra, De C. 

Area 123*5»789»»*»»15. 
South limit in Cornwall and Sussex. 
North limit in Kincardine and Perth shires. 
Estimate of provinces 10. Estimate of counties 15. 
Latitude 50 — 58. British (?) type of distribution. 
Agrarian region. Inferagrarian— -Superagrarian zones. 
Descends to the coast level, in the Peninsula. 



262 BOTANICAL. INFORMATION. 

Ascends to 50 or 100 yards^ in England. 

Range of mean annual temperature 52—46. 

Native. Lacustral. The gradual manner in which the 
area of this little plant has been extended^ and its localities 
increased in number^ yields a striking illustration of the 
close attention bestowed upon British botany during the 
present century. Even so late as the date of the English 
Flora, 1824, we find its author recording only two locali- 
ties for this species, in Shropshire and Berkshire. My 
collection of localities now indicates its occurrence in Corn- 
wall (Rev. W. 8. Hore), Sussex (Mr. Borrer), Surrey (Rev. 
W. H. Coleman), Berkshire (Mr. T. F. Forster), Warwick- 
shire (Dr. Lloyd), Shropshire (Rev. A. Bloxam), Angle- 
sea (Mr. C. C. Babington), Leicestershire (Mr. Churchill 
Babington), Cheshire (Dr. Wood), Perthshire (Mr. James 
Macnab), Kincardineshire (Dr. Dickie). It seems so pro- 
bable that other stations will yet be discovered for this 
minute plant, that I have ventured to add to the number of 
counties and provinces, in the line of estimates; although 
I could scarce select the two provinces and four oounties 
in which it is most likely to be discovered : South Wales 
and the Lakes seem very probable. In too many counties 
to be referred to the *' local " type ; yet known in too few 
to be strictly « British.'* 



Herbarium of the late M. le Colonel Bory db St. 
Vincent. 

The following particulars respecting the Cryptogamic Col- 
lections of M. Bory de St. Vincent have been circulated in 
France. 

La mort vient d'enlever aux Sciences Naturelles, M. le 
Colonel Bory de Saint- Vincent. Les botanistes savent qn'il 
s'occupait sp^cialement de Cryptogamie, et que parmi les 
plantes de cet ordre, ce sont surtout les Algues et les Fou- 
g^res quMl affectionnait. Aussi, ceux qui, comme nous, ont 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 263 

pa voir lea collections qu'il a laiss^es et qu'il avait en partie 
faites lui-m^me dans ses longs voyages, connaissent lear im- 
portance, soit sous le rapport du nombre des ^chantillons, 
soit sous celui de leur magnifique preparation. Get herbier 
cryptogamique sera mis en vente dans deux ou trois mois, 
et nous pensons que les personnes qui cultivent princrpale* 
ment I'^tude de ces families, nous sauront gre de leur an- 
noncer qu'il se compose d'un grand nombre de cartona-hoites 
de format in-folio, dont 80 de Fougeres, 2 de Marsil^ac^es, 
Salvini^es et Lycopodiac^, 10 de Mousses, 2 d'H^pati- 
ques, 3 de Champignons, 2? de Lichens, 33 d'Algues et 3 
de Polypiers flexibles. La collection de Foug^res, le Co- 
lonel en ayant public un grand nombre, est surtout la plus 
riche, en espies et en individus d'une infinite de localites 
difiifrentes. On en pourra juger par la seule tribu des Acros- 
tics qui a et^ r^cemment travaill^e et publiee par M. le 
Professeur F^. II en est de mSme des Algues, dont M. 
Bory s'est occupy toute sa vie d'une fa9on sp^ciale, car son 
premier M^moire^ qui date de 17^79 traite du genre Conferva 
de Linn^. Les Lichens foliacds et fruticuleux ont aussi un 
tris-grand nombre de repr^sentans dans cet herbier. Nous 
n'avons pas examine en detail les cartons de Mousses et 
d'H^patiques, et nous ne saurions gu^res juger autrement 
que par leur nombre de I'int^rSt dont peut ^tre pour la 
science leur acquisition. Nous pensons neanmoins qu'on 
trottvera la une foule de types, en beaux ^chantillons, des 
espices rapportees par lui des ties d'Afrique, et communi- 
qu^es a Bridel et a Schwaegrichen, qui les ont d^crites dans 
leurs ouvrages, et qu'en outre il y a encore une foule de 
Qouveaut^ enfouies dans les cartons de ces deux families. 

LOierbier mis en ordre ne compose pas toute la collection ; 
le Colonel laisse encore un magasin d'environ dnquante 
paquets, oik ont ^t^ entass^s des envois nombreux qu'il n'a 
pas eu le temps d'examiner parce qu'iis lui sont venus pen- 
dant son s^jour en Afrique, ou depuis le commencement de 
la longue maladie & laquelle il a succombd. Les paquets 
sont tous de m6me format que les cartons-bottes. 



264 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

Plus belle ni plus riche collection Cryptogamique n'a ^te 
offerte depuis long-temps aux amateurs. 

C. M. 



Figure and Brief description of a new LisiANTHUsyrom New 
Grenada, 

(Tab. VIII.) 

Among other very beautiful Geniianea detected by Mr. 
Purdie, during his late mission for the Royal Gardens of 
Kew in New Grenada, is the following lAriantkus^ which 
well deserves the name of 

Lisianthus splendens; scandens, ramis elongatis teretibus, 
foliis petiolatis ovatis brevi-acuminatis subcoriaceis 5-ner- 
viis, umbellis terminalibus pendentibus, calyce campa- 
nulato breviy lobis parvis rotundatis, corollfe tubo lagens- 
formi (inflato basi gracili cylindraceo) fauce contracta 
limbi lobis patentibus rotundatis crenulatis^ staminiboa 
inclusis, antheris mucronatis, capsula cylindracea calyoem 
4-plo excedente. (Tab. VIII). 
Hab. Hills of red clay near Canoas, province of Antioquia, 
New Grenada. fV. Purdie, 1846. 

A most lovely and very distinct species of the extensive 
genus Lisianthus, with long climbing glabrous terete stems 
and branches, ovate acute leaves not much unlike in shape 
and texture those of the great Periwinkle, and terminal 
umbels of red drooping flowers, each flower nearly two 
inches long : I have counted as many as eight of these 
flowers in a single corymb. The form of the corolla is pecu* 
liar, much contracted at the base of the tube, thence to the 
contracted faux singularly inflated ; the limb is rather shor^ 
of 5 rounded crenulated lobes. Each anther has a distinct 
blunt mucro. The style (as well as the stamens) is included 
and the stigma is bilabiate. 

As young growing plants of this are reared from seeds, sent 
by Mr. Purdie to the Royal Gardens of Kew, we trust to 



FLORA TASMANIiS. 8PIGILBGIUM. 265 

be able ere long to give a coloured figure from flowering 
specimens in the Botanical Magazine. 

Tab. VIII. J^^. 1. Toung fruit. /. 2. Immature fruit. 
Nai. sUe. 



Flora Tasmania Spigilbgium ; or. Contributions towards 
a Flora of Van Diemen's Land; by J. D. Hooker, M.D. 
F.R.L. & G.S. 

{Continued from p. 125.) 

OOODBNIAGBA. 

1. Yelleia montana, n. sp. ; acaulis, pilosa ▼. glabrata^ foliis 
omnibus radicalibus stellatim patentibus petiolatis spathu- 
lato-lanceolatis obovato-lanceolatisve integerrimis, scapis 
plurimis brevibus ramosis, bracteis distinctis, calycis 
foliolis lineari-oblongis basi edentulis, corolla unilabiata 
V. fissa, oTario styloque puberulis. 

Hab. Hampshire Hills, Marlborough and Western Moun- 
tains (3000 feet) ; Gunn^ Lawrence : — v. v. n. 

Herba depressa. Radis crassa, fibris descendentibus aucta, 
coUo brevissimo. Folia e coUo orta, stellatim patentia, 
teme appressa, 1-2 unc. longa, pilis patulis plus minusve 
hispidula y. glabrata, subcoriacea, luride yiridia. Scapi 
folio breviores, ter pluriesve divisi, calycesque patentim 
pilosi. BradeiB lineares, v. lineari-oblongae. Corolla 
unilabiata, nunc dorso fissa et subbilabiata, basi integra 
o?ario accreta. Stamina libera. Capsuia panra, glaber- 
rima, loculis 2-4«spermis. 

2. Goodenia gramintfoliaf n. sp.; csspitosa, acaulis, foliis 
glaberrimis flaccidis anguste lineari-elongatis lineari-lan- 
ceolatisve acutis integerrimis, scapo gracili subpaniculatim 
ramoso, pedicellis calycibasque patentim pilosis, bracteis 
anguste linearibos, corolla bilabiata flava, laciniis, alatis 
laleniUbus ab intermedia discretis. 

Has. George Town; Ounn. 



266 PliOBiB TASMANIiB SPICILBGIUM* 

Herba flacdda. Radix fibrosa. Foha omnia radicalia, erecta 
▼. subpatentia, 2-3 unc. longa, 1-3 lin. lata, acata, v. acu- 
minata, nninervia. Scopus foliis eequilongus v. paiilo 
longior, pilosus, pilis albidis patentibus, supeme panicu- 
latim dichotome divisus, 3-5-floras; pedicellis filiformi- 
bus, bracteis 2-4-elongatis, anguste linearibus. Ffores 
erecti, i unc. longi; ovario obovato glandoloso-piloso. 
Corolla flava, laciniis spathulatis emarginatis dorso pubes- 
centibus marginibus crenatis. Stigma ciliatum; stylo 
patentim piloso. 

Stylide^. 

1. Stylidium perptuillumy n. sp.; tenue, glanduloso-pube- 
rulum, foliis omnibus radicalibus lineari-spatbulatis oboTa- 
tisve, scapis apice uni-tri-floris, pedicellis elongatis, tubo 
coroUee brevissimo, fauce nuda laciniis subdentatis labello 
inappendiculato, capsula sphserica. 

Hab. George Town ; Gunn, 

Species perpusilla gracilis^ 8. cakarato BimUHma, sed ecal- 
carata. Folia carnosiuscula, vix 2 lin. longa^ obtusa, atel* 
latim patentia. Scapi, v, caules, 1 v. plures, l-2-pollicares, 
filiformes, erecti, subflexuosi, apice 1-v. 3-flori. Pedicelii 
laterales ascendentes, elongati, intermedio erecto abbre- 
viato. Corolla alba, petalis calyce bis longioiibus obtuais, 
membranaoeis. 

LoBBZilACE^. 

Nov. Gen. Streleskia, Hook. fiL — Calyx 4-lobu8, lobo infe- 
riore plerumqoe bifido ; rarius 5-lobus, lobis subequaliboa. 
Corolla campanulata, tubo integro, brevi, lato; limbo 
oblique 4-fido ▼. 5-fido$ lobis 2 inferioribus minoribus, 
calyce longioiibus, erecto-patentibus. Staminum filamaUa 
brevia, basibus dilatatis oiliatis, tubo ooroUiB vix adnatis; 
antheris inclusis, libeiis, 2 infeiioiibus apice setaceo- 
aristatis. Stigma bifidum, rarius trilobum. Capsula oblonga, 
coriacea. — Herba /mM/fa, seapigera, glaberrima ; foliis omitf- 
bus radicalibus ; scapo unijhro} floribus horixotUoHius v. 



FLORiB TASMANIifi dfiClLSGIUJtf. 267 

^ermda.-^QeunB novum Isotov/uB affine, amiciMimo comiti de 

Stneelecki perigrinatori inclyto et indefeMo dioatum. 
1. Streleskia mcntanuy n. sp. 
Hab. Mount Wellington, Ounn. 
Annua ? fblia lanceolato^spathulata, ^-f unc. longa, obscure 

dentata. Scapua 1-2 uncialis nudus. Flos ^ unc. longus. 

Capgula erecta. 

ERICEiB. 

1. Oaultheria lanceolata, n. sp. ; caule repente, rarois erectis 
glabratis, foliis glaberrimis anguste elliptico-lanceolatis 
acntis serratis, racemis paucifioris, fructu coriaceo-carnoso 
basi calycis dilatati et incrassati immerso. 

Hab. Ben Lomond ; Gnnn, 

Fruiiculus pedalis. ftamf-6-8 unciales, tenues, apices versus 
parce pilosi v. glabrati. Folia coriacea, § unc. longa, 2 lin. 
lata. Flores apices versus ramulorum axillares, breviter 
pedicellati. Capmla magna, coriaceo-^arnosa, ovata, trun- 
cata, irregulariter rupta? Pisi saiivi magnitudine^ basi 
calycis ampliati et incrassati sed non baccati immersa. 
— G. hispida affinis, et primo visu nil nisi varietas glabrata 
et humilior; sed indole fructus satis diversa. CauUs (fid. 
Owm) semper repens. 

2. Oaultheria depressa, n. sp. ; caule repente divaricatim 
ramoso, ramis prostratis apices versus pilis paucis sparsis, 
foliis divaricatis horizontaliter patentlbus ellipticis ovatis 
V. obovato-rotundatis obtuse serratis ciliatis utrinque gla- 
berrimis reticulatim venosis, fructu calyce baccato omnino 
immerso. 

Hab. Ben Lomond ; Owm. 

Prnikuku 6'uncialis. Caulie repens, nudus^ penned passe- 
rine crassitie. Rami divaricati, horizontaliter patentes, 
l-d unc. longi, tenues, puberuli v. glabri, setis sparsis 
patentibus hirtelli. FoKa coriacea, plana, breviter petio- 
lata, 4-5 lin. longa, plerumque late obovata v. ellip- 
tico-ovata, obtusa, indistincte serrata, seepissime setoso- 
oiliatis. Fhtctw axillaris, brevissime pedicellatus^ fere 



268 FLOBJB TASMAKIJE SPICILBOIUM. 

i unc. diametro, carnosus, globosas, pedioello bracteato. 
Capmda parva^ ad apioem calyda intra aegoaenta ejas im- 
mutata immersa, coriaoea. — Species habita forma magmta- 
dineque foliorum et fructus valde distincta. 

3. Pemettya (Perandra) TasmamcOf n. sp. ; depressa, diva- 
ricatim ramosa, ramulis pubenilis, foliia patuHs elliptioo- 
lanceolatis acutis integerrimis v. obscure sermlatts, pedi- 
cellis axillaribua basi 3-4-bracteolatisy antheris mutici% 
ovario disco 5-lobo cincto : — an genus proprium, 

Hab. Hampshire Hills, Port Arthur, and Mount Welling- 
ton ; Backhouse^ Gunn. 

Fruticulus 2-3 unc. altus, ramosus, ramis vagis abbreviatis 
divaricatim ramulosis $ ramulis sub lente puberulis. FoSa 
2-3 lin. longa, coriacea, nitida, super concava. PedieelH 
folio breviores, curvati, basi bracteis paucis imbricatia 
cucuUatis ciliatis suffulti. Calycis lacinue ovatfB, obtuss. 
Corolla ovata, ore 5-dentato, dentibus subrecurvis. Stamma 
10, inclusa, libera ; filamentis puberulis, supra basin dilar 
tatis, deinde filiformibus. Antheret parvso, late oblongee, 
apicibus muticis, poris magnis hiantibus dehiscentes. 
Discus inconspicuus, lobis obtusis filamentis altemantibns. 
Ovarium 5-loculare; cvuUs plurimis, placentis axillaribus 
affixis. Bacca depresso-sphferica, rubra, calyce immutato 
sufiiilta. 

Ab congeneribus differt antheris \ muticis hinc nomen sub- 
genericum proposui Peramdra, e wiipo9 (cornubus destitutus) 
et avnp compositum. 

EPACRIDBiB. 

1. Cyathodes adseendens, n. sp.; glaberrima, ramis adsoen- 
dentibus, foliis breviter petiolatis erecto-patentibus imbii- 
catis elliptico-oblongis utrinque obtusis apioe mucrone 
tabescente super nitidis sjiibter glands striads, floribus 
solitariis, pedicello brevi 1-bracteolato, ooroUie uroeolate 
segmentis barbatis, tubo pilis deflexis raris, drupa depresso* 
sphserica 8-loculari. 

Has. Top of Mount Wellington; Gunn^ Lawre9iee i--^. v.n. 



FLORAS TASMANIiB 8PICILB0IUM. 269 

CtttMs brevis. Rami plurimi, Talidi, pedales^ cortice atro 
tecti, prostrati, deinde adscendentes ; ramuli foliis undique 
laze imbricati. FoUa ^-^ unc. longa, valde ooriacea, 
bia longiora quam lata. Flares inter folia occlusi, parvi. 
Dmpa rubra.— -CoroUaB segmenta barbata tubusque pilosus 
a genere aliena sunt ; sed habitu, indole coroUse, bracteis, 
dmpaque multiloculari Cyaihode convenit, et certe affinis 
est C. itramineoi et dealbatm. 

2. Lissanthe dharicata^ n. sp.; foliis divaricatis deflexisye 
lineari-subulatis pungentibus marginibus recurvis scabe- 
mlis super convexis subter glaucis I-3-nerviis, pedicellis 
ajdllaribtts bracteatis, calyce ebracteolato, coroUse tubo 
ftuoeque nudis aegmentis pilis raris patentibus subbar- 
batU. 

Hab. HobartTown, Mount Wellington, Swan Port; Back-^ 
homey Gunn : — v. v. n. 

fhUicultu erectus, ramis rigidis horridus. Rami validi, 
horiaontaliter patentee, apices versus fastigiatim ramu- 
loai. FoUa plurima, ^«unc. longa, ^ lin. lata, omnia hori- 
aontaliter patentia v. defleza, rigida« dura, aceroso-pun- 
gentia. Florea ad apices ramulorum axillares, solitarii, 
penduli. PedieeUi i folii lequantea, curvati, bracteis 
imbricatis late ovatis fere ad calycis basin tecti. Calycis 
foliola concava, oiliata, corollsd tubo ^-^ breviora. Corolla 
substraminea, tubo cylindraceo, intus glabro, segmentis 
patuUs, intus pilosis, pilis longis laxis sparsis. Bacca 
rubra, 5-locularis v. abortu 1-4-locularis. 

3. Leucopogon obiusatuSy n. sp.; fastigiatim ramosus, ra- 
mulis puberulis, foliis liueari-oblongis breviter petio- 
ktis utrinque rotundatis subpiculatis cartilagineo-mar- 
ginatis scaberulis marginibus planis v. recurvis supra lee- 
vibus subter glaucis 3-5-nerviis nervis lateralibus ramosis, 
spicia axiUaribus 2-4-flori8, coroUas tubo brevi, drupis 
globosis. 

Hab. Mount Wellington and Grass-tree Hill ; Gunn, Law 

rence : — v. v. n. 
FhUieului pedalis, erectus, ramosus, ramis erectis. Folia 



270 FLORiR TASMANIiB SPICIL.BOIUM, 

^'i unc. longa, ter longiora quam lata, sed latitudine Taria, 
supra medium ad apicem latiuscule cartilagineo-marginata, 
margine saepe tabesoente scaberula, nervo medio subter in- 
fra apicem incrassato. Spic4e foliis brevior bracteata. 
Flores parvi ; segmentis calycinis corollee tubo ceqoiloDgis. 
Drupa baccata, globosa, angulis destituta. 
Lissanthe numianm simillimua, sed oorolls segmenta bar- 
batis. 

4. Decaspora Gunmiy n. sp. ; ramulis hirtellis, foliis lineari* 
oblongis elUpticisTe planis obtusiusculis marginibus sca- 
berulis 3-5-nerviis, spicis (plurimis) abbreviatis axiUaribus 
paucifloris folio multoties brevicMibuSj floribus parvis, &aoe 
tuboque corollee glaberrimis. 

Hab. Hampshire Hills; Gunn. 

Suffiruticuhts prostratusj distiche divaricatim ramosus. Sam 
graciles, foliosi, crassitie pen nee anatinee. FoUa brevissime 
petiolata, subcoriaoea, ^ unc. longa, i^ lata, utrinque sub- 
acuta, super avenia, subter S-costata, marginibus cilio- 
latis. Flore8 in axillis foliorum glomerulati, brevissime 
pedicellati, pedunculo pedicellisque bracteolatis. Baccm 
camos®, purpureas, depresso-sphericse, siccae lO-sulcatae. 

5. Pentachondra niMcronata^ n. sp. ; erecta^ ramosa, ramulis 
puberulis, foliis oblongo-lanceolatis lineariK>blongisve acu- 
minatis pungentibus subter striato-nervosis, marginibos 
cartilagineis ciliolatis, floribus axiUaribus solitariis, calyci- 
bus tenuiter ciliatis 4-bracteatis tubo oorolloe \ breviori- 
bus. 

Hab. Orasfr-tree Hill, and Lake Echo; Gunni — v. v. n. 
Suffruticidus erectus, 2-6-uncialis, ramosus, ramis tenuibus. 

Folia sparsa v. laxe imbricata, ^ unc. longa, \ lata^ coriacea, 

planiuscula. Pedicelli breves, bracteolati. Cabfds/oliola 

oblonga, obtusa, bracteolis calycinis late ovatis bis longiora. 

Corolla fuliis asquilonga, erecta, tubo cylindraceo; lobis 

brevibus, intus dense barbatis. 
VaLde affinis Leucopogord F^azeri species Nova Zelandica (L* 

Bellignanus, Raoul '' Choix des Plant. Nov. Zel.'' t. xii) sed 

differt conspicue foliorum nervis. 



PLORiV TASMANIiB SPICILBGIUM. 27l 

€. Pentachondra eriemfifliOf n. sp. ; caule diffuso prostrato 
ramoso, ramis brevibus adscendentibus apice villosis, foliis 
erectis linearibus lineari-lanceolatisve apice incrassatis 
supra concavis dorso basi marginibusque ciliatisy calyce 
S-bracteato, corollad tubo intus extusque pilis sparsis 
deflezis, laciniis intus densissime barbatis. 

H AB. Marlborough ; Gunn. 

Rami virgati, Bpithamsei ad pedalem. Rami ramtdique basi 
squamis dense tecti. FoKa sub 2 lin. longa, coriaceay dorso 
3-5*neryia, sulcata, marginibus pilis albidis pulcherrime 
ciliatis. Fiores inter fasciculos foliorum sessiles, ramulos 
brevissimos terminantes, ^ unc. longi. Calycis foliola 
bmcteceque ciliatee. Corolla tubus eztus intusque . pilis 
deflexis subvillosus, lacinicB elongatffi copiosissime bar- 
batcB. Stamina subexserta. SquamuUe hypogyruB 5, elon- 
gatss. FHietus deest. 

7- Epacris hirtellaj n. sp. ; ramulis hirtis, foliis ovatis acu- 
minatis pungentibus glaberrimis coriaoeis planis margins 
(nsinutissime) serrulatis ciliatisque. 

Hab. Macquarrie Harbour; 'Gttiin. 

F^iiailui erectus ? ; ramtt/w divaricatis dcaticatis pilis paten- 
tibos hirteUis. Folia coriacea, subnitida, 3-4 lin. longa, 
supra obscure 1-nenria, subtus vix striata. Capsube apices 
versus ramulorum pedicellatSy pedicellis curvatis, basi 
bracteolatis. Foliola calycina 1^ lin. longa^ ovato-lanceo- 
lata, acuminata, marginibus obscure ciliatis. 

8. Epacris mrgata, n. sp. ; erects, ramis gracilibus elongatis 
parce ramosis laxe foliosis supeme puberulis, foliis (parvis) 
planis breviter petiolatb elliptico-OTatis oboyatisve obtusis 
minutissime serrulatis uninerviis subter obscure striatis, 
capsulis brevissime pedicellatis axillaribus subracemosis, 
bracteolis parvis, foliolis calycinis obtusiusculis cum pe- 
dunculo folio subsBquilongis marginibus tenuissime ciliatis. 

Hab. Asbestos Hills ; Gurm. 

FhUieuhtM bi-tripedalis, ramis erectis elongatis cortice rufo- 
fusco teotis apices versus puberulis. Folia (exemplaribus 
fmctireriB) reroota, 2-3 lin. longa, plana, erecta, ramo 



272 FLOKiB TASMANIiB BPICILEOIUM. 

plerumque appressa. Capsube secus ramulos spans, 
aubspicatae, solitarise, axillares^ calyce bracteisque pallide 
rufo-flavis tectee, stylo filiformi elongato terminatra. Pe£- 
celli erecto-patentes, bracteis parvis late ovatis imbricatis 
concavis tecti, vix 1 lin, longi. Calycis foliola bracteis 
saperioribus \ longiora, obtusiuscula, margine tenuiter 
pubescente v. subciliato. CapsuUB valvse lineares, calyoe 
breviorea. — Affinis ut videtur E. obtu8\folut. 

9. £pacri8 microphylla, n. sp. ; frutictdus depressiis ramoab- 
simus^ ramolis puberulis, foliis minimis imbricatis remotisye 
et cauli appressis nunc erecto-patentibus coriaceis sessilibus 
breviter oblongis obtusis super concavis subter obtuse can* 
natis marginibus viz scaberulis, floribus apices versus 
ramulorum brevissime pedicellatis, bracteis imbricatis folio- 
lisque calycinis (sordide albis) obtusis ciliolatis, corolla 
calycem vix superante late campanulata, lobis obtusis. 

H AB. Summit of Western Mountains ; Gunn. 

Cauks ramique primarii validi, lignosi, cortice atro tecti, 
ramulis ultimis filiformibus brevibus foliosis. FoUa sub 
^-1 lin, longa, plerumque imbricata nunc remota et cauli 
appressa, luride viridia, juniora dorso basin versus pube- 
rula, omnia basi lata sessilia. Inflorescentia ob colorem 
pallidum bractearum calycisque conspicua. Flores apices 
versus ramulorum terni v. quini, rarius solitarii. Corolla 
albida, ore aperto, staminibus inclusis. 

10. Epacris (§ cordifolia) Gunnii, n. sp.; erecta, vii^gata, 
ramis gracilibus hirsutis puberulisve, foliis patulis cucul- 
latis recurvis breviter petiolatis late ovato-cordatis acumi- 
natis pungentibus integerrimis glaberrimis, floribus axil* 
laribus solitariis subsessilibus, bracteis brevibus subacutis, 
foliolis calycinis ovatis acutis tubo corollas eequantibus 
marginibus ciliolatis, antheris inclusis. 

Hab. Marlborough and Hampshire Hills; Gunn^ Lawrence: 

— r.* v. n. 
PnUiculus erectus, I-2-pedalis, gracilis, virgatus, ramis 

pubescentibus pilisve patulis subhirsutis, cortice rufo. 

Folia plurima, uniformia, patenti-recurva, valde concava, 



FLORiB TASMAMiE SPlClLSQiUM . 273 

breviter petiolata, basi sub-profunde cordata, lobis rotun- 
datis, obscure nervosa, 4 lin. longa, eequilata, marginibus 
iiitei^erriaiis. Flores secus ramus plurimi^ axillares, sub- 
sessiles, cum pedicellis brevibus folium paulo superantes. 
— ^Ab K.pukhellafCmti&nisj differt^ praecipue torma calycis 
obtusioris. 

11. Sprengelia macrantha^ n. sp.; foliis ovato-lanceolatis 
rigidis recurvis acuminatis, floribus magnis capitato-con- 
gestis, aiitheris liberis copiose barbatis. 

Hab. Recherche Bay ; Gunn. 

Fruticultu pedalis. Rami divaricati, leeves, ecicatricati: Folia 
imbricata, recurva, brevia (ut in S. montana) mediocriter 
acuminata, non pungentia, rigida. Capitula florum 2-3 
unc. diametro, subhemispheerica, e sicco sordide albida 
nee colorata. Flares congeneribus duplo majores, \ unc. 
longi. ArUheriB omnino liberae. 

Specien distinctissima, quamvis characteribus difficillime 
nota. 

1 2. Kichea Gunniiy n. sp. ; fruticulusa^ foliis amplexicaulibus 
late-subulatis recurvis cucullatis marginibus minutissime 
denticuiatis, floribus sessilibus v. brevissime pedicellatis^ 
corolla late et brevissime conica obtusa. R. dracophylUe 
VQT. Brown, DC. Prodr. p. 555. 

Uab. Mount Wellington and Western Mountains; Gutui :*- 
r. V. ft. 

FnUieuba bipedalis, parce ramosus. Folia uncialia, rigida. 
Racemi 1-2 unciales. Corolla latiores quam longse, sub- 
hemisphericae, 

CUrissimus Gunn^ qui banc pro specie a K. dracophylla 
omnino diversa habet, secutus sum, nuui exemplaria inter- 
media nunquam a nobis visa sunt. Praeter magnitudinem 
babitumque, indole coroUae racemoque angustiore diversa 
videtur. 

13. Ricbea scoparia, n. sp. ; fruticulosa, vix ramosa, ramis 
strictisy foliis strictis erectis e basi vagiuante lineari-subu- 
Utis rigidis pungentibus, raccaus erectis, corollis obovutis 
sui)erne inflatis. 

VOI*. VI. X 



274 VhORM TASMANIiE SPICILBGIUM. 

Hab. Mount Wellington, and Valentine's Peak; Lawrence, 
Backhouse, Gunn : — v. v. n, 

Pruticulus rigidus, erectus v. basi adscendens, 8 unc. ad 
pedalem. Rami foliosi, basi reliquiis persistentibus folio- 
rum tecti, nee annulati. Folia persistentia, 3 unc. longa, 
basi \ unc. lata, rigida, dura, erecta, v. subrecunra, dense 
imbricata, pungentia, niarginibus minutissime serrulatis, 
basi late amplexicaulia, supra basin contracta et gradatim 
ad apicem angustata, paulo concava. Racemus cauli equi- 
longus, strictus, erectus. Corolla ^ unc. longae. — Species 
distinctissima. 

LABIATiB. 

1. Micromeria repens, n. sp. ; sparse pilosa v. glaberrima, caule 
repente ramoso, ramis prostratis y. adscendentibus tenuiter 
puberulis, foliis breviter petiolatis ovato-cordatis obtosis 
super pilis sparsis albidis hispidiusculis subter punctatis, 
floribus axillaribus breviter pedicellatis subsolitariis, calyci- 
bus urceolatis puberulis striatis, segmentis brevibus late 
subulatis recurvis intus pilis inflexis barbatis, corollis bre- 
vibus. 

Hab. Woolnorth ; Gunn. 

Caules graciles, pedales, radicantes. Rami 2-5 unc. longi. 
Folia ^-uncialia. Mores vix maturi, pauci, inconspicui. 

2. Micromeria affinis, n. sp. ; puberula, erecta v. adscendens, 
foliis ovatis v. ovato-cordatis obtusis nunc ovato-lanceo- 
latis subter punctatis, calycibus brevibus obconicis gla- 
bratis puberulisve laciniis subulatis tubum ^ aequantibus 
pilis inflexis barbatis, corollis calycem vix superantibos, 
staminibus inclusis. 

Hab. Hampshire Hills, Woolnorth, Circular Head ; Chmn. 

Species variabilis, sed a M. gracili indole calycis semper dis- 
tinctissima. 

Caules 1 unc. ad spithamaeam, simplices v. e basi ramosi, 
graciles, erecti, adscendentes v. rarius prostrati, uti folia 
pilis brevibus puberuli, nunc fere glaberri mi. Folia 2 liii. ad 
\^ unc. longa, ut in M. ffracilif sed plerumque latiora- 



FLORiB TASMANliB 8PICILEGIUM. 275 

VerticiUastra axillaria v. terminalia, 2-(>-flora. Calyces 
obconici, maltistriatij supra basin constxicti; fructiferi 
turgidi^ profundius striati, pallide virides v. purpuras- 
oentes. 

I am doubtful whether this, or the M. gracilis, Benth., 
shoold be referred to the Mentha gracilis of Brown : the pre- 
sent is by far the commoner plant in the colony, though 
haviDg the ctljx shorter and less truly " cylindrical." 

CoNVOLVULAGEiB. 

1« Wilsonia BaekhausH, Hook, fil.; glaberrima, caule pros- 
trato ramoso, ramis adsoendentibus^ foliis camosis lineari- 
bus subacutis basi obscure petiolatis integerrimis, floribus 
azillaribus sessilibus foliis cequilongis, coroUse tubo gracili 
calyce intus barbato bis longiore laciniis linearibus^ stami- 
nibus exsertis, stylo 2-3-fido, ovario 2-3-loculari, loculis 1- 
oTulatis. 
IIab* Great Swan Port; Gunn (Legit Backhouse,) 
Caulis apithamfeus et infra, valde ramosus, ramis adscenden- 
tibus foliosis. FoUa glaberrima, carnosa, compressa, ^-f unc. 
longa* Calycis tubus angulatus, glaberrimus, dentibus 
intus barbatis subulatis. CoroUa tubus gracilis, superne 
paulo ampliatus, laciniis reflexis ter longior. Stamina 
$iyHque rami longe exserti, atro-fiisci. Ovarium 1-2 locu- 
lare, loculis semper l-ovulatis. — Planta admodum singu- 
laris, speciei Drummondi (numero 21) ad Swan River lecta, 
proxima et forsan non diversa. 

Gbntianba. 

1. Mitnaucme perpusilla. Hook. fil. | glaberrima, caule gra- 
oli vix ramoso, foliis ovatis subacutis brcvissime petiolatis, 
floribus pedicellatis solitariis terminalibus, calycis 4-fidi 
aegmentis lanceolatis acutis recurvis pilosiusculis, coroUae 
laciniis recurvis marginibus puberulis, stylo ad anthesin 
indiviso, stigmate integro. 

Hab. Circular Head ; Gunn. 

Ctei/e#saberecti, fiiiformes, 1-2-unciales^ basi nudi, nodosi^ 

X 2 



276 FLORiK TASMANT^ 9PTCILBOI17M. 

simplices bis terve divisi. Folia 2-3 lin. longa, glabcr- 
rima, suprema nunc setis paucis terminata. PefBcelli 
brevissimi, terminates, uniflori. 

2. Mitrasacme divergens^ n. sp. ; glaberriroa, annua, caale 
fiiiformi erecto e basi simpliciusculo dichotome rainoso, 
foliis ovatis v. ovato-lanceolatis, floribus longe pedicellads, 
calycibus late bifidis segmentis triangularibus, corolla 4-£(ia, 
ovario stipitato, stylo ad anthesin basi biante, stigrnate 
obscure bilobo. 

Hab. Circular Head ; Gunn. 

Erecta, 2-4-uncialis, caule rigido, ramis elongatis panicu* 
latim 2-3-cbotomis. Folia 2-8 lin. longa. PediceUi fruc- 
tiferi 1-2 unc. Inngi, nudi, stricti. Corolke tenuissimc, 
hyalines, calyce breviores. Stamina parva. Ovarium sti- 
pitatum, stipite eequilongo. Capsuke pro planta majasculffii 
calycis tubo apice late bilabiato immersas. 

PLANTAGINEiB. 

1. Plantago glabrata^ n. sp. ; foliis lanceolatis dentatis t. 
integerrimis parce hispido-pilosis basi nudis, scapis folio 
ter longioribus appresse pubescentibus, spica ovata sub 
15-flora, calycis foliolis glabratis, corollaa laciniis late or- 
biculari-ovatis marginibus involutis. 

Hab. Lake St. Clair; Crunn. 

P. hispidee proxima et valde affinis, differt tota planta glabrati 

V. parce hispida, spicis brevibus paucifloris calycisque 

foliolis glabris. 

2. Plantago Tasmanica, n. sp. ; parce hispida, demum gla- 
brata, foliia plurimis lanceolatis oblongo-lanceolatisve inte- 
gerrimis Y. obscure sinuato-dentatis 1-nerviis basi nudis 
sericeo-barbatisve, scapis plurimis adscendentibus appresse 
pilosis, spicis breviter cylindraceis densis multifloris, bractea 
glabrata margine ciliata, calycis foliolis acutis glaberrimis, 
corollee laciniis ovato-lanceolatis marginibus convcdatis, 
capsul® loculis dispermis. 

Hab. Mount Wellington ; Gunn, 

Radix plerumque valida, descendens. Folia 2-4-uiicialia, basi 



FLORiB TABMANfiB 8PIGILEGIUM. 277 

saepissime pilis pallide brunneis sericeo-barbata, sub ^ unc. 
lata, utrinque pilis rigidis subhispida, rigidiuscula. Scapi 
foliis dupio longiores. Spica |-1 unciam longa. Flores 
parvi. » 

Species distinctissima, flores multoties minores quam in 
P. glabrata et P. hiipida^ corollae laciniis forma spicisque 
deTisifloris differt. 

3. Plantago leptoaiachys^ n. sp. ; glabra, foliis lineari-lanceo- 
latis petiolatis basi sericeo-barbatis integerrimis v. obscure 
sinuntis pilosiusculis glaberrimisve uninerviis subcoriaceis, 
scapis elongatis gracilibus superne parce appresse pilosis, 
spicis cylindraceis gracilibus, floribus (paucis) dissitis, caly- 
cibus glaberrimis, corolls laciniis oblongo4anceolatis mar- 
ginihus convolutis, capsulee loculis dispermis. 

Hab. Lake St. Clair; Gunn, 

Species gracilis. Radix crassiuscula. Folia basi in coUum 
sspissime extus dense sericeo-barbatum sessilia, 1^ unc. 
longa, vix \ unc. lata, in petiolum gracilem angustata. 
Seapi foliis ter quatenre longiores, tenues. SpiccB cylindracece, 
I- 14 unc. longae, vix 2 lin. diametro, floribus plus minusve 
dissitis parvis glaberrimis. — P. Tasmanicae indole florum 
glabritieque affinis, diffiert statura, foliorum formaque spica, 
laxiflora. 

4. Plantago paradaxa^ n. sp. ; puroila, foliis lanceolatis sessi- 
libus breviter petiolatisve integerrimis sinuato-dentatisve 
pilis paleaceis albidis plus minus bispidis et transversim 
fasciatis, scapis brevissimis paleaceis 1-3-floris, calyce 
glabrato, coroUs laciniis ovatis acutis marginibus involutis, 
capsulfe loculis 4-8permis. 

Hab* Lake St. Clair ; Gunn, 

Species parva, terras appressa. Folia stellatim patentia, ^-2 
unc. longa, 2-4 lin. lata, supra preecipue pilis laxis paleaceis 
articulatis interrupte transversim fasciata. Scapi brevissimi, 
▼ix 1 lin. longi, validi (hinc flores in axillas foliorum quasi 
sessiles) dense paleacei. Flores 1-3, dum terni collate- 
rales. — Planta ob folia fasciata admodum singularis, ob cap- 



278 FLORiB TASMANlifi SPIEILEGIL'II. 

sulee loculos polyspermos habitumque P. camos^t^ fMomi 
thoSy barbataque affinis. 

PoLYGONB.l!:. 

1. Polygonum (Muhlenbeckia) Gunniiy n. sp. ; foliis oblong 
hastatis apicc rotundatis apiculatis nmticisve basi tru 
cato-cordatis angulis acutiusculis deflexis niarginibu^ t 
crenulatis. 

Hab. Circular Head and Macquarrie Harbour; Cimn. ;• 
V, V. cult. 

2. Polygonum (Muhlenbeckia) axillaris^ n. sp. ; pumilua 
prostratum, foliis orbicularibus obcordatis elliptico-oblu; 
gisve retusis muticis apiculatisve, floribus asillaribus sul 
tariis pedicellatis. 

Had. Marlborough ; S. Esk ; Vale of Bclvoir ; Gunn - 

r. V, n. 
Sufft^liculujf prostratus^ ramosus, diffusus, 6 unc. ad pcda 

lem. Foiia gracilitcr petiolata, 3-4 iin. longa, subirquilats 

Flores pcdicellati, axillares, soiitarii ; pedicclli petiolo sub 

ocquilongi. 

PlIYTOLACCK.K. 

Xov. Gill. UiDYMOTiiECA, llook. //.— Dioica. Pvriaaihtiv 
protuiuic -l-lohuiii ; lobis 2 niajoribus, late ovulis, su': 
acutis, pcrsistcntibus. Fl. Masc. Stain'nin sub ;>, bcr 
uiiica plus ininusve regular! iiiserta ; ///w//<tw/w nulhi: ii'^ 
f/iti'/if scnnIK's, liiicares, ol)ovattU, ulrinque obtusiu ; L>c^\: 
CDiiiKitis, rim. I lutcruli dchi.NCVutibus. Fl. Fckm. Carj**!; 
didyma, valdc rv)m|)iv.ssa, coluiuiuc ceiilrali brovi adiiati 
sty/i 2, crassi, rocurvi, papillosi, inargiiiibus in carpcli 
replicatis. Oev/zV/ in carpoUis solilaria, coluninic Cfiilra 
brcvi vcntrali ;.}Uxa, adscondentia, exv)stc)male fuii^uM 
Frurtus diii) i.i.ts, carpellis coinprcssis, dorso deliiscviitiim: 
SciNina uiiciiiatiui cimduplicata, ba^i arillo {e micropvl 
orti)) brevi auda ; festa radiatiui undulata et tranbvcr>ii 
rui^osa, cmia(\a, brunu).'a ; albumine bubcarnoso. hlmbru 



FLORiE TASMANIiG SPICILEOIUM. 279 

homotrope arcuatus ; radicula infera. — Suffrutex Gyros- 
temoni affinis, glaberrimusy erectuSf ramis ramulisqueplerum' 
que strictis ffracilibtis. Folia sparsa, linearia, semiteretia^ 
subacuta. Flores in axUlU foliorum superiorum subspicati, 
soliiariiy breviter pediceUati. ^ 

1. Didymotheca thesioides. 

Hab. Cataracts^ near Launceston ; Lawrencey Gunn. 

Firuticuhis 2-3-pedalis, olivaceo-viridis. Radit lignosus. 
Rami ramnlique e basi divisi, plerumque striatic ultimi 
gracillimi. Folia carnosa, uncialia^ angusta. Flores parvi, 
nutantes^ masculi 2 lin. lati. Pedicelli vix 2 lin. longi. 
Perianlhium parvum. Stamina brevia, apice latiora, 
omnina sessilia, plerumque simplici serie inserta, nunc 
irregulariter inserta, semper circa areolam centralem planam 
disposita. Pollen spheericum, obscure 3-lobum, flavum. 

CHENOPODEiE. 

1. Atriplex (Theleophyton) chrystallinay n. sp. ; herbacea, gla- 
berrima, caule prostrato ramoso, ramis brevibus adscenden- 
tibus una cum foliis floribusque papillis aquosis opertis, foliis 
sessilibus elliptico-oblongis obtusis integerrimis carnosis, 
floribus axillaribus^ masculis pentandris fasciculatis, perian- 
thio quinquelobo; focmineis solitariiis bifidis^ utricuio pe- 
rianthio ampliato urceolato apice late bilabiato incluso. 
— An genus proprium ? 

Hab. Sandy sea-coast; Gunn. 

Herb(B sabulicola, succulenta^ aquosa^ tota iucido-papillosa. 
Caules prostrati^ nudi, pennoe corvinse crassitie, ramosi ; 
ramis adscendentibus, 2-4 unc. longis, foliosis. Folia 2-4 
line, longa plana, integerrima. Flores masculi ad apices 
ramulorum plurimi. Perianlhium campanulatum, ad me- 
dium obtuse 5-lobum. Stamina 5, filamentis exsertis. Fl. 
Feem. inconspicui, axillis foliorum inferiorum sessiles, parvi. 
Perianlhium compressum, fructiferum late incrassatum^ 
labiis latis. Semen compressum, obscure punctatum: 
embryo annularis. — An nov. gen.? {Theleophyton dicen- 



280 FLORA TASMANIA SPICILBGIUM. 

dum). Ob perianthium fl. masc. 5-lobuin habitumque Aii 
pUce diversissimum. 

2. Chenopodium (Rhagodia?) congestum^ llooV. fil. ; cai 
sutfruticoso angulato ramoso, ramis dense foliosis, fu 
erectis pctiolatis rhombeo-ovatis obtusiusculis eruso-d( 
tatis sinuatisve utrinque pulverulentis, s|)icis axillaril 
terminalibusque brevibus densifloris obtusis, perianti 
polygamis depressis 5-partitis, foliolis dursu crasse a 
natis, staii.inibus 1-5 nonnuUis sterilibus, stylis 2. 

Hab. Ilobart Town ; Gunn : — r. r. n, 

Suffrutt'X ^-1-pedalis; ramis divaricatis. CaulLs lignos 
obtuse angulatus, sulcatus. Rami subfastigiati, dei 
foliosi, pulverulentes. Folia ^ unc. longa, in petiuli 
angustata, basi cuneata, crassiuscula, plana, upaca, mar 
nibus sinuato-dentatis obtusiusculis. Spicte tuliis acq 
long^c V. breviorcs^ dcnsiiloroe, obtusce. Flores minii 
gloinerati. Perianthium planum, depressuni, hohzunUi 
subdisciforrae ; foliola 5, incurva, dorso incrassata, carina 
Stamina nulla, v. 1-5, fertilia numero varia, rari&^ii 
omnia fertilia. Ovarium deprcssuui, stylo brevi in sti 
niata 2 de.sincntia; pericarpio carnosulo. Fr actus i^nott 

TlIYMELE.i:. 

1. VuwiiXi^VL firifonnis, IJuok. til. ; gLberrima, ciiule prostn 
gnu'illifno Nim|)liriusculu jiarcc t'ulii)So, loiiis oj-po's.! 
liiicuri-ol)loni;is cllipticisvo subaculis bi».v:ssiniL' ptlir 
lalis |ii;»iiis mar^iniluis tcnuitcr recurvis, tloril)u> [Kiiu 
i'uhitis in ('.4|ii;alu.ii tonnliiaVf [iauciiloraiu (iii»|M»Nit.> 
brcvisM:..i.' s.jiciiti , raehi piloNa, jioriauthio i:Ia'.iralo, li. 
:;[ac'ili, laiiii:!.^ s..l(Mii;ati.s, .siuiiuiiihub cxsutis. 

il.vu. L.;ui;L\Mi»!i ; (iium^ LiurmtCL, 

r(/////.y |,ci!aiii>, i^r ailliiiia?!, UTc.-. Fal'td \-\ uiic. li»n:;a. <.\i 
tutu j-fj lliira, lluiiSas liii'vl^.'si.m' pv-dii-cllatis. t\ri.m! 
tu/jtt.i |.ui(c .sciiciiiN. iiiux .;u;!jLrii;:iU' 

Spci.'if.s tii.^tiiiclihNiina , I*, spivatti^ />/". allinis. 



FLORiB TASMANIifi BPICILBGIUM. 281 

2. Kmelea nwea. Lab. — Pianta variabilis ; foliis imbricatis v. 
dissitis planis mai^nibusve recurvis, subter plus minusve 
dense tomento incano appresso tectis^ ovatis obovatisve 
sessilibas t. hreyiter petiolatis. — P. incanam, Br. distinguere 
neqaeam. — Varietates sequentes formas maxime conspicuas 
indicant. 

Var* ii. erecta^ foliis plerumque ovatis basi rotundatis margi* 
nibos recurvis, capituiis solitariis ramulos elongatos ter- 
minantibus. 

Hab. New Norfolk, Laanceston, Hobarton^ Recherche Bay^ 
Western Mountains ; Gunny Lawrence : — v. v. n. 

Exemplaria typica a clariss. Gunn ad Recherche Bay (olim 
a Labillardiero ipso exploratam) lecta pulcherrime nivea et 
incana instar Corream aUndam evadunt. Folia in eadem 
pianta imbricata v. dissita, obovata, ovata, v. ima basi 
cordata, marginibusque planis v. recurvis variant. 

Var. |3. thyrsoidea, caule ramisque erectis, ramulis confertis 
sspissime polyoephalis. 

Hab. Launceston, New Norfolk^ George Town; Gunn: — 

V. V. It. 

Yar. y* nummularia; erecta v. basi prostrata, foliis late 

ovato-oblongis orbicolatisve basi cordatis. 
Hab. Hobarton, New Norfolk; Gunuy Lawrence : — v.v.n. 

SANTALACBiB. 

1. EzocarpQS nanus, Hook. fiL; fruticosus, caule procum- 
bentCy ramis teretibus sulcatis^ ramulis compressis, inter- 
nodiis brevissimis supeme in folia 2 subulata divaricata 
dilatatis, spiculis sessilibus, nucibus parvis perianthio 5- 
partito suffultis. 

Hab* Mountain tops ; (Sunn : — t;. v. n. 

Habitus E. kumifuriy sed minor^ ramis ramulisque breviori- 
bos angulatim flexuosis, intemodiis brevissimis, superiori- 
bus pnecipue compressis, supeme in folia 2 subulata 
oorineea dilatatis, perianthio 5-fido, nucibus parvis. 



VOL. vr. 



282 FLORA TASMANIiB SPICILBOIUM* 

PROTEACEiB. 

1. Grevillea australisy Br. 

Var. a. erecta; foliis lanceolatis subulatis lineari-lanceolatisre 

marginibus subrecurvis : — frutex erectus. 
Hab. Common. 
Var. fi. linearifolia ; foliis anguste Unearibus marginibos in- 

signiter revolutis : — frutex erectus. 
Hab. Launceston, &c. ; Gunn : — r. r. «. 
Var. y. planifolia; foliis lineari-obovatis planiusculis : — frutex 

erectus. 
Hab. Launceston; Gunn. 
Var. S. montana ; foliis brevibus lineari-lanceolatis : — fruti- 

cuius humilis, depressus. 
Hab. Marlborough, Hampshire Hills, Western Mountains, 

&c. ; Gunn: — v. v. n, 
Var. €. brevifolia ; foliis brevibus lineari-oblongis obovatisve : 

— fruticulus depressus. 
Hab. Western Mountains ; Gunn. 

Var. f . subulata ; foliis brevibus Unearibus coriaceis, margi- 
nibus ad costam revolutis : — frutex erectus. 
Hab. S. Esk ; Gunn, 

2. Isopogon ceratophyllus, Br. ; foliis planis longe petiolatis 
triternatim divisis laciniis divaricatis rigidis enerviis ultimis 
lineari-subulatis pungentibus, strobilis sessilibus axillariboa 
V. ramulos brevissimos terminantibus, squamis distinctis 
apice scariosis glaberrimis basi densissime sericeo*tomen- 
tosis, nuce elongata compressa fasciculo pilorum dense 
barbata. 

Hab. Flinders' Island, Bass* Straits ; Gunn. 

Fruticulus humilis, depressus, squarrosus. Folia li-2-an* 
cialia, petiolo elongato, lamina circumscriptione latior 
quam longa, laciniis 1 lin. latis. Strobibts ^-unc. diametro, 
late ovoideus v. sphoericus, e squamarum apicibus brunneis 
basibusque albo-sericeis quasi marmoratus. Herts non 
vidi. Nua angusta, stylo basi terminata utrinque pilis 
strictis dense obtecta. 



FLOAM TASMANIA 8PICILBGIUM. 283 

3. Conospermum iax^oliumy Br. ; ramulis sericeis, foliis 
linearibus supra medium parum dilatatis acutis enerviis 
eoriaceia utrinque tenuissime sericeis^ spicis versus apices 
ramulorum confertis folio brevioribus^ perianthii laciniis 
tube aequilongis acutis. 

Hab. Spring Bay; Backhouse. 

Eruiietdui ramis virgatis, appresse sericeis. Folia plurima, 

adscendentia, uncialia, vix 1 lin. lata, plana, enervia. 

Fhres inconspicui. Perianthii tubus bracteis longior. Nux 

oboonica, apice pappo elongato coronata. 

4. Persoonia Gufmii^ n. sp. ; ramulis foliisque junioribus pube 
tenui sparsisy foliis* obovato-spathulatis v. ovato-oblongis 
apice rotundatis retusis apiculatisve coriaceis, floribus 
aolitariis folio \ brevioribus puberulis, pedunculis 1-floris 
bractea brevi sufiultis, antheris linearibus muticis, stylis 
rectis ovario glabro monospermo longioribus. 

Var. /3. alpina; foliis lineari-oblongis : — an sp. distincta? 

Hab. May-day Plains ; Guntiy — var. /3. Lake St. Clair; Gunn. 

Rmiex cortice subscarioso lamelloso, ramulis foliis junioribus 
periantbiisque pube tenui seepissime aureo sparsis. Folia 
Talde ooriacea, uncialia (in var. /3. longiora, \\ uncialia) fere 
( unc. lata, sicoitate transversim rugulosa. Flores sparsi, 
brevissime pedicellati, pedicello bractea parva suffulto, \ 
unc. longo, alabastris clavatis, perianthii laciniarum mar- 
ginibus introflexis, corrugatis. Ovarium lineari-ovoideum, 
1-loculare. Baeca glaberrima, ovoidea, ccerulea, ^ unc. 
longa stylo persistente recto terminata, putamine osseo. 
— ^Varietas /3. (vix species distincta) fructifera tantum visa, 
foliis longioribus prscipue di£Pert: bacoB omnino ut in 
var. o. 

EuPHORBIAOBiS. 

1. Micranthemum hexandrum, n. sp.; fruticosum ramulis 
glaberrimis ultimis puberulis, foliis glaberrimis erecto- 
patentibus tematim fasciculatis anguste lineari-oblongis 
acuminatis, perianthii foliolis late ovatis margine integer- 
rirois v. obscure erosis, staminibus 6. 

Y 2 



284 FLORAS TASMANIifi SPICILEGtUM. 

Hab. Launceston; Scoit, Lawrence, Ounn. 

Pruiex erectus; ramis teretibus, strictis, virgatis; oortice 
cinereo-fusco. Folia coriacea, breyiter petiolata, ^ unc 
longa, 1^ lin. lata, integerrima, gkberrima, uninenria. 
Flores axillares, solitarii v. fasciculati. Pedvncidi folio 
breviores, validi. Perianthii foliola 8 exteriora interiori- 
bus duplo majora. Stamina biserialia, exteriora petalis 
exterioribus lobisque ovarii iroperfecti opposita, intericNU 
iis alterna. Anthera extrors®. 

2. Phyllanthus australiSj n. sp.; pusillus, ramosissioras, 
ramis brevibus adscendentibus^ ramulis compresais, foliis 
simplicibus altemis (parvis) coriaceis lineari-oblongis ma- 
crone acuminatis, pedicellis solitariis validis simplicibus 
erectis, floriferis folio subaequilongis, fhictiferis elongatis, 
perianthii foliolis oblongis coriaceis, ovarii disco 6-lobo 
capsula globosa. E. thymoides, Knowlt? (nescio an 
descripta sit) vid. Steudel Nomencl. 

Hab. Hobart Town and Circular Head ; Gnnn : — t;. v. n. 

Radix lignosus, descendens. CoUum breve, in ramos perplu* 
rimos divisum. Rami ramulosi, prostrati, 2-6 unc. longi, 
apicibus ramulisque curvatis adscendentibus compressis 
subangulatis. FoUa plurima, 2 lin. longa, 1 lata, ooriaoea, 
mucrone discolorato deciduo acuminata, l-nervia. Ftorei 
I lin. diametro, inconspicui, rufo-fusci, pedicello validow 

3. Phyllanthus Gunniij n. sp. ; suffrutescens, ramis elongatis, 
ramulis tenuibus strictis angulatis, foliis simplicibus al- 
temis orbiculari-obovatis late oblongisve rarius obcordatis, 
petiolo brevi gracili, pedicellis plurimis fasciculatis simpli- 
cibus, floriferis folio brevioribus, fructiferis elongatis graci- 
libus folia subesquantibus. 

Hab. Circular Head and George Town; Gunn. 

Rami graciles, teretes, crassitie pennee corvinee ; ramulis elon- 
gatis, 6 unc. ad pedalem, tenuibus, angulatis, strictis, v. 
paulo curvatis, subteretibus, basi bracteis ovatis acutis 
stipulceformibus auctis. Folia plurima, i ad | unc longa, 
forma varia, semper lata, et basi abrupte angustata, apice 
plerumque rotundata, nunc retusa v. late emarginata, rarius 



PLORiE TASMANIiE 8PIGILBGIUM. 285 

apiculata. Flares numerosissimi, panri. PedieeUi seni, 
gniciles, curvati, basi bracteolati. Perianthii Jbliola oblonga. 
Cfguuin valde depressa, obscure lobata, v. potius obtuse 
angulata, 2 lin. diametro, pallide fusco-castanea : seminibus 
atro-fuscis ; yalyis conrorroihus. 

URTIG£iE. 

!• Parietaria squaUda, n. sp. ; setoso-pubescens, setis basi 
bulboso-incrassatis, caule prostrato l)asi ramoso nudo an- 
gulatim flexuoso, ramis erectis divisis crassiusculis pu- 
bescentibus, foliis (parvis) breviter petiolatis late ovato- 
cordatis integerrimis utrinque setoso-pubescentibus, flo- 
ribus glomeratis axiliaribus tribracteatis, bracteis ob- 
longia obtasis dorso setosis, perianthio profande 4-par- 
titOy staminibus 4, ovario compresso late ovato, stigmate 
aessili plumoso, nuce ovata subacuta snb-compressa. 

H AB. Circular Head ; Ounn. 

Anmuat Radix viz lignosa. Caules 2-3 unc. longi^ prostrati, 
flexnosi, nudi, ramis basi adsoendentibus deinde erectis, 
laxe foliosis, 4 unc. longis, crassitie pennie passerinn. Folia 
•iocitate luride viridia, opaca, 3*4 lin. longa, petiolo ple« 
mmque .brevi, rarius foliis asquilongo. Flores parri. — 
Spedei Novdd Zeelandifle simillima : differt preecipue foliis 
basi cordatis. 

2* Urtioa luc^fvgtL^ n. sp. ; herbacea, tota setis patentibus 
sparsa, pube nullo, foliis longe petiolatis oppositis mem- 
branaceislate ovatis liaeari-oblongisve basi cordatis acumi- 
natis grosse dentatis dentibas sinubusque conformibus 
acutis, spicis gradlibus compositis patentibus, masculis 
petiolo aequilongis v. longioribus rarius abbreviatis, foe- 
inineis plurimis brevioribus pendulis densifloris. 

0. limearifoUa; foliis longioribus lineari-elongatis brevi- petio- 
latis subduplicato-serratia. 

Hab. Hobart Town and Circular Head ; Gtiim;— t^. v. n. 

Herba 1- ad 3-pedalero, laxa, flaocida, parce ramosa, tota setis 
nrentibos sparsa. FoUa forma varia, basi stipulis deci- 
dois 3 tin* longis instructa, petiolo 1-4 unc. longo, graoili, 



286 NEW 8PECIB8 OF LTSIPOMA. 

lamina eBqailongav.longiore, semper basi cordata» in Tar./?. 
6 unc. loDga, viz 1 lata, Fl. maac. majusculi ; perianthii 
foliolis glabratis. Ntices elliptico-ovatfie, compreass. 
Varietas /3. forma foliorum tantum recedens ad hanc ape- 
ciem a clariss. Gunn refertur.. 

(7b be continued). 



Deacription of a New Species of Lybipoma^ from the Andes 
o/* Columbia; by J. D. Hooker^ M.D. R.N., F.L.S. i[C. 

{With a Figure, Tab. IX. A.) 

Lysipoma muacaideSf n. sp. ; caulibus breTiboa dense 
caBspitosis suberectis, foliia densissime imbricatis erectis 
linearibus obtusis marginibus dorsoque concavo supeme 
, ciliatis subcarnosis, floribus inter foUa summa sessilibas 
, V. brevissime pedioellatis, laciniis calycinis oblongis obtusis 
segmentisque cocoUce brevibus dorso dliatis. (Tab. IX. A.) 
Hab. Summit of Quindies, Andes of Columbia. fFPurdie, 
Planta perpusilla^ muscosa, late extensa, laete viridis. RaAa: 
fibrosa, fibris crassis elongatis hie illic fibrillosis. Caules 
parce ramosi, densissime caespitosi, unciales, una cum foliis 
^-i unc. lati. Folia perplurima, densissime imbricata, 
1^ lin. longa, anguste linearia, obtusa, super concava, dorso 
convexa, pilis marginalibus Ibxis, flexuosta. Fhres minimi, 
inconspicui, nunc inter folia occlusi. Pedunculua brevissi- 
mus, inter folia summa solitarius, axillaris. Cahfcia tubus 
obconicusi nunc angulatus et obpyramidalis ; laciniis tubo 
eequilongisy coriaceis, obtusis. Corolla paullo curvata, ca- 
lycis laciniis bis longior; tubo dorso fisso, oylindraceq, 
glaberrimo ; segraentis brevibus, obtusis, dorso apicibusque 
ciliatis. Filamenta basi corolis inserts, tubo adnata, plana, 
membranacea, inferne libera, superne in tubum brevem 
coalita. Anihera connatie, apicibus barbatis, 2 infiericm- 
bus appendicibus subulatis apice instructis. Stylus eylin* 



ON SPHiBBOCARPUS TBRBB8TR1S. 287 

dracens; stigmate bilabiato. Capgula subcoriacea, turbi- 
nate, apioe, mediante operculo disciformi, debiscens. Se- 
mhia pauca, angulato. 

At first sight, this curious little species resembles some 
tttfted moss, rather than a flowering plant, but on examina- 
tion proves to be a plant of the natural order Lobeliacea^ 
assuming on the Andes of Columbia a tufted mossy habit, 
in common with many of the Caryqphyllea, Vtolanem^ Com- 
posiim and Junctm of that elevated chain. As a species, it 
is totelly distinct from any of ite congeners ; four of which, 
all natives of the loftiest mountains of Peru and Columbia, 
are figured by Humboldt and Kunth. 

Tab. IX. A. — Fig. 1. Lyt^ama muscoides of the nat. size; 
/• 2. leaf; /• 3. flower ; /• 4. corolla laid open ; /. 5. sta- 
mina ; /• 6« vertical section of immature capsule : — mag- 
nified. 



Notes on SpHiSROCARPUS terrbstris, Mich.; by Gborgb 
FiTT, Esq. 

{With a Figure, Tab. IX. B.) 

(Mr. Fitt having been fortunate in detecting this little 
plant abundantly near Great Yarmouth, as recorded in the 
Phytologist, No. 61. p. 544, and being able to watch the 
progress of ite fructification, has favoured us with the follow- 
ing particulars and the beautiful drawing from which our 
plate is engraved, Tab. IX. B.)^Ed. 

SpHiEROCARPUS TBRRESTRI8, Mich. 

Uab. The specimens, from which the observations are made, 
were found, generally, on clover layers at Bradwell, Suffolk. 
In the mild moist January of 1846 the plant was very 
abundant, producing its capsules in plenty from about the 
middle of February to the middle of March : in the early 
part of April it had disappeared entirely. 

Plant consisting of a plane, slightly and bluntly lobed thallus, 



288 ON BPHAROCARPU8 TEBBB8TRIS. 

i to 4 an inch in diameter^ of a thin, reticulated strnctore, 
attached to the earth by numerous fibrous radicles^ and 
bearing, in clusters growing from its superior surface, (in 
large specimens sometimes as many as 100), oboTate 
bladders or perianths^ of a structure similar to, but more 
strongly reticulated than, the thallus itself. Perianihs va- 
rying in size, the largest about V?F^h of an inch in length, 
with an entire margined perforation at the summit. Each 
perianth, when not barren, produces, growing from its base 
within, an orange-shaped capsule -sV^h of an inch in diameter, 
bearing on its upper flattened side a short, conical process 
or style. Capsule of a similar reticulated structure to the 
perianth, but much more delicate and transparent, and 
when viewed under a strong magnifying power, the spaces 
between the reticulations are seen to be filled up with 
numerous delicate little bladders or cells. It bursts irre- 
gularly, and contains from 200 to 300 perfectly spherical 
seeds, enveloped, in an early state, in a transparent watery 
fluid, which disappears as the capsule ripens. This fluid 
dries, on glass, in the form of irregular hexagons, of a 
greenish hue, which may probably be the cells which have 
contained the seeds, but if so, they are invisible, when wet, 
owing to their extremely delicate structure. Seeds very mi- 
nute, appearing to the naked eye like yellow dust : when 
magnified, they are seen to be of the same reticulated 
structure as the rest of the plant, though of a less firm 
texture, and yellowish colour, turning brown by exposure. 

Mingled with the seeds, are a small number of bright green 
coloured cells, occurring singly, or two or three together. 

The plant externally is glaucous green. 

Tab. IX. B. — Sphierocarpus terrestris. Fig. 1. thallus and 
tufts of perianths, nat. size ; f. 2. a portion of tiie same, 
magnified ; /. 3. a perianth containing a ripe capsule, highlg 
magnified; /. 4. a capsule, greatly magnified j f. 5. seeds, 
magnified, shewing the liqiud which surrounds them in the 
capsule, dried in the form of hexagons, and the small 
green cells which occur among the seeds ; /• 6. three seeds, 



NBW MOSSES OP NEW GRANADA. 289 

t^ l^ghly magnified; f. 7. highly magnified portion of a 
broken capsde ; /• 8. a broken capsule^ with some seeds 
adhering ; /• 9. a small tuft, natural rize, shewing frond 
and radicles. 



Brief characters of some New Mosses, collected in New 
Geanada by Mb. W. Purdie, indicated by W. Wilson, 
Esq. 

{With 2 Plates, Tabs. X. XI.) 

1. Andnea subenervis, (Hook, et Wils.) ; caule elongato parce 
ramoso, foUis laxis patentibus ellipticis obtusiusculis sub- 
enenriis, perichaetialibus majoribus erectis, theca exserta. 
(Tab. X.) 

Hab. Paramo of Ruiz, with Polytrichum triehodon. {Purdie.) 
Stems 2 inches long, and more, erect. Leaves oblong-ellip- 
tical, obtuse, slightly apiculate, concave, greenish purple, 
with a very obscure broad nerve, not reaching half way. 
Allied to A« hucifolia, (Hook. fil. et Wils.), but differing in 
the broader elliptical, not subulate leaves. It also ap- 
proaches Acroschisma Wilsoni (Hook, fil.) in the formation 
of the capsule. 

Tab. a. subenervis. — Fig. 1. Plants: nat. size; /. 2. upper 
portion of a fertile plant; /. 3. 4. 5. leaves; /. 6. 7* cap- 
sules in different states : — magnified. 

2. Polytrichum trichodon, (Hook, et Wils.) ; caule subsim- 
plici, foliis erectis ovato-lanceolatis acutis canaliculatis 
int^errimis, theca obliqua suberecta ovata microstoma, 
operculo rostrato, peristomii dentibus 16 angustissimis, 
ealyptra subnuda. (Tab. X.) 

Hab. Paramo of Ruiz, on volcanic ashes near the line of 
perpetual snow. July, 1846. {Purdie.) 

Stems about half an inch long, or more. Leaves soft, very 
acute, lamellated on the upper surface, brownish. Seta 
I of an inch long, thick. Capsule not compressed, lai^e 



290 NSW M088B8 

for the size of the moss. Beak of the operculam inclined. 
Teeth of the peristome 16, pale, very long and nanx>w, 
united at the base by a common membrane. Calyptra 
naked, except a few setulse at the apex, brown. Spores 
yellow and small. 
Allied to P. campressum^ (Hook, et Wils.), but differing 

quite in the peristome, having only 16 teeth, as in Cephalo^ 

trichum of Bruch and Schimper. The male flowers we have 

not seen. In this moss the peristome, more evidently than 

in other species, is found to consist of two laminie, the inner 

one continuous with the sporular sac. 

P. trichodon. Fig, 1. Plants: nat, size; /. 2. 3. leaves; 
/. 5. transverse section of a leaf; /. 6. perichcetium ; /• 7- 
calyptra; /. 8. capsule and Ud; /• 9. capsule without lid; 
/• 10. outer, and/. 11. inner lamina of peristome: — all 
more or less magnified. 

3. P. ciUatum, (Hook, et Wils.) ; caule longissimo subsim- 
plici, foliis erectis CQnfertis basi vaginantibua ovato-subu- 
latis carinatis ciliatis, theca semicylindrica demum horison- 
tali, calyptra pilosiuscula. (Tab. X.) 

Hab. Paramo de Pamplona, New Granada, upon a marly 
bank; rare. Sept. 1845. (Purdie.) 

Stem above 12 inches in height, usually simple, but in 
consequence of innovations, it appears to have short lateral 
branches. Leaves much crowded, . erect, the lower ones 
white as they decay, when dry appressed, fringed with long 
white cilice, the upper side covered with lamellee. Sets 
about 2 inches long. Capsule at first erect, ovate oblong, 
destitute of apophysis; at length horizontal, flat on the 
upper side as in P. Magellanicum, its nearest aUy. Oper- 
culum with a very short straight beak. Calyptra yellowish- 
brown, slightly hairy both at the apex and at the base. 
Dioicous. 
A very singular species, sufficiently well marked by its 

crowded, erect, ciliate leaves. 

P. ciliatum. Fig. 1. 2. Plants: nai. size; /• 3. leaf;/. 4. 
transverse section of a leaf; /• 5. immature capsule with 



OF NBW GRANADA. 291 

operculum;/. 6. old capsule;/. 7- teeth of peristome; 
/. 8. calyptra : — all more or less magnified, 

4. Dicranum specummj (Hook, et Wils.) ; caule longissimo 
sttbramoso, foliis erecto-patentibus e basi ovato-lanceolata 
longissime Ihieari-attenuatis apice subserrulatia sicoitate 
spiraliterconvolutis, nervo latiusculo^ theca oblonga erecta^ 
operculo longirostro. (Tab. XI.) 

Hab. New Granada. {Pur die.) 

Steins above 12 inches high (loosely tufted ?) ; leayes 6-7 
lines long, rather crowded, lower ones subsecund, at times 
deflexedj the uppermost erect, channelled, the nerve 
rather broad and distinct only near the base, yellowish ; 
those of the perichsBtium convolute and larger. Seta 2 
inches long, yellowish. Capsule subcylindrical, erect. Pe- 
ristome dark red, the teeth small, cloven half-way, but the 
segments united at the apex. Operculum as long as the 
capsule. Spores rather large and greenish. 
Allied to D. speirophyUum^ (Montagne,) which differs, ac- 
cording to the description, in the leaves : ^^ remote, spreading 
and divaricate, lanceolate, toothed at the apex, nerve very 
narrow.*' 

Dicr. speciosum. Fig. 1. Plant: nat. size; /. 2. leaf; /. 3. 
transverse section of ditto; /• 4.5. capsules with and 
without operculum ; /. 6. tooth of peristome and spores. 

5. D. sclerocarpumf (Hook, et Wils.) ; caule ramoso, foliis 
setaceis solidinerviis integerrimis basi dilatatis, theca sub- 
erecta oblique apophysata. (Tab. XI.) 

Uab. New Granada, {Purdie) ; Guadeloupe, (C. S. Parker, 
Eiq.) 

Stem an inch long, branched. Leaves erect, subsecund, 
lather rigid, the nerve thick, and occupying all the upper 
part of the leaf, those of the perichotium larger. Seta 
pale, it thickens at the apex and forms an oblique apo- 
physis below the capsule, which is without stria, pale 
brown, and of thick texture. Operculum with a long 
beak. Annulus present. Dioicous. 
Allied to D. subulatum and to D. Perroietn (Mont.); 



292 A NBW CARDAMtNB. 

differing in the singalar aspect of the harder capsule, and also 

in the more rigid leaves. 

Dicr. sclerocarpum. Fig. 1. Plants : not. size; /. 2. 3. 4. 5. 
leaves ; / 6. cdyptra; /. 7- capsule with operculum ; f, 8. 
capsule with peristome annulus ; /. 9. teeth of peristome ; 
/. 10. mature calyptra : — all more or less magnified. 

6. Neckera densa. (Tab. XI.) 

Hypnum densum, {Swartz.) 
A few specimens of this moss have been sent mised up 

with Neckera luteo-virens (Taylor), which it very closely 

resembles. The fruit, hitherto unknown, proves it to be a 

Neckera : it scarcely differs from Neckera luieo-virena, except 

in the fragile leaves, which are narrower and plicato-striate, 

and in the more slender stems. 

Neck, densa. fig. 1. Plant: not. size; f. 2. leaf; /• 3. pe- 
richestium and young capsule $ /. 4. perichstium and ma- 
ture capsule, with lid ; /• 5. the same removed from the 
pericheetium : — all more or less magnified. 



Figure and Description of a new Cardaminb from New 
Granada, by W. J. H. 

(WUh a Plate, Tab. XII.) 
Cardaminb picta, Hook. 

Glabra, caule elato subrobusto angulato flexuoso ramoso, 
foliis pinnatisectis, foliolis 7- 1 1 folior. inf. oblique ovatis 
petiolulatis hinc basi auriculatis reliquis ovatis lanceola- 
tisve omnibus grosse incisis mucronato-serratis, racemis 
elongatis foliosis (v. si mavis pedieellis solitariis axiUaribus) 
floribus speciosis purpureis, sepalis lato-ovatia ooncavis 
membranaceis erectis atro-fiiscis, petalis obovato-spathu- 
latis venosis stylo aciculari brevioribus calyoem triplo 
superantibus, siliqua lineari-compressa stylo longo gracil- 
limo terminata. Tab. XII. 

Hab. Sides of rivulets. Paramo of Ruiz, New Granada. 
March, 1846. W. Purdie. 



A NSW CARDAMINB. 293 

Among some curious Cruciferous plants sent home from 
the high mountains of New Granada by Mr« Purdie, is the 
really beautiful Cardamine here represented from the banks 
of streams on the Paramo of Ruiz. It is remarkable for its 
large size, some of the specimens being three feet in length, 
mth leaves a span or more long, and then not inaptly 
resembling the foUage of some Erodium, (especially Erodium 
nunriiimum) ; and the first aspect of tlte large purple flowers, 
and the long beaked fruit, intermingled in the foliage, remind 
one also of some geraniaceous plant. I know of no flower of 
Cardamme that can be compared to this in siee or in colour : 
the nearest, in both those particulars, and somewhat in 
foliage and habit, is a new species in my Herbarium, first 
found by Ptofessor Jameson on the Cordillera of Pillaro, (El 
Equador,) at an elevation of 15000 feet above the level of the 
sea, in moist situations, and the same was found by M. 
Gottdot at Enchilla de la Divitodera, on Tolima of New 
Granada.* Another remarkable feature in this species is 
its remarkably leafy raceme; there are true pinnated or pin-- 
natisected leaves to the summit. So that in some long 
racemes, fully a foot in length, the flowers and fruit (when 
the pedicels are much elongated) may be said to be solitary 
and axillary. No such character is observed in C. Jame^ 
MmL 

Descr. — Radix mihi non visa. Caidis alatus, glaber, eras** 
fitit pemuB amerifUBf subangulatus, flezuosusj etiam sub* 
scandens, 1 ad 3-pedalis, ramosus : ramis nunc pedalibus. 
Folia omnia pinnatisecta, petiolata; /o/to/i« 7-II9 petiolu* 

* This apecies may be thus characterized : 
^^ardamine Jamfsomj glabra, caule flexuoso, foliia pinnatlsectis, foliolit 
3-7 petiolulatit oratis ▼. ovato-lanceolatia obtusia Bubincisis crenato- 
•emib baai obliqnia serraturia raucronulatia, corymbo terminali, flori- 
bofl tpecsoaia purpureit, tepalia lato-ovalibua apice purpureia* petalis 
lato-olMvatia renosis atylo craaso longioribaa calycem duplo auperanti- 
bai, tiliqua lineari-compreaaa atylo longiuaculo aubnque craaao termi- 



Has. Cordillera of Klaro, alt. ISOO feet j Prof, W, Jamson. On To- 
tnna. New Granada; M. Gmidot. 



294 SUR LA NOUVBLLB PAMILLR 

latis, ybfiomm inferiorum htte-ovatis acatis basi oMiqnis et 
hinc auriculatis, utrinque glabris^ margine nunc subciliatis, 
incisis, grosse aerrato-dentatis^ dentibns macronalati8;/»efio- 
luUs latiusculis semiunciam ad unciam longis, apice dilatari^ ; 
folioTum superiarum foliolis minoribus, angustioribua, basi 
magis eequalibus, Racenws elongatus, foliosus. PedieeOi 
gracilea^ fractiferi elongati. Fhres speciosi. Cafycis atro- 
sanguine! fotioUs siibcequalibus, lato-ovatis, obtusissimb. 
Petala calyce duplo longiora, siccitate erecto*patentia, late 
obovato-spathulata^ purpurea, venis saturatioribus puleher- 
rime picta. Stamina 6, libera, inclusa, subsequalia : antkera 
oblonga. Ovarium lineari-cylindricum ; stylus longus gra- 
cillimus fere acicularis, exsertus. Sihqua longe pediceUata, 
sessilis, lineari-compressa, 2-2^ uncias longa, stylo gradli 
persistente terminata. Stigma vix dilatatum, bilobam. 
Semina uniserialia, obovata, compressa, punctulata. Podth 
spermum longitudine seminis, gradle. CotyUdones oboyatae, 
oblique accumbentes. 
Tab. XII. Fig. I. Petal; /. 2. stamens and pistil; f,S. 
fruit, {nat. size) ; /. 4. portion of a valve of the fruit; f. 5. 
seed and seed-stalk ; /. 6. 7- cotyledons from scarcely ma- 
ture seed : — all, except/ 3. more or less magnified. 



Sur la nouvelle famille des Cochlospebmbbs ; par J. E. 
PiiANCHOif, Docteur-is Sciences. 

Les deux genres que je r^unis sous ce nom doivent leur 
separation forc^e aux meprises de botanistes justement 
celebres. Linn^, comme on sait, fit du Cochlospermum de 
rinde une esp^ce de Bombaw. Son erreur f&t religieose- 
ment transmise par sea disdples au temps ou Kunth rendit 
k la plante mdconnue le droit de representer un genre, 
et la liberty de chercher hors des Malvacees une onion 
plus conforme k sa nature. D^gag^e d'une premiere entmve, 
une autre Tattendait presque au d^but. En effetle Prodrome 



DBS GOCBLOBPBRMBBS. 295 

de De CandoUe pr^sente dans une section des Ternstroemia- 
des, Fassemblage du Laplacea, (qui suivant les id^es de 
TaQtenr aundt dd entrer dans sa faraille des Camelli^es) du 
VeiUenatufi (T^ritable Bixin^e), et de ce mSme Cochhsper- 
num qu'on va suivre dans une troisieme migration. Cette 
foisy c'est parmi ses Cistac^s que M. Lindley lui donne 
asile ; mais sans remplir k cette occasion les formalit^s d'usage, 
puisque pas un des traits du nouveau venu n'entre dans le 

* M. Hooker fils aura occasion, dans sa Flore du Ni^er, de montrer 
tombien sont fautives la description et Tanalyse de Tovaire de cette plante 
public dans la Flore d'Oware, (vol. 1. p. 29. tab. 17.) Je me borne a 
etablir sur ce sujet qnelques curieuz points de synonymic. On sait que 
Loareiro introduisit dans sa Flore de Cocbincbine quelques plantes de la 
cote de Mozambique. L'une d'elles d^crite sous le nom d'Hepiaca, (Fl. 
Codnch. p, 657. ann. 1790), est ^videmment le m^me genre que le Fen- 
tfnatia, Mus VHepiaca se trouvant, dans le genera d'Endlicher, (p. 1332), 
rel^gn^ parmi les genres dont la place est inconnue, et indlqu^ par 
inadvertance comme natif de la (Cocbincbine, il a reparu sur la sc^ne sous 
QD troisieme nom, (J^2oMeea, Hocbstet. in Flora S. B. Zeit. ann. 1843. 
p- 69)$ et, cette fois, il a pris sa vraie place parmi les Bixin^s* Per- 
Boone, cependant, n'a song^ que ces trois genres, ou plutdt ce m6me 
irenre sous trois noms et dans trois places, pouvaient bien c^der le droit 
d'anciennet^ k VOncoba de Forskal. Jussieu seul {k qui je rends volon- 
ttcr le m^rite de Tid^, content de Tayoir confirmee sans la connaitre), 
Jossieu soup^onna de bonne beure Taffinit^, si non I'identit^ g^n^que 
de la plante de Forskal et de celle de Loureiro.* 

II pent sembler t^m^raire de trancber la question dans le dernier sens ; 
puitque VOncoba a des rameaux arm^s d'^pines, et, suivant Forskal, un 
caiice k quatrea lobes persistants, et des fleius supposes toutes berma- 
('hrodttes : tandis que VHeptaca poss^de, d'apr^s Loureiro et M. Hocb- 
»cetter, des fleurs polygames, un calice de trois pi^es caduques et des 
maeanx inermes. Mais ce nombre des pieces calicinales est il en r^alit^ 
coDstantt lonque celui des p^tales pent varier de quatre k diz ? Quant 
alt polygamic des fleurs, rien n'est plus trompeur qu'un tel caractdre; 
et li Ton jette un coup d'ceil sur la figure de VOncoba «ptiiOMi public dans 
la Flore de S^n^gambie, (tab. 10), on verra que ses deux fleurs ^panouies 
n'oSVent aucune trace d'ovaire. D'apris ces motifs, il me parait urgent 
de r^unir en un seul quatre genres qui errent dans nos livres, avec la 
r^erve d*ane section specials pour I'espdce type. J'^tablis en conse- 
quence r^nnm^ration suivante : [On cob a 

* Voy, Ann. du Mus. vol. U. p. 234, et M^m. du Mus. v. 5. p. 246. 



296 SUR LA NOUVELLB FAMILLB 

tableau g^ndral du groupe. Pour y reconnattre sa presence, 
il faut oublier ses caract^res^ et ne remarquer que son 
nom. 
Tandis que le Cochlospemum errait parmi les fiiniilles 

Oncoba, Forsk. descript. Fl. Mg. Arab. p. 103. — ^Ach. lUch. et Peirol. 
Flor. S^n^. p. 32. 

Sect. I. Evoncoba. — Lundia. Thonn. et Sebum, descrip. PI GuiiL. p. S31. 

Flores omnes hermapbroditi ? ? Calyx 4-partitU8, (Forsk. — ^Thonn. et 

Sebum.) 5-partitu8y (Acb. Ricb ), kdniis reflexis persistentibus. Petala 

4 V. plunu Spinse sub foliis solitaris v. geminatae. 
Sp. 1. Oncoba tptnoaa, Forsk. 1. c. — O. apinoBa? Acb. Bkb. 1. c. tab. 10. 

— Lundia monaeautha f Tbonn. et Sebum. 1. c. 
Crbscit in Arable felicis prov. Yemen, prope Ba^e, Lat. bor. ore. 

15«. — For«Jb.y— nee non in Senegambia, secus ripas fluminis G!as». 

mancis et in Guinea, prope SUlden, si synonyma hue recte referta. 

Obs. — Quoique la description de Thonning et Scbumacber semble k 
certains ^gards concilier les differences entre cdle de Forskiil et celle de 
M. Acb. Richard, on pent ndanmoins conseryer de justes doutes aur 
ridentit^ de leurs plantes avec I'esp^e d'Arabie. 
Sect. II. Heptaca. — Heptaca, Lour. Fl. Cochin, p. 657, (descript. oyaiii 

et fruct. erronea.)— ren/exa/ia. Pal. Beauv. fl. d*Ow. 1. p. 29, tab. 17, 

(adumbratione struct, internse ovarii plane erronea). '^ Xylaikeea, 

Hochst. in Flora s. hot. Zeit. ann. 1843, p. 69. 
Flores polygami, hermapbroditi et masculi in planta diversa. Calyx 

3-partitus, caducus. Petala 9-10. Ovarium (ut in sect, prima) 

1-loculare, placentis 3, parietalibus. Rami inermes. 
Sp. 2. O. (heptaca) Jfricana — Heptaca 4fricana, Loiu- 1. c. — O. foliis 

ovatis, integerrimis, glabris $ pedunculis lateralibus, plurifloris ; floribus 

albis. 
Arbor parva, ramis expansis. Folia venosa. Bacca viridis, diametro 

bipoUicari, Lour, 
Crbscit in sylvis Africte orientalis. Loureiro : nempd in ore Moxam- 

bico, Lat. aust. 15^, ubi auctor e Cochinchina redux spatio tempons 
brevi moratus est. 

3. O. (Heptaca) Krawmana — Jl^lotheca Krautiiana, Hochst. L e. — 
O. foliis obovato-oblongis, obtusis v. subacutis, glabris, margins 
ciliatisj floribus in ramulis axillaribus 1-3, flavis, diametro bipol- 
licari. 

Cbbscit in sylvis colonise Natalensis, prope Umlaas River; Krwut^ 
No. 352, in herb. Hook. 

4. O. (Heptaca) glauca, J. D. H. Fl. Nig. ixke^.— Vvnttmtia fUmem, 



DBS COCHLOSPERMliea. 297 

hypogynes, la seule plante qu'on puisse lui joindre, piit ua 
premier pied chez lea Rosac^es. Je veux parler de VAmo- 
reuxia dont la figure a paru dans ce Journal (Tab. I.}, et qui 
fftt d^crite par De Candolle d'apres un dessin de la Flore 
Mexicaine de MM. Mocino et Sess^, et sur des ^^hantillons 
(lans doute imparfaits) de I'herbier Lambert. La place 
qo'elle occupe dans le Prodrome explique asses comment 
elle a pu reparaltre sous le nouveau nom A^Eurycofdhe^ Aussi 
sans faire a Chamisso et Schlechtendal un reproche de ce 
double einploi, il faut leur savoir gr^ de Fheureuse id^e qu'ils 
earent, en plasant leur genre entre les Geranium et les 
Malvac^* Meisner, dans son beau Genera (p. 41), lui 
conserve d'abord la m£me place ; mais, plus loin (p. 345), 
d^d^ par Endlicher, il le transporte au bout des Tern- 
stroeroiac^es. Comme, dans le mftme ouvrage, le Cochlo*' 
permum est k la t£te de oe groupe, on y trouve, ainsi que 
dans le Genera d'Endlicher, deux genres ^troitement allies 
plac^i aux Umites extremes d'une famille qui leur est ^trang^re. 
Le CoeUospermum et VAmoretueia, (sous le nom d'Euryanthe) 
se sont rapproch^ sans se confronter ; et Ton pent attribuer 
leur rencontre kla circonstance qui les a dgar^s I'un et Tautre 
loin de leur vraie place. Leurs rapports, du reste, ne sont pas 
de ceux qu'il est n^cessaire de prouver. lis vont ressortir 
d'eox-m^mes d'une esquisse de leurs traits communs. 

Les Cochiospermum sont des plantes vivaces et frutes- 
centes, qui pr^sentent toutes les proportions interm^diaires 
entre I'arbuste nain des Campos et I'arbre moyen des For^ts. 
Cependant, sous ce dernier ^tat, leur presence paratt princi- 

PiL BeauT. 1. c— C. foliis ellipticis, apice acuminato-caudatip, glabris, 

•apra ex sicco pallide oiivaceia, aubtus dilute castaDeit ; floribus roseia 

axilkribus t. interdum (ex icone Beauvoiaii) in racemum terminalem 

digeatis. 
Facjca plantae plane Bixaceus. Petioli f^ciles, teretes versus apicem 

senatm cunrati. (Pedicelli fructiferi ex axilles folionim auperiorum 

solitaria ex aerti. VogfL) 
CaitciT in regione elevata, aperta, sylvis destituta prope Jgathon regni 

Beoinenaia. Pal. fiMwo. / nee non in insula Fernando P6, secua oram 

Alricie tropics occidentalia. Vog^l, \n herb. Hook. 
VOL. VI. Z 



298 SUB LA NOUVBLLE FAMILLB 

palement lite anx bois des Tropiques qne la sdcheresae pTrre 
de leur feuillage, et non k ces forfits des mAmes r^ions on la 
T^^tation est toujours active. An premier retour des plaies** 
les raroeaux d^nud^sf des CocUospemmm se parent de 
grandes fleurs jaunes, et presque aussitdt, de letirs feailles 
^parses qui rappellent, saivant les espdces, celles des Plotanes^ 
des Pavia ou des Bombax. Les tiges naines d'ane eorieiise 
esp^ce (le Cochlosp. Unetwrium de S^n^gambie) s'^Tent 
d'une masse tub^reuse dont la nature organographiqne eat 
pea connue* On pent s'attendre k trouver oet (H^ne dans 
tout le genre, puisqu'il existe a un degr6 asses remarquable 
chez VAmoreusria Schiedeana. Ici^ c'est un tubercule oblong'^ 
de consistance ligneuse, couyert d^une ^ice mguense et 
crevass^e, d'oii s'S^ve une tige cxmite^ k peine Ugneuse i la 
base^ et dont les feuilles pr^c^dent, plutdt qu'elles n'aocom* 
pagnent revolution de I'infiorescence. La plaate, eat par 
rapport aux Cochlospermes, ce que les Maivac^ mono* 
carpiennes sont aux Bombax; ou, si Fon veut, par lenr 
T^g^tation et leurs feuilles autant que par le duvet de leura 
graines, les Cochlospermes rappellent exactement les Bon^aa^ 
VAmoreuxia avec I'aspect des Oeranides et des Mauves, 
poss^de dans ses graines glabres et lisses un trait de plus en 
commun avec ces genres. 

Ce qu'on sait des propri^t^s des Cochlosperm^es laisae 
dans le vague la nature de leurs secretions. Le tubercule 
souterrain d'une esp^ce (C tinctorium)^ les graines ^ demi 
form^es d'une autre (C. Gossypinum) fournissent un couleur 
jaune. Des tiges de cette derniere esptee, exsude une 
mati^re qu'on r^colte dans les provinces du nord-puest 
de rinde sous le nom de Gomme KuieeraX comme suo- 
c^dan^e de la gomme Adragant. La racine du C. tiutjfiie 

« Et qnelquefois m^me k la simple approche de cette p^riode de I'aiuifc 
tropicale. On pent consulter avec int^rdt sur ce remarquable pkeno- 
m^ne.—Humb. relat. hist. II. p. 33. et p. 46. — ^A. St. Hil. voy. Br^ IL 
p. 100-101 et passim. — Mart. Fliys. der Pflanx. in Bras. p. 16-17 et passim. 

t Une esp^ de TAfrique occidentale k laqtielle le Oocteur J. D. Hooker 
m'a fait rhonneur d'attacher mon nom« poes^e, au contraire de ses coog^ 
n^res, des fleurs en bouton sur dee branches couvertes de feuilles aduhea. 

X Boyle, cit^ par Lindley, Veget. Kingd. p. 360. 



DBS cochlosperm£b8. 299 

foumit anx colons de Pint^rieur du Br^sil un remMe contre 
les douleurs internes, surtoat les abc&s qai sont le r^sultat 
de chfttes.* Dans tons ces cas, Peau servant de v^hicule 
su principe colorant ou m^dicamenteux, il paraitrait que 
la matidre gommeose forme la base de ces secretions. 
Et pourtant, la presence m^me de particales colordes, I'as- 
tringenoe que Taction des sues semble supposer, et un je 
ne aais quoi dans Taspect du bois de ces plantes, me portent 
k croire qu'il y a Ul comme chee les G^raniac^esjt une 
portion de r^ne unie k la gomme, au lieu du mucilage 
dont la presence, chez les Malvaodes, est peut-Atre un caract^re 
■aDS exception, Ainsi, la nature pr&umable des secretions, 
les ressemblances d'aspect, comme les tub^rositeat souter- 
raines, trahissent chez les Cochlo^perm^es cette nature 
Oenmuade que Chamisso et Schlechtendal saisirent si bien 
dans lear genre Euryanihe {Antoreuxia.) 

• A. S. Hil. pi. tts. bras. n. 57. 

t Co que je rappelle des sues des Geraniacees s'appuie en particulier 
sor un nirieux fait consign^ par Sir W. Hooker^ dans un petit ouvrage 
qui s'adreese moins aux botanistes qu'k la masse du public. (Account of 
a yo^ff€ to the S, IV. coast of Africa, &c , by T. £. Eden.) On sait 
qns k recberche de Tenf^s naturel nomme guano^ a port^ quelques 
▼aisseaux snr la o6te Occidentals de TAfriqu^, entre les 28^me et 22^me 
degris de latitude australe. Parmi les maigres productions de cette plage, 
se troayent des tiges apbylles, cylindriques, ^trangl^es de distance en 
distance, et dont IVcorce fragile couvre au lieu d'un tissu ligneux une 
masse compacts de gomme r^sine, d'aspect et probablement de nature 
soccimque. La plante qui s'embaume ainsi de son propre sue, v^g^te 
dans les serres de Kew, et quoiqu'elle n'ait pas encore d^voild son vrai 
oom* j*ai tout lieu de croire, apr^ M. Zeyber et Sir W. Hooker, qu'elle 
est, si non identique avec le Montoma Burmanni, DC, du moins con- 
g^oire de cette esp^e. D'ailleurs, M. Lindley (Veg. Kiogd. p. 494). 
r^sumant ce qu'on sait des secretions r^sineuses des Geraniac^es, cite 
le Momtonia ap%no$a dont les tiges (s^bes ?) brMent comme un torebe. 

t Je a'ose rien d^ider sur le si^e de ce remarquable renflement. 
L'obsenration suivie des d^veloppements de la plante peut seul nous 
l*apprendre. D'ailleurs je suis loin d'insister sur ce caract^re comme une 
pfff nvs d'affinite entre des plantes qui ne sont pas unies par d'antres 
peials. On salt que dans les genres les plus naturels, les exeroissances 
ds eette nature donnent tout au plus des caract^res sp^ifiques. 

z 2 



300 8UR LA NOUVEI LE FAMILLB 

Des mots vagues tela que tendance, nature, Buivis d'une 
^pithite en ordie, peignent souvent I'etat T^el de nos idte 
sur les limites des families et surtout des classes naturelles. 
Nature Otraniotde suppose une classe de oe nom^ et oette 
classe reste encore a d^finir. On pent croire, qu'avec un de 
mes mattres, je comprends sous ce nom, outre les vraies 
66rani^es, les Tropoeol^s (auxquelles M. Liudley reunit avec 
raison les Limnanth^es), les Impcttiens, les Oxalis et les 
Linum, Mais je suivrais bien pen les le9ons et Tezemple 
de ce maitre qui eut pour les siens Richard et Jussieu, en 
sacrifiant k une d^fi&rence aveugle ce que je crois £tre 
I'int^r^t de la v^rit^. Sans nier les rapports de ces plantes, 
j'y vois des analogies de structure dignes de Pattention da 
Morphologiste, plutdt que des signes d'une affinity reelle. 
Des alliances de cette sorte sont toujours provisoires ; elles 
durent tant que les genres rapproch^s sont peu nombreux 
on consid^r^s trop isol6s des autres groupes ; mais d^ qu'on 
peut assigner a chacun d'eux une place s^par^e, on se h&te 
de rendre k leurs analogies le nom de paraUSUsme de siruc^ 
iurej pour celui de liens de connexion. £st-il possible^ en 
efFety de placer les Oxalid^s* dans une autre classe que les 
L^gumineuses, sans perdre de vue les rapports les plus 
frappants et les mieux 'avou^s ? Les Connarue sont k peine 
distincts des L^gumineuses^ et d'ailleurs inseparables des 
Oxalis. Une section de ce dernier genre a les feuiUes 
pinnies et irritables des Mimeuses ; une autre les phyllodes 
des Acacias ; une troisi^me est justement nommee hedysa- 
ro'ide ; quelques esp^ces ont les feuilles des Lupins, comme les 
ndtres celles du Trifle. Ainsi, sans pousser aux ZygophyO^ 
une comparaison aussi facile, je consid^re ces trois families 
(Oxalid^es, Zygophyll^s et L^umineuses), avec I'addition du 
Moringay comme membres d'une classe homonog^ne, une et 
indivisible, et, dans Tetat present de nos collections, a peine 



* J'aurai occasion* plus tard» d'^tablir sur des fails U r^onion des 
Connarac^s et des Oxalid^es, comme deux sections naturelles d*niie 
mtoe famiUe. 



DE8 C0CHL0SPBRMBE8. 301 

Bujette k s'enrichir sans se d^naturer.* Sur lea fronti&res de 
cette vaste province, je voudrais (dans T^tat present de mes 
connaissances) placer du cdt^ des Zygophyll^es, le curieux 
et anomal BiebersieiniOf les M^Iianth^es, famille qui serait 
representee par un seul genre si je n'y r^servais quelques 
additions aussi remarquables qu'inattendues^ les Cochlos* 
pennies, les G^rani^s, et les genres qui se groupent autour 
du Viviania. 

Une certaine ressemblance d'aspect causae surtout par 
la nature tr^ particuliire de PindumerUum des feuilles, ou, k 
dtfaut, par leur teinte d'un vert glauque et livide et leurs 
dents profondcs in^gales et glanduleuses, auraient pu faire 
comparer ces plantes non seulement entr'elles, mais aussi 
avcc le Trigonia. Ajoutons k ces traits Fasym^trie des 
fleors manifest^e par Hn^gal d^veloppement des ^tamines^ 
oa leur avortement complet sur un c6te de la fleur (par 
exemple, chez VAmoreiuriai le MeliantkuSy le Triffonia); un 
style simple, courb^, k pointe ^galement indivise, terminant 
un ovaire & loges (souvent incompletes) polyspermes ; la 
campulitropie des graines ou leur tendance vers cet ^tat; 
des capsules dont le mince p^ricarpe se divise fr^quem- 
ment en deux lames superpos^es ; tant de points me parais« 
sent £tablir Paffinit^ de ces genres, et leurs tendances com- 
munes vers les Sapindac^es polyspermes (jEsculuSf Ungnadia, 
Kolreuieria^ Erythrophila^ Cossignia) ; vers les Chaillie* 
tiac^ par le TapurOj vers les Cistes par le Ledocarpon, enfin 
par le Vhriania vers les Hermanni^es, ce qui nous ram^ne a 
la premiere place des Cochlospermes entre les Malvac^es et 
les Geranium. 

Tout en regardent comme contraire k la nature Palliance 
immMiate des genres Oncoba {Ventenatia) et Cochlosper'^ 
rnicm, je suis loin de m&;onna!tre leur affinitd directe. Ins^ 
parable du Bixa^ Y Oncoba doit partager les tendances de ce 
genre vers les Cochlospermes. Un calice form^ de pieces 

* L'siticle qui suivra celui-ci, sera ip^ialement consser^ k des details 
ior h fsmills daa Linte. Quant au Tropmobiim je croit n'adopter 
qQ*uiw id^ devenue coursnte dans la i cience, en le comprenant dans la 
mime clasee que les Sapindac^s. 



302 8UR LA NOUVBLLE FAMII.LE 

concaves et remarquablement embriqu^es, des p^tales a estiTi* 
tion contourn^ one capsule uniloculaire k endocarpe mince 
et fragile, un principe colorant r^pandu dans tons let 
organeB, des cryptes panctiformes ou along& pldns d'one 
r^sine floide, sem^s dans le tissa dn calice ou dee pdtales, tons 
ces caract^res des Cochlospemies sont reproduits dans k 
Bixa. D'autre part, ft titre de Temstroeiniacfe, le Ixq^huxa 
doit se rapprocher des Savrauya^ plantes que Tensembk 
de leur structure rattache aux Dilleni^s, aux Ericindes par 
le Ckthra et les Pyroles, aux SarracenUiy j'ose ajouter ao 
^xa^ et par ce dernier, aux Cochlospermes.* 

* Ces xapports que j'indique, Bont, k Tezception des deux deniien^ 
discut^s avec detail dans un article r^cemment public dans ce JourDa]» 
(voL 5. p, 250 et seq.) Je ne reprends ce Bujet que poor ezprimer but une 
heareuse id^e de M. Lindley, un assenUment complete au lieu d'one 
demi-conviction. J'aTais recoDnu les rapports des Saurmiyu et des 
Dilleni^es, H. lindley a fait mieux encore en effectuant leur r^nion. 
Ajoutons que le tact du Docteur Wallich, avait de bonne heure« confix 
la m6me id^e k une note manuscrite. Une des plantes (n. 6634) de la 
magnifique collection de la compagnie Anglaise des Indes porte les mots 
DiUeniacearum ordinii f et c'est eUe qui a servi de type k VAdiiAiia de 
M. Lindley^ genre aussi inseparable des Saiiravya* que ces demite le 
sont des Dill^^. Dans r^c^mufia eaUoia, suivant une admirahle 
figure dont je dots la communication au docteur Falconer, le p^dioeUe 
fiructifdxe, remarquablement renfl^ vers son sonunet offre un ^tranglement 
brusque au point d'insertion de la fleur. Le m£me caract^re et Tarticn^ 
lation du calice sur le p^diceUe se pr^sentent 'k divers degr^ dans les 
DiU^ni^es et les Saurauya; on pent roir quelque chose d'analogue 
cbez le Btra, oil les pi^es qu'on est convenu de nommer «^2p« (p^tales 
ezt^rieursy suivant linn^) s'articulent entre cinq tubercnles saillants, 
analogues par leur nature et la place qu'ils occupent^ aux gkodes 
calycinales des Malpighi^es. Cette premiere coincidence dans lea calices 
la tendance des styles de VOncoha \, se diviser en lobes radios, les anthkes 
it loges distinctes vers le sommet et ouvertes par de courtes fissures ; les 
graines enduites d'une couche pulpeuse, tons ces points me paraissent 
etablir entre les Dilleniac^s et les Bizin^s une affinity doot on puisin 
de nouvelks preuves dans les ressemblanoes des Delim^es avec las IBoMst^ 
et les 7Vt7up. Qu'on rapprocbe surtout sous ce rapport les Aeiimdia et k 
fUodia, Sw. 

Je ne puk terminer oette note sans ezprimer mon regret qn'nn geme 
aussi bien illustrtf que doit I'^tre le T\rocho9iiffma de MM. Skbdd st 
Zuccarini (Abhand. der Miinicb. Akad. 3. Class. III. p. 796, ax End- 



DEB GOCHLOSPBRMR.es. SOS 

La collection de Sir W. Hooker renferme assez d'addi- 
tions interessantes au nombre et aux localities des especes de 
Cochlosperm^es^ pour ' m'engager dans le travail ingrat 
d'ane revue monographique. Un rdsum^ de quelques lignes 
pent en ^pargner les details au lecteur. 

J'ai dit plus haut^ d'apr^s les voyageurs et les herbiers, 
comoient les Cochlospermes ^prouvent sous Finfluence d'un 
del ardent, le mSme arr^t de vegetation que Thiver am^ne 
aux arbres de notre zdne. Ce remarquable phenom^ne^ li6, 
moins a la temperature qu'ii T^tat hygrometrique de I'atmos- 
pbirCj sepr^sente partoutou setrouventcombinees les causes 
qui le produisent Dans les Campos et les Catingas de 
I'interieur du Br^sil; sur quelques points des cdtes de la 
Nouvelle Grenade; dans la region la plus chaude du 
Mezique; au Nord-Ouest de PAustralie; sur la cdte de 
Coromandel, ou les Stapelia et les Euphorbes grasses ont 
lears representants ; dans le Senegal ou la vegetation se 
ressent du voisinage du Desert ; partout ou le soleil labse 
a la zAne dont il s'eioigne Fardeur de ses rayons sans 
le tribut de ses pluies, certains arbres suspendent des 
fonctions que le sol refuse d'entretenir : mais^ ici, comme 
dans nos climatSj la feuille qui se detache a fait provision 
de nourriture pour celle qui doit la suivre ; et, sans donner 

licher. Gen. Supp. III. p. 9A\ soil destine k ceder le pat i VAetinidia, 
genre indique par une courte pbraee, ii la fin d'nn livre oil les botanistes 
systfaitiques s'avisent peu de chercker des descriptions. Tel etant le 
CM pODitant^ et M. lindley me laissant la tache de £aire valoir les droits 
de priorite de son genre, je dois appliquer le nom d'Actinidia k Tesp^e 
nouvelle qui m'a foumi ces observations: EUe peut-6tre caracterisee 
comme il suit : 

Actinidia CAtiieiistt : foliis longe petiolatis, suborbicnlatis, transverse la- 
lioribiis, apice tnineato retuais, mar^e obsoletissime repando, denies 
miotttoa, tuberculifornes ezserentibus, supra glabris, subtus adpresse 
cano-tomentosis, reticulo nervorum subtus prominente; pe<Ucellis 
poUicaribuSf in ramulis latendibus foliis coronatis sparsis ; stigmatibos 
cire. 1 5« lineari^spathulatis. 
Pofift li polL longa, 2 poll, lata ; petiolo eisdem subequilongo flexuoso. 



Has. in China, fhriune, n. 39. 



304 SUR liA NOUVBLLB FAMILLB 

i ses jeunes pousses des enveloppes qui marqueraient un 
long repos, la plante n'attend pas m^nie le retour des pluiea, 
pour offrir le brillant contraste de ses fleurs sur des ra- 
meaux priy^s de verdure. Ces phases de la v^^tation 
des Cochlospermes doivent influer puissamment sur leur 
distribution entre les Tropiques. Leur station est d^ter- 
min^e par leurs habitudes; leur habitation doit Vitre par 
des causes plus complexes, mais subordonn^es a cette 
condition premiere d'oil leur existence parait dependre. 
C'est elle qui les exclut des for^ts humides ; msia, sans les 
rattacher d'une maniire constante aux savannes de tous 
les pays chauds; puisqu'il existe, au contraire, une dis- 
proportion remarquable entre Taire qui mesure Textension 
du genre et I'isolement des esp^ces qui le representent dans 
une region donn^e. De neuf esp^ces connues, une seule 
(C. hilnscoides) parait s'^tendre depuis le Mexique jusqu'a 
Guayaquil (et peut*6tre plus loin vers le Sud) ; on la retrouve 
a Sta, Martha et sur plusieurs points de la m6me cdte de la 
Colombie ; peut-Stre mSme faut-il la suivre dans la province 
Br^silienne de Pernambouc, c'est a dire aux limites septen- 
trionales d'une esp^ce exclusivement Bresilienne ((7. umgne). 
Celle-ci, r^pandue dans la partie de la province des Mines 
que traverse le Rio San Francisco, se retrouve dans les 
Catingas de la province de Bahia. Trois esp^ces, unies par 
le port et les caract^res en un sous-genre tres distinct^ 
habitent la Guyane et la region de I'Or^noque. Le genre 
n'a pas de repr^sentant dans les Antilles. Ainsi dnq Coch- 
lospermes se succedent du nord au sud sur la vaste surface 
du continent Americain, entre les Tropiques ; quatre seule- 
ment compl^tent le cercle d'extension du genre dans le 
sens des longitudes. Le C. Gosst/pifun parait confine dans 
la p^ninsule de I'Inde; Pile Melville au Nord-Ouest de^ 
I'Australie posside notre CPraseri; enfin le C. tincioriMm 
et un autre des bords du Niger, compl^tent une s^rie 
d'esp^ce tellement limit^e, qu'il serait superflu de presenter 
sous forme de table, leurs proportions num^riques, en rapport 
avec les regions qui se les partagent. 



DE8 C0CHL0SPERMKE8. 305 

Ajoutons pour conclure cette partie de notre travail que 
Punique repr^sentant certain du second genre de Cochlos- 
permiesy YAmoreuxia Schiedeana, habite il la fois le Mexique, 
et la r%iou de la Colombie que traverse le Rio Magda- 
Una. 

Lea details techniques qui vont suivre, sont destines 
surtout k servir de pieces justificatives Ik nos considerations 
g^ndrales. 



Rome Monographique des Cochlospermbbs. 

CoCBL08PBBMBiB.»Gen. Tbrnstrcemiacbarum v. Ro- 
8ACBARUH V. Gbranibis affiuia auct. 

Flores hermaphroditic pentapetali, symetrici v. rarius stami- 
oum insequali evolutione asymetrici. Calycis eestivatio 
quincunciatim imbricativa ; petalorum fugacium convolu- 
tivB. Stamina hypogyna, indefinita. Filamenta filiformia 
apice acutata, basi interdum inter se subconnexa. An- 
thers basifixsB, lineares, plus minus incurvae, 2-4-loculares, 
poris 2-apicalibus, scepius in unum confluentibus^ v. rimulis 
2 anticis, subapicalibus apertee. Ovarium 3-5-loculare, 
•eptis versus medium incompletis, margine utroque placen- 
tiferis; rarius ad axim ovarii inter se connexis^ loculis in 
angiilo intemo ovuliferis. Ovula indefinita^ funiculis cras- 
aiusculis sustensa, amphitropa. Stylus simplex filiformis, 
incurvus, fistulosus^ ore minute denticulato apertus. Cap- 
aala loculicide 3-5 valvis, endocarpio fragili papyraceo 
fragili^ in laminals totidem epicarpii valvis altemantes 
acepiua rupto. Semina reniformia^ lana bombycina tecta 
▼• calva. Embryo in albumine camoso, semini conformis, 
incurvua. Cotyledones, plans, integrsj sibi invicem in- 
cnmbentes. 

Arbores v. firutices humiles, im5 herbs tubere subterraneo 
perennantesj per regiones tropicas totius orbis numero 
•pederum parcissimo disperss. Folia alterna, palmatifida 
y. partita, rarius digitata. Stipuls laterales, longe lineares 



306 8UR LA KOUVELLB FAHILLE 

▼. minutas, caduosB. Bacemi terminales^ axillares r. gem- 
DiiB foliatee aidllaris evolutione oppositifolU, ioterdum far- 
cato-geminati v. flexuose subdivisi, rarius regulariter ae- 
cundiflori; flonim evolutione indefinita. Pedioelli basi 
articulatL Flores speciosi^ flavi, s®pius prsecooes. Radiz^ 
caules^ im& semina immatura sacco (gummi-resiooso ?} 
colorem luteum prcebente scatentes. Petala cryptis, ma* 
terie oleoso-resinosa repletis punctato-literata. 

Gen. L Ahorbuxia. Moc et Sesse — vide supra p. 140. 

Sp. 1. Amoreuxia Schiedeana, Nob. 1. c. — Sola certe nota, 

Mexicana et Novo-Ghanatensis. 
2. A. Mexieana, Moc. et Sease.— Mexicana'-Forsan forma 

praeoedentis depauperata. 
Gen. II. CoGHLOSPEBHUM^ Eunth. Maly. p. 69^ in annot, 

— ^Aug. St. Hil. pi. us. Bras. tab. 57 » Endlich. gen. n. 

1018. — WitteUbachiaf Mart, et Zucc. nov. geu. et sp. 

1. p. 80. et sequ. tab. 55« — BombacU, sp. L. 
Character fere totus ordinis. Flores symetrici. Dissepi- 

menta ovarii plus minus incompleta^ juxta v. versus mar- 

ginem placentifera. Semina lanata. 

Subgen. I. Eucochlospermum. 

Calycis lacinis ovato-subrotundce^ sstivatione valde imbri- 
cate. Stamina libera. Anthers 4-locuIares, poro unico 
apicali apertae. Semina reniformia. Arbores v. frutioes 
humiles^ campos apertos^ aridos, v. sylvas decidoas 
amantes j inflorescentias praecoces^ saepius e racemis flex- 
uoso subdivisis^ terminalibus^ constantes. Folia palmati- 
fida. 

Sp. 1. C. Gossypium, DC. prod. 1. p. 527. — ^Wight et Am. 
prod. fl. pen. Ind. Or. 1. p. 87. — Bambax Gouypium^ L. 
syst. 517.— Roxb. fl. Ind. 2. p. 169.— C. foliis 5-bbis, 
subtus lana adpressa citndicantibus; lobis integerrimis 
acuminatis. 



DBS C0CHL08PERMB£S. 307 

Hab. Secus Oram Coromandelifle^ in montibus Cirear$ dictis. 
Bo9bry nee non ad Trwancwre. Wight. 
Obs. Lea localit^s que je cite pour cette esp^oe aont lea 
seolea que je puisae conaid^rer comme authentiques. II 
faudrait ae garder de prendre pour telles cellea que donnent 
d'andens auteura diapoa^s d'oidinaire iL entaaaer des ayno- 
nymea plus ou moins faux plutdt qu'ii donner la description 
exacte de leura plantea. Celle-ci figure dana le Fhra Zeyta- 
mea de Linn^ aoua le nom de Xfflan, (p. 99. n. 222.) Elle 
pent £tre cultiT^ k Ceylon, comme dans mille autrea endroits 
de FInde. Mais la collection de Sir W. Hooker si riche en 
plantea de cette tie, ne renferme aucun 6chantillon sauvage 
da C. Goiijfpium. 

2. C* Firoierif nov. ap. — C. floribus corymbosis ; pedioellis 

ramisque infloreaeentiaB velntino-pubeaoentibus ; stamini- 

bas calyce aubbrevioribus ; antheris pro genere parvis, vix 

ultra lin. longis, in parte inferiore dorsi linea impressa 

aulcatia. 

Rami florentes foliis destituti, teretes, crebre flexuoai, cortice 

Isvi, rubesoente, glabro, iiitido veatiti. Corymbi terminalia 

rami temi, circ. 3 poll, longi, infeme glabrati, mox bi- 

fitrei, cmribuB denaiuacule velutinia. Pedicelli vix 1-poll. 

longi. 

Florea eia Coehloap. Go9sypH minorea, diametro plus quam 

bipoDiearL Calicia lacinifle oi^tee, obtuaae, utrinque pulve- 

rolento-pubentea, aubanthesi reflexo-patentea. Petala in 

spedmine aemi-deatructa, ut videtur, apice obliqua emargi- 

nata^ aiooitate flava in aurantium colorem vergentia. An- 

ihetm filamentia tenuiasimis subtriplo longiores^ Uneari- 

oUongaSy leviter arcuatm, aulco doraali ex eorum baai ad 

medium producto. Capsula generia obovoidea. 

Haa. In insula Melville seoua oram boreali-occidentalem 

Noras HoUandim. Frater in herb. Hook. 

Obb. Ce qui manque pour rendre cette description com- 

plite est en r6ilit^ de pen d'importance, du moment qu'on a 

eonatat^ Fexistence d'ane esp&ce de Cochhspermum propre k 

la T^g^tion tropicale dePAuatralie. Ce fait tire une grande 



308 SUR LA NOUVBLLB FAMILLB 

part de son interSt de ce que I'esp^ce Asiatique de oe genre 
parait confin^e dans la P^ninsule de I'lnde, et qa'on n^en 
connait ni dans les lies Malayennes^ ni dans les Moloqaes, 
c'est h dire dans la region botanique dont la fiore a le pins 
d'analogie avec celle de la Nouvelle HoUande tropicale. 

3. C. tinctoriumf Ach. Rich, et Perrot. fi. Sen^. 1. p. 99. 
tab. 21. 

C. tubere subterraneo, ' crasso ; ramis fioriferis palmaribos 

prsecocibus, aphyllis^ laxe bracteatis, racemose paucifloris ; 

ramis foliatis post deflorationem evolutis ; foliis longe pe- 

tiolatis, 5-lobis. 
Hab. In sabulosis sylyaticis regni Cayor^ juxta Niaral et 

N^Denout pro v. N'Boro^ ubi ab incolis vulgo Payor dicitor. 

4. C. insiffne, A. S. Hil. Camb. et Ad. Juss. pi. us. des Bras. 
n. 57' — IVittelsbachia inaiffnis. Mart, et Zucc. nov. gen. et 
sp. 1. p. 81. tab. 55. — C. foliis coriaceis, 5 lobatis, lobis 
conduplicatis, grosse arguteque serratis, infimis (aduitb) 
glabriusculis^ intermediis subtus, supremis utrinque pabe- 
scentibus. 

Frutex 2-6 pedalis : floribus plerumque ante folia evolatis. 
Caulis rectus, subsimplex, cortice fusco-purpurascente, 
glabro, tenaci, deductili ; ligno molli, albido, medulla ampla. 
Stipulffi caducee, lineares, integerrimee, ciliatCB. 

Hab. Frequens in campis deserti {Certao) prope Paracaiu, 
Biachara, Formigas, nee non in sylvis Caiingasi^c&A prope 
prsesidiolum Quariel de Texeira in parte proy. Mma$ 
Geraea quee dicitur Minos Novas. — A. S. Hil. In catnpis 
deserti inter Bio das MorteSy Bio Jiquitinhonha et Ko de 
S. FranciscOf praesertim in solo calcareo, prope Coniendas^ 
Formigas et Maldahoy nee non in sylvis Catingas dicds 
interioris proyincies BaMensis. — Mart. Alia spedmina 
prope IjO Victoria, prov. Caracasafue leg. Humb. secund. 
Martins — an vere eadem ? — In campis aridis elevatia ad 
Missionem Duraanam, prov. Goyaz.^Garda. n. 3034 in 
herb. Hook. 

Area spec inter gradus 17 et 14 latit australis; altitud. 
supra Oceanum 1200 ped. — Martius. 



DE8 C0CHL08PERHBBS. 309 

5* C. hibi9cM€3j H. B. K. nov. gen. et sp. 7« P- 174. — 
C. serratifoRwn? DC. prod. 9. p. b%1 .—Wittehbachia viti- 
folia! Mart, et Zucc. nov. gen. et sp. 1. p. 82. (quoad 
stirpein Campecbianam.) — Mahurea speciosa^ Choisy in 
DC. prod. 1. p. 558. (quoad atirpem Stae. Marthee) mo- 
nente A. S. Hil. in pi. us. Bras. n. 57* 
Hab. Stirps typica Humboltiana, in littore Mexicano prope 
Campeehey et prope Vera Cruz, si specimina in coUectione 
Galeottiana sub n. 864 et4l90 in herb. Hook, hue recte refe- 
rantar — prope Actqpan regionis Mexici calidissimee r Schiede 
ex Cham. etSchlecht. in Linn. 10. p. 251. — Loci natales, 
stirpibus minus cognitis, dubii : Insula Taboga sinus Pa- 
namensisj et insula Puna prope OuayaquiL Dr. Sinclair 
in herb. Hook, et ex Benth. Bot. of the Sulph p. *J2. — 
GtfiryffTtM/regni Quitensis, vicusZa Victoria regni Novo- 
Granatensis, Humb. et Bonpland ex Kunth 1. c.— Montes 
faumiles prope Sta. Martha. Purdie in herb. Hook.— 
Localit. plane dubia: Brasiliie prov. Pemambucensis. 
Gardn. n. 937 in herb. Hook. Hcec est arbor circiter 12- 
pedalis, ramis erectis^ more affinium florescentiee tempore 
foliis orbata. 

Ob8. Jenehasardepasdecaract^risercette esp^ce, quoique 
je ne conserve presque aucun doute sur son identity avee le sy- 
nonyme de De CandoUe que j'y rapporte. On sent qu'il est difi- 
dle, pour ne pas dire impossible, d'identifier ou de distingucr 
avec certitude des ^chantiUons consistant la plupart de fleurs 
detacb^ea, de branches sans feuilles, ou de ces derni^res 
sous leurs ^tats ei^r^mes de d^veloppement. Tels 6taient les 
mal6iaux dont Kunth a dA se servir; tels sont ceux que 
pr^sentent sans doute les herbiers les plus riches ; et sur de 
teilea donn^es, le doute est la plus sure voie d'^viter Terreur, 
et d*appeler T&Jaircissement des faits. J'observe, en passant, 
que pas un des nombreux ^chantillons que j'ai sous les yeux, 
pu mAme oeux du Mexique, ne pr^sentent I'ovaire glabre que 
Konth donne )k la plante de Camp^che. 
6. Cochlospermum Planckoni^ J. D. H. fl. Nig. mss. 



u^ 



310 8UR LA NOUVBLLB FAKILLB 

Hab. In Caropis ad fiameD Niger. Vogel in herb. Hook. 
Frutex subarborescens, 6 ped. altus. Petala lutes. Floies 

1-2 poll. diam. 

Obs. Cette remarquable espice k laquelle le Doctear 
J. D. Hooker a d^sir^ attacher mon nomj sera d^rite dans 
la Flore qu'il prepare sur les mat^riaux de I'exp&lition r6»nte 
da Niger. 

Sabgen. H. Dipo&andra. 

Calycis laciniia oblongte, parum imbrioatiB. FUamentm basi 
irregulariter subconnata (fide Mart. etZucc.). Anthers 
apice bipoross. Semina (immatura a CI. Martiua et Zuc- 
carinij in C. Ormocense observata) in spiram torta. An 
character in seminibus perfectis obvium ? Arbores 6aya- 
nenses et Orinocenses. Folia digitata. Inflorescealis 
axillares, demum foliorum inferiorum lapsu nudatas; pe- 
dunculus basi nudusj mox biforcus, cruribos secunde et 
oonferte fioriferis. 

7. C. Orinaceme, Stejfid.'-Tflitekbachia OrinocetmSf Mart, et 
Zucc. nor. gen. et sp. 1. p. 83. — Bombax OrinoceMe, Kanth 
noy. gen. et sp. 5. p. 234. ex specim. imperfecto. — Boiuto 
Indorum Otomacorum. — B. foliolis 5-6, oblongia, acumi*- 
natiSj integerrimiS) membranaceis, glabris. 

Arbor 50-pedalis. Foliola basi insequalia et acuta, reticnlato 
venosa, venis primariis nervoque medio subtus prominen- 
tibuSj membranacea, glabra, intermedia septem-poUicaria 
et longiora, 2-li-poll. lata. Capsula pyriformis, sabtri 
pollicaris, trivalvis; valvis interne lineis transversis pro- 
minentibus, undulatis, subdeodaleis notats, KufUh. 

Semina immatura in spiram torta^ sesquigyrosa. Mart, et 
Zucc. L c. 

Hab. Ad ripam Orinoci. Humb, et BofipU 

8. C. Parkerif nor. sp. — C. foliolis 5, oblongis, obtusissimis, 
basi cuneata longe attenuatis, integris, supra glaberrimis, 
membranaceisy siccitate nigrescentibus ; racemis geminatis. 



DBS COCHL08PBBMBE8. Sll 

pedunculo iisdein subaequali folio breyiore sustensis ; flori- 
biu seeos rachim compressam secandis. 

Arbor? Rami summitas herbacea, meduUosa, squamis sti- 
palaribtts brevibus, tomentosis, in gemmam irregulariter 
congeatis terminata, sparse foliosa, bine illine raehides 
infloreseentiarum denudatas, persistentes^ ereeto patentes 
proferens. Petioli supra basim incrassatam graciles, sub- 
teretes^tenuissime pubenili, sub-foliolorum insertionein dia- 
culttm minimum^ subtus rufo-paberulum dilatati ; inferiores 
cirdter 3 pollicares. Foliolum terminale 2-2^ poll. longum, 
10-18 lin. latum, infimis 2 plus quam duplo minoribus. 
Nenrus medius supra acute impressus, subtus crassi- 
uiculusy elevatus: laterales tenues, utrinque prominuli, 
rete nervulorum tenuissimo, non conspicuo intertexti 
Stipules breves, crasscs, caducao. Inflorescentiee eis Osa* 
Udearum hedysaroidearum plane conformes ; nempe pedun- 
culi stricti, supra bifurci, floribus secundis a basi versus 
apicem gradatim evolutis. 

Hab. In Guyana Anglica. CI. Parker in herb. Hook, 

9. C.parvi^oUum, nov. sp. — C. foliolis 5 sessilibus, oblongis, ^ 
abrupte acuminatis, acutis, integerrimis, glaberrimisi sub- 
vemicosoJucidis, virentibus; laciniiscalycinislate oblongis^ 
obtusis, inter se parum iiisqualibus, extus adpresse rufo* 
tomentellis, staminibus parum brevioribus. 

Folia floresque adsunt a caule dissiti. Foliolabasi subsequali 
leviter oonduplicatai nervo medio lateralibusque supra 
impressisy subtus prominulis; textura membranacea; su- 
premum 2| poll. longum, l-l^ poll, latum ; intermedia in- 
fimaque gradatim paulo minora. Pedicelli (saltern pars 
eorum qu« floribus continua) calice sublongiores, ultra 
i-poUicareSy apice sensim crassiore subangulati. Petala 
calice plus quam duplo longiora, sicca aurea. 

Hab. In Surinamo. Dr. Hostmann in herb. Hook. 



312 DECADES OP FUNGI. 



Decades of Fungi ; by the Rev. M. J. Bbrkblbt, 
M.A. F.L.S. 

{Continued from Page 6, Vol V.) 

Dec. XII.— XIV. Ohio Fungi. 

111. Agaricus (Colly bia) UtchnophyUuSj n. sp.; pileo car- 
nosulo conico-hemispherico fulvo-spadiceo velutino; stipite 
cavo deorsum fusco-purpureo nitido^ sursum pallido subvela- 
tino ; lamellis liberis fulvo-velutinis. 

On rotten pieces of wood amongst dead leaves in woods. 
Waynesville, Ohio. Sept. 5, 1844. T. G. Lea, Esq. 

More or less tufted. Pileus | of an inch across, subcar- 
nose, conico-hemispherical, of a rich tawny brown, clothed 
with short velvety pubescence, much wrinkled when dry. 

Stem 2 inches high, 1 line or more thick, tough, hollow, 
brownish-purple and shining below, shaded off into white 
above, and clothed with scattered soft pubescence, downy 
and rather bulbous where it roots into the wood. 

Gills narrow, close, quite free, velvety. 

An exquisite species, allied apparently to ^^artcttt fon^ipef. 
The gills, as in that species, are beautifully velvety. 

The fungi contained in this and the two following decades 
were collected in the north-west of Ohio by the late T. G. 
Lea, Esq. Several new species were published in former 
decades, discovered in the neighbourhood of his own resi- 
dence at Cincinnati, and one or two from the same locality 
are now described. The remainder are from Waynesville, 
about thirty miles north of Cincinnati, where he went in the 
autumn of 1844 with the express purpose of collecting Fungi, 
with what success will be seen by the present interesting 
species, and by the complete list just transmitted for publi- 
cation in Silliman's Journal. While eagerly following his 
favourite pursuit, he was seized at Waynesville by an au- 
tumnal fever, which speedily proved fatal. 

" Mr. Lea," writes his friend, Mr. W. S. SuUivant, '^ was a 



DBCADBS OF FUNGI. 313 

most amuible man, a cautious and accurate observer : had he 
enjojed firmer health, and had life been spared him longer, 
Uie Botany of this country would have received important 
aid from his labours. As it was, many new species, parti- 
cttlarly in Cryptogamia, owe their discovery to him/' 

The descriptions of the species now pubUshed are drawn 
up in a great measure from his notes, a circumstance which 
most add greatly to their value. 

112. A. (Flammula) polyckrousj n. sp.; pileo piano late 
nmbonato multi-colori primum purpureo viscido ; disco 
camoso; stipite firmo subligneo primum furfuraceo; velo 
floccoso flavo-purpureo ; lamellis pallido-purpureis demum 
flavo-fuscis adnato-decurrentibus. 

On rotten trunks of trees, sticks, &c. Waynesville, Ohio« 
Sept 1844. T. G. Lea, Esq. 

Pileus 2-3 inches across, solitary or tufted, when young 
convex, purple, soon expanding and flat, with a broad fleshy 
umbo, very viscid, varying from light yellow to buff, with the 
umbo brownish yellow or purple. 

Stem 1-1 i inch high, 2 lines thick, hard, and somewhat 
woody, nearly equal, brownish yellow, at first furfuraceous^ 

Veil fugitive, consisting of purple and yellow flocci. 

Gills at first dirty white, then brownish purple^ at length 
yeHow brown, broad, rather distant, adnate, slightly de^ 
current, but easily breaking away from the stem. 

Frequently eaten by large larvae, and then, with the 
exception of the woody stem, turning into a viscid mass. 

This fine species is evidently closely allied to Ag. Harmoge, 
but differs essentially in the nature of the gills. Ag. «a- 
fbmm, another allied species, occurs on fence-rails in the 
same locality. 

113. A« (Crepidotus) crocophyllua, n. sp. ; pileo sessili sub- 
ilabelliformi ochraceo-fusco adpresse squamoso ; lamellis au- 
rantiis. 

On a dead trunks Waynesville, Ohio. Sept. 5, 1844% 
T. G. Lea, Esq. 
VOL. vi. A A 



314 DBCADBS OF FUNGI. 

Pileus scarce | an inch long, flabelliform, convex, ochia- 
oeous-brown, clothed with minute adpressed scales. Stem 
none. Gills rather broad, rounded behind, bright buff. 
Spores subglobose, of a pale ochre-yellow. 

I do not know any species with which this can be com- 
pared. Affaricus croceo-lamellatusj Let., is, I belieye, the 
same with Paxilbts Panuoides. The only resemblance, how- 
ever, is in the colour of the gills. It is perhaps most like Ag. 
mollis, but besides the difference in the colour of the gills, 
the spores are smaller and of another form. It is not, I 
believe, resupinate in any stage of growth. 

114. A. (Pratella) fabaceus, n. sp.j pileo tenui umbonato 
albo demucn piano; stipite glabro fibrilloso basi bulbosa 
excepta aequali albo, velo amplo extus floccoso; lamellia 
Gonfertis tenuissimis liberis brunneis. 

On the ground amongst dead leaves in open woods. Way- 
nesville, Ohio. Sept. 10, 1844. T. 6. JLea, Esq. 

Pileus 4-5 inches across, thin, almost submembranaceous, 
umbonate ; conical when young, becoming nearly plane as 
it expands, white, viscid when moist; epidermia smooth, 
tough, feeling like fine kid leatJber, turning yellow when 
bruised. 

Stem S-4 inches high | of an inch thick, white, smooth, 
with the exception of a few fibrillee, equal, except at the 
base. Veil large at first, covering the gills and connecting 
the margin with the stem, white, externally floccose. 

Gills crowded, very thin, not ventricose, free, brown when 
young, then darker brown, at length almost black, like the 
dark part of a bean-flower. 

A fine species, allied to Ag. arvensis. When young it 
has a peculiar, but not unpleasant smell. 

115. Paxillus porosus, n. sp.; pileo excentrico camoso 
nitido ; stipite lento sursum reticulato ; bymenio toto poroso 
flavo. 

In moist woods. Waynesville, Ohio. Aug* 2S» 1844. 
T. G. Lea, Esq. 



BECADEt OF PUNGI. 315 

Rleos 2-5 inches broad, i-} of an inch thick, fleshy, viscid 
when moist; reddish brown, rather shining; margin thin 
and even. 

Stem lateral, 1 inch or more high, ^ of an inch thick, 
tough, diffused into the pileus, reticulated above by the 
decorrent bymenium. 

Hymenium yellow, porous, formed by radiating thin folds, 
from a line to ^ a line distant, branching, and connected by 
nameroQs irregular veins so as to form large angular pores, 
the radiating folds being broader than those which connect 
them. Spores semi-ovate. Smell very strong and unplea* 
sant* 

Nearly allied to Paxittui mvohUuSj but apparently distinct. 
The spores are of the same form, but larger than in that 
species. Without examining the fructification, it might be 
taken for a Boletus- 

116. P. flavidus^ n. sp. ; pileo alutaceo-fusco depresso; 
stipite lento flavo squamulis glutinosis aspero : lamellis parce 
ramosis postioe furcatisy vivide fiavis. 

On the ground amongst grass in dry open woods. Waynes- 
ville, Ohio. Sept 10. 1844. 7. G. Lea, Esq. 

Kleos 2-4 inches across, depressed, sometimes subinfnn- 
diboliform, smooth to the touch, like kid leather, huffish 
brown, or pale snuff-colour, viscid when moist ; flesh rather 
thin, spongy. 

Stem 1-2 inches high, |-^ inch thick, tough, yellow, rough, 
with glutinous scales. Gills close, thin, slightly branched, 
connected by veins, decurrent, forked at the base, bright 
yellow. 

Diatingaished by its bright yellow, very decurrent gills, 
which are forked behind, but do not anastomose. 

117- Lactarius calceoluSf n. sp. ; pileo tenui centre de- 
presso, margine repando alutaoeo-fusco epidermide rimosa ; 
stipite curto concolori ; lamellis perpaucis distantibus venoso- 
oonnexis decurrentibus albis. 

On the ground in woods. Waynesville, Ohio. Aug. 31, 
Sept. 10, 1844. T. O. Lea, Esq. 

A A 2 



316 DECADES OF PUNOf. 

Pileus 3 inches across, thin, arched so as to present a 
half-ovate form, brown^baff, smooth, not viscid ; epidermis 
cracked, flesh white. 

Stem short, \ an inch in height and thickness, brown-buff, 
like the pileus. Gills white, decurrent, ^ an inch broad, ex- 
tremely distant, more or less connected by transverse veins 
or plates, forked near the edge, exuding a mild milky juice. 

An extremely curious species, remarkable for its few 
distant gills and the contrast between them and the brown- 
buff stem. The pilei in all the specimens found at present 
are laterally confluent. It cannot be confounded with any 
known species. 

118. Marasmius pyrrkocephdlus^ n. sp. ; pileo convexo umbi- 
licato striato-plicato rufo; stipite gracili brunneo piloso sursum 
pallescente ; lamellis ventricosis breviter adnatis ex alba 
alutaceis. 

On the ground in damp woods. Waynesville, Ohio. Aug. 
23-31, 1844. 7. 6. LeOy Esq. 

Pileus 2 lines across, hemispherical, membranaoeous, nm- 
bilicate, striate, smooth, red-brown. 

Stem 1^-2 inches high, slender, brown, closely velvety 
below, generally rooting, paler above, more or less densely 
covered with short pale hairs and meal. 

Mycelium arachnoid, white. 

Gills white, at length pale tan-colored, ventricose, shordy 
adnate. 

Allied to M. htematocepAalus, Mont* Two forms octxffr 
the one smaller and more delicate than the other. 

119. M. clavd^ormis, Ji. sp. ; pileo convexo, albo; stipite 
gracili deorsum attenuato depresso-velutino fusco, sursom 
albo furfuraceo; lamellis cameo-albia antioe latis, postioe 
longe decurrentibus. 

On dead sticks. Waynesville, Ohio. Aug. 31, 1844. T, 
6. Lea, Esq. 

Pileus 2 lines broad, convex, tough, white. 

Stem 1 inch high, attenuated below, attached by a nunute 
bulb, brown, and clothed for | of its h^ght with depressed 



DECADES OF FUNOf. 317 

▼elvety pubescence, incrassated above where it passes into 
the pileas, white, sprinkled with furfliraceous particles. 

Gills distant, broad in front, very decurrent behind, 
whitbh, inclining to flesh-colour; interstices more or less 
reticulate. 

Allied to M. mritUius. Remarkable for its very decurrent 
gills. 

120. Lentinus ctespUosue^ n. sp. ; eximie ceespitosus, pileo 
piano alutaceo, fibriUis brunneis sparsis adpressis omato, 
margine incurvo; stipite elongato striato griseo-albo fibril- 
loso ; lamellis integris albis longe decurrentibus. 

In woods, on the ground. Waynesville, Ohio. Sept. 8, 
1844. T. G. Lea, Esq. 

Pilei forming tufts of 30 or more individuals, 1|-S inches 
across, plane, tough, yellowish-buff, clothed with close- 
pressed, brownish-red fibrillse. Margin incurved. 

Stems 3 inches high, 2 lines thick, flexuous, tough, striate, 
greyish-white, fibrillose, formed of fibres. 

Gills white, very decurrent and attenuated behind, quite 
entire. 

A very curious species, with tiie habit of Agaricus eon- 
ioriuBf Bull. It is easily distinguished from Lentinus sita- 
neus and its allies by its entire gills. 

121. Panus (fea^/ti«, n. sp.; pileo-coriaceo-moUi flabelli- 
fbrmi umbrino striato, stipiteque laterali longiusculo com- 
presso vel canaliculato sursum dilatato, strato albo sub- 
tiliter rimoso vestitis ; lamellis decurrentibus distinctis um- 
brinis. 

On a dry dead branch. Waynesville, Ohio^ Aug. 26, 
1844. T. G. Lea, Esq. 

Pileus f of an inch broad, flabelliform, sometimes lobed, 
when moist, tough and pliable, umber-brown, striate ; when 
dry white and minutely cracked, as if whitewashed, with a 
dark border. 

Stem i of an inch or more high, dilated upwards, com- 
pressed and often canaliculate, perfectly lateral, of the same 
colour and texture as the pileus. 



S18 PBCADBS OF rUNOI. 

Gills narrow, umber-brown^ distinct^ without any vans in 
the interstices decurrent and clothed below with a white 
stratum ; when dry^ brown with a white edge. 

Allied to Ag. farinaceus, Schum.^ but at once distinguislied 
by its very decurrent gills. There are few prettier Aingi 
than this when dry. Sometimes the stem is forked, and 
each division produces a distinct pileus. 

122* P. anffwtatuSi n. sp.; parvus tenuis pileo spathulato 
subtiliter pubescente postice angustato farinaceo $ strato so- 
periore gelatinoso ; stipite brevisdimo ; lamellis angustis de- 
currentibus. 

On a dead log. Waynesville, Ohio. Sept. 10, 1844. T. 
6. Lea, Esq. 

Pileus about 1 inch long, coriaceo-submembranaceoos, 
spathulate or fiabelliform, narrowed behind, white, dirty* 
white, or yellowish, most minutely pubescent; upper stratom 
gelatinous. 

Stem extremely short, being in fact little more than a 
continuation of the pileus. 

Gills very narrow, close, decurrent, white, very minutely 
pubescent, yellowish when dry. 

Somewhat resembling P. ctqnUatta. Mr. Lea describes it 
as tough when fresh. 

* Boletus atrolnlacetiSi Scop. 

The spores in this species are subglobose, or oUiqudy 
ovate, and by no means elongated as in other Boleti* In 
the Ohio specimens I find them minutely granulato-echina- 
late. The tubes, too, do not separate from the pileus. It 
will probably form some day the type of a new genus. 

* Polyporus radicaivsy Schwein. 

Specimens of this occur of various sises, from that which 
Schweinitz describes, to 5 inches across, with the stem eight 
inches or more high and an inch thick. 

123. Polyporus (Mesopus) fissua^ n. sp. ; pfleo primiun 
infundibuliformi demum fisso, lobis flabelliformibus, tenuis- 
simo luteo-fusco. Stipite deorsum nigro; hymenio albo; 
poris minimis. * 



DECADES OF FUNGI. 319 

On a decaying stick, Waynesville, Ohio. Sept. 5, 1844. 
T. G. Lea, Esq. 

Pileus li-2 inches across, at first infundibuliform, at length 
split once or twice behind^ and forming as many flabellate 
lobes, extremely thin^ quite smooth, minutely striate, yellow- 
brown. 

Stem scarce ^ an inch high, very minately velvety, black 
below. 

Pores white, invisible to the naked eye, punctiform. 

Closely allied to Pol. varius^ but a much more delicate 
species than any of its allies. The pores are as minute as in 
PoL xanthopusy so that it was sent as a Thelephora. 

124% P. (Pleuropus) rhipidium, n. sp.; ceespitoso-imlni- 
catns pileo coriaceo reniformi concentrice sulcato alutaceo- 
slbo cute in areolas furfuraceas secedente; stipite laterali 
brevi sursum dilatato pruinoso ; pons parvis albidis angulatis 
denticulatis quandoque elongatis. 

On rotten trunks, in woods. Waynesville, Ohio. August 
21, 1844. T. 6. Lea, Esq. 

PQei gregarious, casspitoso-imbricate, coriaceous,^ | of an 
inch long and broad, deeply sulcate, yellowish, cracked into 
mmute fiirfuraceous areolae. 

Stem \ of an inch high, lateral, dilated above, pruinose, 
yellowish when dry. 

Pores small, -p^ of an inch in diameter, dirty white, 
angular, often elongated; edge of dissepiments toothed and 
uneven. 

This curious species exactly resembles Panus stipiticus with 
the exception of the hymenium. I know of no species to 
which it has a close affinity. 

125. P. (Anodermei) hypococcinus, n. sp. ; pileo subungu- 
lato camosO'Suberoso, intus fibroso zonatoque, inaequabili ex 
atutaceo-aurantio incano subtiliter tomentoso ; poris parvis 
longis e pileo secemibilibus aurantiis intus coccineis. 

Waynesville^ Ohio. On rotten trunks. Sept. 7} 1B44. 
r. 6. Lea, Esq. 

Pileus several inches across, subungulate or expanded, of a 



320 DBCADB8 OF FUNGI. 

soft coriaceous or corky substance, uneven, buff and orangei 
becoming whitish when dry, very minutely tomentose ; sub- 
stance pale buff, (sometimes pink when dry), consisting of 
fibres which radiate from the base, and are crossed bj 
concentric zones. 

Hymenium bright crimson-orange. Pores small, -^V of an 
inch broad, an inch long, crimson within, separable from 
the flesh, and partially from each other; edge of dissepiments 
orange, slightly thickened and flexuous. 

This magnificent species approaches in some respects the 
genus Fistulinaf but the pores, though partially separable, are 
those of a Polfffxntts. 

126. Polyporus (Anodermei) mottiusctdusy n« sp. ; imbrica- 
tus pileis effuso-reflexis sublobatis leviter zonatis albis ; zonis 
strigis mollibus sparsis ornatis ; contextu albo ; poris mediis 
pallidis. — Lea^ n. 39. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. T. G, Lea, Esq. 

Imbricated thin 5 inches or more long, 3 inches broad, 
sometimes perfectly resupinate, more generally with the 
border broadly reflected and slightly lobed, finely silky or 
nearly smooth, with zones of soft strigas, which in the dried 
plant are perfectly innate. Substance white, thin, corky 
when dry. 

Pores -fy of an inch broad, at first entire with thick disse- 
piments, at length lacerated and elongated, wood-coloured. 

Resembling in general appearance Polyporus abUaceus as 
figured by Rostkovius, but much thinner. I cannot refer 
it to any described species. Its position is amongst the 
white Anodermei. 

12/. P. (Anodermei) endocrocinuSf n. sp.; pileo crasso 
camoso-fibroso setis strigoso-horrido brunneo; conteita 
croceo-rhabarbarino ; stipite brevi vel obsoleto ; hymenio 
aureo-fusco ; poris mediis laceratis ; dissepimentis tenuibus. 

On the decayed part of the trunk of a yellow hickory, 
Waynesville, Ohio, Aug. 29, 1844. T. G. Lea, Esq. 

Pileus thick, 4-6 inches across, of a fleshy, fibrous con* 
\ absorbing much moisture, dark brown^ clothed with 



DBCADE8 OF FUNGI. 321 

strigoie, flat, lacerated setsB or scales ; substance of a rich 
safiix)n; hymenium golden-brown. Pores -gV of an inch 
broad, angular, with the edge of the thin dissepiments torn 
or fringed. 

This species shrinks much in drying. It is allied to PoL 
Sekweimtzii, but is distinguished by its saffron coloured 
substance and strigoso*squamose pUeus. Two specimena 
only were found. 

128. P. (Anodermei) ffalaciinua, n. sp. ; pileo dimidiato 
camoso moUi infloquabili strigoso-tomentoso lacteo intus 
sonato fibroso ; margine tenui ; poris parvis albis. 

On rotten trunks, WaynesviUe, Ohio, Aug. 29, Sept. 10, 
1844. T. O. Lea, Esq. 

Pileus 2-S inches broad, 1^ inch long, dimidiate or reni- 
form, and elongated behind, convex uneven, milk-white, 
clothed with strigose down of a soft, fleshy substance, zoned 
within and consisting of radiating fibres. 

Hymenium flat, or sUghtly concave. Pores -rK o^ ^^ 
inch broad, scarcely visible to the naked eye, but giving to 
the hymenium a silky lustre, white 5 dissepiments very thin, 
slighdy uneven. 

Nearly allied to Pol undulatua^ Schwein, and PoL symphy" 
ton, Schwein, The dried specimens are rigid, and sometimea 
have the margin dark brown. 

129. P. (Anodermei) dryopkilus, n. sp. ; pileo crasso rigido 
ungulato scabroso ineequabili incano-ferrugineo-flavo ; con- 
tezta dnnamomeo ; hymenio cinnamomeo fusco ; poris par- 
rit intus rhabarbarinis. 

On living red-oak, WaynesviUe, Sept. 5, 1844. T. G. 
Lea, Esq. 

Pilei subimbricate 4 inches broad, 3 inches long, ungu- 
late, unequal, rough with scabrous points, formed by innate 
pubescence, of a ferruginous yellow, but subdued by a thin 
white film. 

Substance fibrous, hard, cinnamon. 

Pores externally cinnamon brown, within femiginous- 
7eUow, about Vir^l^ of an inch broad, angular, with thin 
dissepiments. 



32S DECADES OF FUNGI. 

Nearly allied ta Polyporus dryadens, but a smaller more 
rigid species^ with larger differently coloured pores. It hss 
also much resemblance to P. giioui. 

* P. conglobatusy Berk. 

This curious species not only occurs on beech, but also 
on hickory, in which case it is of a fine ochre red, with 
a purplish hymenium. It is so fragrant when fresh, that it is 
recognised at a distance of twenty yards, the odour beiiig 
a combination of that of strawberries and pine-apple. 

^Trametes lactea^ Berk. 

I am obliged to alter the name of this species, as while die 
number of the Decades in which it was described was in the 
press, M. L^yeill^ had published another fungus under the 
name of T. incana. 

* Daedalea ambigua. Berk. 

Specimens gathered at Waynesyille approach near to 
Lenzites repanda and L« applanata^ combining the characters 
of both. The normal form, however, exhibits a Dsdalea. 
Even in the thinnest specimens the margin is not 
acute.* 

130. Trametes iqnum, n. sp«; pileo tenui refiexo basi efioao 
subtiliter tomentoso pallido-ligneo zonis saturatioribus ; oon- 
textu albo ; hymenio poroso-sinuoso palHdo. 

On dry fence-rails, Waynesyille, Ohio, Sept 9, 1844. 
T. G. Lea, Esq. 

Pilei efiused at the base, reflexed above, laterally connate, 
at first often attached by the vertex or triquetrous, pale 
wood-coloured, finely tomentose, marked with numerous 
darker zones. 

Hymenium pallid, consisting of slightly sinuous poresi 
about -s^th of an inch in diameter. 

Its nearest ally is apparently Dadalea zonaia, Schwein. 

ISI. Dflsdalea pallido-ftdva, n. sp. ; coriaceo-suberosa ; 
pileo dimidiate subnitido azono pallido; hymenio palUdo- 
fulvo ; poris angustis parce sinuosis rectis. Lea, n. 35. 

* Since the above was printed, after fuller consideration, I am indiaed 
U) refer all the forms to TVametei lactea. 



DBGADES OF FUNGI. 323 

On a dead log in a log-fenoe, Cincinnati, Ohio, March 
19, 1842. 71 G. Lea, Esq. 

Pileus 1| inch long, 3 inches or more broad, stemless, 
dimidiate, even or rather rugged zoneless, or with one or 
two obsolete lines of growth rather shining, at first 
most minutely pubescent, pallid. Substance hard, wood-' 
coloured. 

Hymenium pale tawny. Pores mostly straight, -^th of 
an boh broad. 

A Tery distinct spedes, just intermediate between Dadalea 
9Xkd Lenaiiesn 

132. Lenzites Cratmgi, n. sp. ; pileo coriaceo rigido gla-* 
berrimo nitido cervino concentrice sulcato fasciatoque ; quan- 
doque radiato-ruguloso poris flexuosis demum elongatis ; dis- 
sepimentis molliusculis, hie iUic lameUfeformibus. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Oct 12, 1840. 71 O. Lea. Esq. 

Pileus orbicular l^ inch broad, fixed by the Tcrtex, rigid 
coriaceous, quite smooth and shining, repeatedly zoned and 
tolcate. 

Hymenium brownish. Pores -^^th of an inch in dia- 
meter, slightly sinuous, much elongated towards the centre^ 
dissepiments thin, soft. 

This beautiful species has exactly the habit of Hexagana 
temisj bot the pores are Tery different. It has been gathered 
at Isle aux Noix, Canada, by Dr. Madagan, of whose 
ooUeetion it is n. 154. His specimen is ungulate, and 
marked with little radiating lines, which are wanting in 
Mr. Lea's plant. 

133. Hydnum d^aetum, n. sp. ; pileo carnoso-lenta 
crasso glabro alutaoeo margine incurro, stipiteque obeso 
ooncolori diffiractis ; aculeis subulatis integris moUibus aluta« 
oso-pallidis. 

On the ground in dry woods, Waynesrille, Aug. 26, 1844.. 
T. G. Lea^ Esq. 

Pileus 8 inches broad, oonyex smooth, of a tough fleshy 
rabctance, at length much cracked and split, margin in* 
Tobte. 



324 DB0ADE8 OF PUNOI. 

Stem 1^-2 inches high, } of an inch or more thick, buff, 
mnd split like the pileos, tender when fresh. 

Spines ev^i, subulate, entire, soft, of a pale buff. 

Smell vinous. 

A remarkably rigid species when dry. Allied to H. candid 
dum and H. repandum^ 

134. Thelephora cuticularii, n. sp.; imbricata coriaceo- 
mollis brunneo-purpurascens, pileolis inaequabilibus rugosis 
depresso-sericeis ; hymenio sublcevi pulyerulento. 

In the moist cavity of a dead tree attached to the wood, 
twigs, &c., Waynesville, Ohio, Aug. 23, 1844. 71 6. Leoj 
Esq. 

Imbricated ; pilei } of an inch long,, laterally confluent, 
uneven, rugged, brown inclining to purple with a pale 
margin, of a soft, coriaceous consistence ; surface soft, clothed 
with matted down not distinctly pubescent, aoneless. 

Hymenium concave, nearly even, not setulose, smell 
strong and unpleasant. 

One specimen gathered apparently in a different locality, 
consists of a mass of pilei running one into the other with 
but little distinct hymenium. 

Allied to TTielephora ierresfris. 

135. T. albomarginata, Schwein! mss.; latissime con- 
fluenti-effusa rarius breviter reflexa umbrina centro pruinoss, 
margine albo-tomentoso. — Lea, n. 49. 

On bark of dead button-wood {PUUanua occidentaSs), 
Cincinnati, Ohio, March 19, 1842. T. 6. Lea, Esq. 

At first consisting of distinct orbicular patches which soon 
become confluent; umber, velvety but by no means bristly 
clothed with a white bloom, in the centre quite even or 
irregularly rugose, sometimes reflexed, in which case the 
pileus is brown and silky, margin white, tomentose, not 
fimbriate. 

This was distributed under the name of T. aridOj bat 
more perfect specimens show that it is a fine and very 
distinct species. It is possible that T. albo-badia may 
be a synonym, for I do not find the name adopted above 
firom Sir. W. J. Hooker's Herbarium in Schweinits' list. 



DBGADB8 OP PUNOI. 325 

136. Sphasronema oafysporum, n. sp. ; peritbeciis subulatis 
flavis apice nudis; sporis ellipticis utrinque appendicu- 
latis. 

On the hymenium of some decaying Polyporua, apparently 
P. betulinm, WaynesviUe, Ohio, Aug. 3^ 1844. T. G. Lea, 
Esq. 

Externally resembling Spharonema aubuiaiumf but dis* 
tinguished by its spores having an elongated filament at 
either extremity^ and by the naked tip of the perithecium 
which has a more compact structure. 

137* Diplodia Mori, n. sp. ; peritbeciis globosis dispersis 
siccitate cdlapsis ; sporis obovato-oblongis pallidis simplici- 
bus.— Z^a, n. 144. 

On twigs of Morus multicauHi, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 25, 
1840. T. G, Lea, Esq. 

Sometimes aggregate and oblong from the confluence of 
several individuals ; more frequently solitary. Occasionally 
the contents of the spores are attracted to either end, but 
I do not find a septum even in decaying specimens* 

PsiLOPSZIA, g. n. 

Hymenium planum ascigerum omnino immarg^natum 
strato tomentoso innatum. Asci ampli; sporidia elliptica 
binucleata. 

138. P. nummuiaria.^-'Lea, n. 243. 

On a decayed log in a wet place, Cincinnati, Ohio, July 
16, 1842. T. O. Lea, Esq. 

Orbicular ^ inch broad, flat, purple-brovm, growing on 
a white tomentose stratum, which forms a narrow border. 
Asci large, containing eight large elliptic, binucleate spo- 
ridft. 

The characters of this genus are precisely those of Pffro- 
nemOf which was founded on the old confluent state of Pezixa 
^imphalodes. 

It has the habit of Cortickm^ with the hymenium of a 
''emaifirom which it is distinguished by the total absence of 



326 DBCAD88 OP PUNOI. 

any true margin. The name of Pfpronema is evidently inap- 
plicable to the present species. 

* Patellaria carpinea, Berk. Peziza cari»nea, Par#.— Lei. 
n. 154. 

On Hornbeam. Cincinnati, Ohio. Oct. SI, 18S9. T.G. 
Lea^ Esq. 

This is not a good Peziza, though it certainly has asd and 
sporidia. The former are clavate, the latter sabcymbiferm. 
Ditiola, to which Fries is inclined to refer it, has no ascL 
The present plant is, I think, certainly congeneric vith 
Peziza rhabarbarinay Berk., which has been referred bj 
Desmazieres to Patellaria, It is, however, to be observed 
that neither have the septate sporidia of P. atraia, 

139. Sphseria (Seriatee) MaydiSy n« sp.; macolis parris 
subellipticis elevatis ; peritheciis paucis; ostiolo unico conioo; 
sporidiis oblongis curvulis uniseptatb. 

On dead culms of Zea Mays. Cincinnati^ Ohio. May 1, 

1841. T. O. Lea, Esq. 

Habit that of SpfuBria Arundmaeea, Spots minute, often 
purple-brown, punctiform, or subelliptic, rarely linear, con- 
taining very few perithecia, with a single broad conical 
ostiolum. Sporidia oblong, slightly curved, uninBeptate. 
Very different from Spharia Ze^, Schwein ! as appears from 
an authentic specimen in Sir W. Hooker's Herbarium. 

140. S. (Subtecta) argyrostigmaf n. sp.; late dispersa; 
peritheciis minoribus depresso-globosis epidermide tectis 
astomis. Maculis epidermalibus punctiformibus nigris centro 
oandidis; sporidiis cymbifbrmibus pallidis.— jLfo, n. 139. 

On dead leaves of Yucca filamenioea. Cincinnati. Feb. 8, 

1842. T. O. Lea, Esq. 

Appearing like a scattered Phoma, but it has distinct ascL 
It is curious that a species of Phoma, which 1 have named 

P. dispersum, allied to P. concentricum, often occurs on the 

opposite side of the leaf. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. S27 

BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 



Mc. Ivar^s HsPATiOiB BRiTANNiCiS ; or Pocket Herbarium 
(/British HspATiCiB, named and arranged according to 
the moit approved system ; by Wm. Graham Mc. Ivor. 

Oar Jouroal has had frequent occasion to speak fityourably 
of Specime9^ of Crjrptogamic Plants, which have been pub- 
lished from time to time by yarious Botanists, and which 
have contributed materially to a more complete knowledge of 
the species of our own country. Mr. Dickson and Mr. 6. Don, 
of Forfar, were among the first of British Botanists (if not the 
first Botanists in any country) who adopted this mode of publi- 
cation. Their specimens were indeed roughly preserved and 
given in Fasciculi with little taste as to arrangement or 
quality of paper. Mr. Hobson of Manchester, Dr. Greville, 
Mr. Thos. Drammond, the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, Mr. Gardner, 
now Director of the Botanic Gardens, Ceylon, Mrs. Wyatt 
of Torquay, and Mr. Gardiner of Dundee, have severally 
issued Fasciculi which have exhibited a great improvement 
over those of their predecessors ; and through their means 
much light has been thrown upon the Mosses^ the Lichens^ the 
Fungi and the jifga of Great Britain. A separate work was 
still much needed upon the Hepatiaet and we have now 
the pleasure to announce an excellent little volume on 
these, the labour of Mr. W. Graham Mc. Ivor, at this 
time attached to the Royal Gardens of Kew. While resi- 
dent in Scotland, and since his sojourn in England, this 
Botanist has been indefatigable in his researches after these 
beautiful plants, and has consequently been eminently suc- 
cessful, and no less so in the accurate determination of 
the species. That nothing may be wanting to display the 
specimens to the best advantage, he has had the pages of the 
little pocket volume divided into compartments, in the same 
way as was adopted in that general favourite, Mr. Gardner's 
volume of '* British Mosses," with the name printed to each 



328 NBW MUSCI AND HBPATICdB. 

Bpeciesj and a very full Index at the end. The spedmens 
are well preserved, and so neatly laid down that the effect is 
more like a series of drawings than specimens of plants 
themselves ; while, to add to the value of the collection, they 
«re all grouped into the recent Genera of Nees von Esenbeck 
and the most approved writers on this family of Plants. 
The old genus Jungermannia is here divided into 31 Genera, 
Marchantia into 4 : Targioniaj SpfuerocarpuSy Anihoceros and 
Aiccta stand as formerly. The number of species enumerated 
is 136. Of course every compartment cannot be expected 
to be occupied : a few species are so rare that the author has 
probably scarcely had specimens in his possession : of others 
he has been able to procure but few specimens, not sufiBcxent 
for all the copies. But it is surprizing how successful Mr. 
Mc. Ivor has been in his researches, and we are sure that 
this " Pocket Herbarium" will be hailed by every lover of 
Cryptogamic Botany, both on the Continent and in our 
own Islands. Of the price we have not yet been informed, 
but we have reason to know it will be moderate, and that a 
guinea will be the utmost sum fixed on for the most perfect 
copies : less, in proportion to the reduced number of species, 
for the others. The work may be had by applying to 
Mr. Mc. Ivor, Royal Gardens, Kew, London : and we may 
observe that the volume is of such sise that a small sum 
will cover the postage to any part of the British dominions. 



Deicriptions qf New Musci and HsPATiCiS, coUeeted bg 
Professor William Jameson an PieMncha, near 
Quito; ^Thomas Taylor, M.D. 

The following speeies, to which specific characters and 
diagnostic marks are assigned, were freshly collected in 
November last, and transmitted to the author in a letter just 
received, in the expectation of their immediate pubGca- 
tion. This is a sufficient reason why he has not waited 
until all the Herbaria of all European Muscologists had been 
appeded to, to fix the absolute newness of tiie plants 



NBW MU8CI AND HBPATICA. 829 

described. The inoonTenienoe to nataralists of having the 
same species given under twdi different names by two 
different investigators appears more thin balanced by 
the advantage of having two original views of the same sub- 
ject To some it may seem quite superfluous the number 
of times I have attached the name of Dr. Jameson to the 
species : I think it, however, too feeble an expression of my 
gratitude for the zeal with which, at my request, he has con- 
tinued, in a distant land, to supply fresh materials for the 
admiration of Botanists. 

Phybcomitrium, Bridel. 

1. P. Jamesani, Tayl. Caule brevissimo, erecto, subsimplici, 

foliia erectis, ovato-lanceolatis, acuminatis, concavis, mar- 

gine incurvo, integerrimo, nervo evanescente; capsula 

erecta, obovata, sub-apophysata, operculo minuto^ piano. 

-^n Pichincha, Prof. tF. Jameson^ Nov. 1846. 

Stems reddish. Leaves light green, adpressed, the margin 

of the upper part variously incurved. Pedicels slender, 

about one inch long. The apophysis of the capsule is best 

observed in aged individuals. Within the mouth of the 

capsule is an annular membrane, whose top is opaque and 

brownish-red, and shews irregular cells, the representatives 

of a peristome. By its entire leaves, whose nerves disappear 

before their summits, this approaches to Crymnoiiamum apo- 

pkytatum^ Tayl., but the leaves are fewer, more erect, and 

with larger acuminated points, while the apophym to the 

capsule is far less considerable. 

Ztoodon, Hook, et Tayl. 

\. Z. dmUadatui, Tayl. Caule cnspitoso, erecto, dicho- 
tomo, foliis imbrioatis, subsquarroso-patentibus, oblongo*- 
ovatisi apice dentioulatis, margine flezuosis, nervo apiou- 
lato; pedicello demum asdllarii capsula erecta, ovata, 
basi oboonice struroosSi siccitate striato-costata, operculo 

VOL. VI. B B 



380 NEW MU8CI AND HBPATICiE. 

subulato ; peristomio simplici, brevissimo. — On Pichincha, 
Prof. W. Jameson. Nov. 1846. 

Tufts loose, 1-2 inches high, pea-green. Texture of the 
leaves dense. Peristome scarcely rising above the mouth of 
the capsule, of 16 very irregular, subtriangulate, acuminulate, 
short, pale teeth. Allied to Z. viridissknWf Smidi: the 
leaves are wider, denticulate at the tops, and the peristome, 
such as it is, constant. 

2. Z. sienocarpus, Tayl. Caule laxe csespitoso, erecto, sub- 

dichotomo; foliis imbricatis, patenti-recurvis, sicdtate 

subadpressis, lineari-lanceolatis, acutis, canaliculars, inte- 

gerrirais, margine subundulatis, .nervo sub apice eva- 

nescente; pedicello stramineo, tenui; capsula erecta, 

cylindrica, striata, apophysi obconica; operculo longi- 

rostro, declinato) peristomio extemo subnuUo, intemo 

16-ciliato.— On Pichincha, Prof. W. Jameson. Nov. 1846. 

Tufts nearly one inch high, pale-green. Texture of the 

leaves dense, and dotted, indeed strongly resembling those 

of Z. viridissimtiSy Smith, from which it diflFers by the greater 

size, the cylindrical capsules, and by the presence of an 

inner peristome, the outer being but an annular shred, in 

which divisions are not distinctly observable. 

Weissia, Hedw. 

1. W. Jamesonif Tayl. Caule laxe csespitoso, erecta, sub- 
simplici ; foliis subimbricatis, subpatentibus, ovatis, acutis, 
ruptinervibus, dentatis, submarginatis ; pedicellis sparsis, 
lesvibus ; capsula erectiuscula, ovato-cylindracea, basi an- 
guste apophysata ; operculo longirostro, rostro oblique- 
On Pichincha , Prof. TF. Jaineson. Nov. 1846. 
Shoots exceeding one inch in height, rather thick, covered 
at the base with a dense ferruginous down. Leaves slightly 
twisted when dry. An annulus is present. Teeth of the 
peristome 16, lanceolate, acuminate, opaque, brown, equi- 
distant, not marked by any depressions or longitudinal dark 



NBW MUSCI AND HSPATICiE. 331 

lines of diyisioa along .the axes. From the obliqueness of 
the beak of the lid, the calyptra is concluded to be dimidiate. 
This is unlike any of the described WeissuB. It has some 
analogy with Eremodon splachnoides, Brid. : the nature of the 
peristome is very different ; and iti thb respect is more like 
that of our Brachymitrium. 

MZBLIGHOFERIA, HomSCk. 

1. M. Jatnesoniy Tayl. Caule brevissimo^ ceespitoso, erec- 
tiusculo ; surculis clavatis ; foliis arete imbricatis, erectis, 
oyatis, acutis, subintegerrimis, uninerriis ; pedicellis caule 
quadruple longioribus, apice incurvis ; capsula rotundato- 
ovata^ apophysi obconica, siccitate rugosa ; peristomio bre- 
vissimo, albido. — On Pichincha ; Prof. W* Jameson. Nov. 
1846. 

Shoots scarcely one line long, reddish below. Teeth of 
the peristome lanceolate, somewhat approached in pairs, 
many are truncate. This is closely allied to M. macrocarpa, 
Hook. {JVeisria macrocarpa, n. 74, Musci American!, of 
Drummond.) The stems are far shorter, more clavate, the 
pedicels longer, while the capsule is more round. 

Strrhopodon, Schwaeg. 

1. S. Jamesoni, Tayl. Caule caespitoso, erecto, subsimplici ; 

foliis laxis, siccitate crispis, ex exsucca amplexante erecta 

basi paten ti- recur vis, dentatis, nervo subpellucido per- 

cursis ; pedicello tenui ; capsula ovata, ineequali, inclinata. 

—On Pichincha; Prof. fT. Jackson. Nov. 1846. 

Tufts nearly one inch high, of a lively green. Peristome 

arising from a pale shallow subpellucid membrane within 

the mouth of the capsule ; teeth 16, elongated, sometimes 

bifid or even trifid, very narrow, opaque, dark brown, twisted 

inwards when dry. Leaves with a diaphanous, colourless^ 

highly reticulated amplexicaul base. The ovate inclined 

capsule and loosely set leaves distinguish the present from 

other described species of the genus j the teeth of the peri^ 

B B 2 



SS2 NBW MU8CI AND HBPATICiB. 

tome too, twisted or indexed when.dry^ are very remark- 
able. 

DicBANUM^ Hedw. 

1. D. Jamesoni^ Tayl. Caule laxe ciespitoso, erecto, subdi- 
cbotomo ; foliis lazis, basi patentibus apioe erectiusculis, 
ex lata basi subulato-setaceis, subsemilatis, nenro per- 
cursis, siccitate fiexuosis; pedicellis demam axillaribos, 
snbflexaosis ; capsula ovata, imequali, cunrato-inclinata, 
leevi ; operculo longirostro, rostro incurvo. — On Pichincba ; 
Prof. W. Jameson. Nov, 1846. 

Tufts more than one inch high, yeUowish-green. Leaves 
with an oblong or square, concave, but not closely sheathing, 
base ; the upper part setaceous, entirely occupied by the 
nerve, which is there more expanded than at the base ; the 
margin minutely serrulate by its projecting cells. Pedicel 
with an incrassated summit. Calyptra dimidiate. Peris- 
tome of 16 bifid, sometimes trifid teeth with Bnequal 
segments. In Dtcranum vaginatum, Hook., the shoots are 
more slender, the dry leaves more adpressed, their setaceoos 
tops shorter, straighter^ more rigid and quite entire, their 
bases more closely embracing, while the capsule is more erect 
and more equal. 

ToRTULA, Hedw. 

1. T. (iuitoenris, Tayl. Caulibus brevibus aggregatis, inno- 
vantibus ramosis ; foliis erecto-patentibus, ex angusta am- 
plexante basi elongate obovatis, apiculatis, uninerviisy 
integerrimis, grosse cellulosis, tenellis; operculo conico* 
rostrato; capsula erecta, cylindrica, subcurvula; peris- 
tomio basin usque fisso. — Near Quito ; Prof. W. Jameton. 
Nov. 1846, 

Stems half an inch high. Leaves brown, nearly two lines 
long, their cells round ; when moistened the leaves are very 
fragile. Annulus often persistent after the fall of the lid. 
Peristome about one-fourth the length of the capsule, the 
teeth binary, twisted, divided down to the base. This 



NSW MU80I AND HKPATICJB. 3S3 

diflfen from Symirickia iubulaia, Web. et Mohr, by the 
peristome, the shorter lid as well as capsule ; by the leaves 
wider above, and remarkably by their reticulated structure* 

2. T. JroffiUs, Tayl. Caule laxe caspitoso, crecto, subdi- 
chotomo; foliis imbricatis erectis, supremis patentibus^ 
latis, lineari-lanceolatis^ obtusis, nervo excurrente apicu- 
latisy integerrimis, margine flexuosis^ firagillimis, basi ex- 
SQOcis; pedicello demum axillaris subflexuoso, tenui; oapsula 
ex ovata basi cylindrica, iniequali, faino incurva ; operculo 
longirostro, obliquo.— -On Piohincha; Prof. W. Jamefon. 
Nov. 1846. 

Shoots 1^ inches high, rusty brown, olive-green above. 
Leaves crowded and more expanded at the summits of the 
shoots, adpressed and twisted when dry, their nerve stout ; 
their upper part of a dense structure, while the lower is 
devoid of green parenchyma and largely Reticulated ; pedi* 
cek overtopping the shoots by one quarter of an inch. Pe- 
ristome short, divided to the base, pale reddish. Capsule 
slightly curved. Cape specimens of Tort, rwralia^ Sohwaeg.^ 
collected by Menzies, resemble our species; but, they 
have hair-pointed leaves, the fringe is tubular beneath, the 
capsule is less incurved, and the leaves more adpressed when 
dry. 

3. T. P%chineheim»i Tayl. Caule laxe csBspitoso, erecto, 
subsimplid; foliis imbricatis, patenti-recurvis, lingulatis, 
obtosissimis, subrepando-denticulatis, nervo excurrente, 
flexuosis, margine reflexis ; capsula ovato-cylindrica, inas- 
quali, subcurvata; operculo rostrato, inclinato; peristomio 
basin usque fisso.— ^On Pichincha; Prqf. fV. Jameson. 
Nov. 184& 

Tofts soareely half an inch high, the older pa^ of a rusty 
brown, the younger pale green. Margins of the leaves 
variously ilexuose, the excurrent nerve subdenticulate on the 
back. Peristome short. Allied to our T. Qmtoeneie, by the 
shape of the capsules and by the Ungulate leaves ; but, then, 
these have a dense structure, their tops are more roanded. 



334 N£W MUaCI AND HBPATICifi. 

and they are^ even when dry, subsquarrose ; the pedicels, 
too, are far shorter. 

Bartramia, Hedw. 

L B. subseasiUsj Tayl. Caule subcsespitoso, erecto, sub- 

aimplici ; foliis arete imbricatis, subsecundis, ex ovata basi 

subulato-setaceis, margine reflexis, denticulatis, siccitate 

strictis, rectiusculis ; pedicello brevissimo; capsula sab- 

exserta, erectiuscula, sphsrica, estriata ; operculo minoto. 

—On Pichincha; Prof. W. Jameson. Nov. 1846. 

Shoots 1^ inches high, brownish beneath, lively greea 

above. Leaves with capillaceous points, whose denticoh- 

tions are discernible by a strongly magnifying feiii. A 

solitary capsule only was observed, at the mouth of whidi, 

after the most careful dissection, no traces of a peristome 

appeared ; yet the fruit was full grown and brown. Cellules 

of the lid much smaller than those of the capsule. Tbe 

pedicel is shorter than in B. Halleriana^ Hedw., the leaves 

straighter, the size smaller; besides, the capsule is without 

siruB. 

2. B. JamesofUf Tayl. Caule laxe casspitoso, erecto, dicho- 
tomo; surculis apice incrassatis; foliis arete imbricatis, 
elongatis, siccitate subtortilibus, ex subulata amplexante 
basi linearibus, acuminatis, celluloso-subserrulatis ; capsula 
axillari, sessili, erecta, rotundato-obovata, lesvi ; peristomio 
exteriori nuUo.— On Pichincha, Prof, W, Jameson^ Nov. 
1846. 

Tufts two inches high, grass-green. Shoots bushy above. 
The long points to the leaves show the nerve very distinctly, 
with considerable pagina on each side up to the very sum* 
mits. Capsule concealed in the axils of the dichotomous 
shoots. No pedicel. No outer peristome : the inner rising 
from a pale, thick, annular, membrane within the month 
of the capsule; the teeth lanceolate, acuminate, with a 
dark line in the axis, and occasionally some perforations. 



NEW MUSCI AND HEPATICiSS. 335 

This moss is shorter, the shoots more bushy above, and 
the leaves longer than in B. Hallerianay Hedw. ; besides, the 
capsule is altogether sessile, and the outer peristome wanting. 
Here is a fine opportunity for those who delight in forming 
new Genenu In a natural system it is not easy to separate 
our spedes from the Bartramue. 

3. B* elegantula, Tayl. Caule laxe ceespitoso, gracillimo, 
erecto, subfasciculatim ramoso ; foliis approximatis, erectis, 
lanceolatis, subdenticulatis, nervo sub summo apice eva- 
nescente; perigoniis paucifoliis arete imbricatis, subro- 
tandis; pedicellis caulem superantibus ; capsula sub- 
lequali, subglobosa, inclinata, substriata ; operculo convexo 
acuminulato. — On Pichincha; Prof. W. Jameson. Nov. 
1846. 

Shoots 2-3 inches high, very slender. Pedicels flexuose. 
Capsule when thoroughly moistened perfectly smooth. Teeth 
of the inner i)eristome, one lying exactly under each of the 
outer, with one or two unequal lacinia. Approaches B. 
JiltformiSf Homsch., but it is not so branched, the bases of 
the leaves are narrower, their tops are more acuminate, the 
nenre evanescent under their summits, their cellules larger, 
the pedicels are not so fine, the capsule much larger, and 
the perigonial leaves are fewer and more closely adpressed. 

4. B. mtnti/a, Tayl. Caulibus aggregatis, demum innovanti- 
rmmosis, erectis; foliis arete imbricatis, strictis, erectis, 
anguste lanceolatis, acuminatis, subserrulatis, margine basi 
reflexis, capsulis subspheericis, subpellucidis, erectiusculis ; 
operculo convexo-conico, subpellucido. — Near Quito ; 
Prof. fV. Jameson* Nov. 1846. 

Stems about 8 lines high. Shoots minute, straight, rigid 
and bristly with the acuminate points of the leaves. Pedicels 
about half an inch high, reddish, incrassated just below the 
capsules. Exterior peristome brownish-red, rather opaque, 
trabeculate, interior of short pale brown, geminate lacinuBf 
with an interposed, filiform shorter process. Its diminutive 
stse, more closely adpressed leaves, paler and rounder cap- 



336 NBW MU8CI AND HBPATICJE. 

sules, which are never striated, will serve to separate thb 
from states of B. MarcMca, Sw. 

Mnium^ Hedtt. 

1. M. ffrandifoUum, Tayl. Caule elongate, erecto, subsiis- 
plici ; foliis inferioribus distantibus, superioribus in rosa- 
1am congestis, patentibus, elongate obovatis, apicolatis, 
subimmarginatis, snbdenticalatis ; pedicellis subbinis ; cap- 
sula lineari-obovata, cernna, subapophysata ; opercolo 
conico, acuminulato. — On Pichincha ; Prof. W. JameMtm, 
Oct. 9, 1827, Dr. GreviUe's Herb, collected agwn in 
Nov. 1846. 

Stems 4-5 inches high, having at intervals congestions of 
leaves of past years, of which the upper is the most ex- 
panded. Leaves sometimes half an inch long, slightly 
marginate, their minute sermlation observable only under 
a highly magnifying lens. Pedicel bent down at the top. 
Capsule unequal. Inner peristome of 16 broad, perforated 
lacinuB^ with three filiform processes interposed. It is ex- 
ceedingly like M. roseumf Hedw., differing by the more 
tomentose and more elongated stems, the more marginate 
leaves, which, too, are nearly entire, and by the far longer 
and narrower capsules. 

Ptbrooonicjm, ' fifti^. 

1. p. trichocladum^ Tayl. Caule prostrato, implexo, vage 
ramoso $ ramis tenuissimis, subincurvis ; foliis laxe imbri- 
catis, erecto-patentibus, ex cordata amplexante basi lan- 
ceolatis, acuminatis, enerviis, subdenticulatis ; pedicellis 
sparsis, graciUimis, lesvibus ; capsula erecta, ovata, peris- 
tomio subnuUo. — On Pichincha; Pro/. W. Jamuan. Nov. 
1846. 

Patches pale green. Shoots slender as human hair. The 
peristome, occurring on aged capsules deatitate of lids, 
appeared to be an exceedingly short, scariooe, annular 



NRTV MUflCI AND HEPATIC^. 337 

membrane lying within the mouth of the capsule divided into 
sixteen contiguous, very short, truncate teeth. Perichalium 
much wider than the shoots, and having closely adpressed 
leaves, the innermost of which have elongated points. The 
branches have some resemblance to those of Hypnum Halleri, 
Hedw., but are many times more slender, and the leaves are 
not recurved. 

Htpnum, LmHn 

1. H. croiricottum^ Tayl. Caule procumbente, repente, sub- 
pinnato; foliis imbricatis, patentibus, rotundato-ovatis, 
apicttlatia, concavissimis, subdenticulatis, enerviis; pedi- 
cellis sparsis, tenuibus, bevibus ; capsula cernua, ovata, 
baai apophysata; operculo brevirostro. — On bark, Pichin- 
cha; Prof. W. Jameson^ Nov. 1846. Demarara; Dr, Gre- 
viUeM Herb. 

1-2 inches long, the Pichincha specimens green, those from 
Demarara yellowish-green. Pedicels bent down at their 
tammits. Capsule with a wide mouth and very distinct apo- 
physis at the base. Peristome pale brown ; the inner with 
sixteen hernia, haying single filiform processes interposed. 
The short straight beak of the lid will keep ours distinct from 
H. moBe, Dicks., as well as the more numerous and more 
imbricated leaves of the latter^ which^ too, have a more 
distinct nerve and their apices entire. 

2. H. nHam, Tayl. Caule adscendente, implezo, vage 
ramoao; foliis laxis subsquarrosis, subplicatis, cordatis, 
acaminatis, mediotenus teniunerviis, apice subserrulatis, 
pedicellis sparsis^ lasvibus ; capsula suberecta, ovata, basi 
stmmosa; operculo longirostro. — On Pichincha; Prof. W. 
Jamemm. Not. 1846. 

Sterna 2-3 inches long, branches rather short, slightly 
curved. Leaves pale green^ very thin, their denticulation 
observable only under a highly magnifying lens. Perichatia 
pale, occurring on the main stem. Interior peristome with 
sixteen perforated lacinia and double filiform processes inter- 

VOL. VI. C C 



338 NEW MUSCI AND HEPATIC^. 

posed. Lid as long as the capsule. This approaches to 
Pilotrichum patukitn^ Brid. ; the leaves, however are wider, 
more shortly acuminate, with the nerve not so long; besides, 
the ffcnus is altogether different. 

3. H. acuiellatum, Tayl. Caule adscendente, subbipinnato, 
basi simplici, ramis complanatis, erecto-patentibus ; foliis 
laxis, siccitate crispis, distichis, late cordatis, obtusioscoliSy 
apiculatis, immarginatis, serratis, evanidinerviis ; stipalis 
rotundatis, apiculatis, serratis ; spiculis brevioribus, strictisy 
fragilibus; pedicellis ad caulis primarii basin sparsis, ad 
medium aggregatis, loevibus, crassiusculis, apice incurvis^ 
incrassatis ; capsula ovata, subeequali, celluloso-tuberciilata ; 
operculo rostrato, subinclinato. — On Pichincha; Prof. W. 
Jameson, Nov. 1846. 

Shoots nearly 3 inches high, grass green. Stipules scarcely 
one fourth as large as the leaves ; from under them emerge, 
arising from the stem, short jointed spicules; (the ^'setas^ 
of Hooker in Musci Exot.) Lower leaves nearly entire. 
Outer peristome pale straw-coloured ; the inner with 16 per- 
forate lacinia and short binary processes interposed. Ca- 
lyptra dimidiate. Hypnum iamariscinum of Swartz, (whose 
authentic fertile specimens we possess), differs by its fascicled 
shoots, more imbricated and more acute leaves, more elon- 
gated spicules of the stems, its shorter, thicker, more clus- 
tered pedicels, its sharply deflexed capsules having an 
apophysis on the upper side only (!), while the lower side 
is tuberculated. Again, Leskea rotulaiay Hedw., is a smaller 
plant, has the leaves marginate, and its stems are destitute 
of spicules; its calyptra is certainly dimidiate in Mensies* 
specimens collected in New Holland, so that there is little 
left to characterize Bridel's genus Hypopterigium. Ours, 
however, may be Hypnum laricinum^ Hook. Muse. Exot, the 
specimens from the Andes, but not those collected by 
Menzies at the Cape of Good Hope, the duplicates oi 
which we possess, and which differ from the present by tlie 
smaller size, more fascicled branches, more aggregate pedi* 



SEW MUSCI AND IIEPATICE. "^^ 339 

eels, by the longer beak of the lid, and by the absence of 

spicules on the stems. The name H. laricinum^ Hook., may 

therefore be left with the Cape of Good Hope specimens. 

4. H. Jloridumy Tayl. ; caule basi simplici, nudo, erecto, 

supra bipinnato surculis complanatis attenuatis; foliis 

erecto-patentibus, late ovatis, concavis obtusiusculis, aca- 

minulatis, serrulatis, mediotenus, uninerviis; pericheetiis 

confertis, majoribus; pedicellis laovibus; capsula ovata, 

subinclinata ; operculo longius rostrato. — Near Quito, 

Prof, fV. Jameson. Nov. 1846. 

Five to six inches high, grass-green. Leaves without 
$lru6. Outer peristome pale, the inner with 16 foraminulose 
iacinuB and pairs of very short filiform processes inter* 
posed. From our Leskea superba it differs by the more 
constantly attenuated branches, by the bipinnate stems, and 
by the acuminulate leaves ; also by the more numerous and 
shorter pedicels, and by the inner peristome being more 
distinctly that of a Hypnum, 

Lbskea, Hedw. 

1. L. aciculata^ Tayl. Caule procumbente, elongato, pin- 
nato ; pinnis remotiusculis, patentibus ; foliis laxis, erecto- 
patentibus, lanceolatis, longius acuminatis, semilatis, me« 
diotenus uninerviis ', fructu caulinari ; pedicellis aggregatis, 
brevibus, scabris, perichaetio duplo longioribus; capsula 
suberecta^ ovata ; operculo rostrato. — Near Quito ; Prof. 
W.Jameson. Nov. 1846. 

Stems 6-8 inches long ; branches very slender, about one 
inch long, slightly flexuose at their tops. Leaves sheathing, 
on the branches very narrow. Perichcftia always on the 
main stem, about one third as long as the pedicels. Calyptra 
dimidiate. Capsule nearly erect, unequal. Inner peristome 
of 16 perforate ladnia^ without any filiform processes inter- 
posed. This is allied to L. concinna^ Hook., only by the 
remarkable habit of the female inflorescence. 

2. L, kptoclada, Tayl. Caule repente, squamuloso, bipin- 

c c 2 



340 NEW MUSCI AND HBPATICA. 

nato; pinnis brevibus, patentibus, Temotioscolis ; fotib 
caulinis late cordatis, acuminatis, Bubsquarro«3, nmeis 
cordato-ovatis, acutis, omnibus integerrimisi medioteniia 
uninenriis^ punctato-cellulosis ; pedicellis graciUimisj hevi- 
bus; capsula ovata, erecta^ subaequali; opercolo conioo, 
rostellato. — Near Quito; Prof. fV. Jameson. Nov. 1646. 
Patches wide^ dense. Steins 1-1^ inch long, ¥rith a 
brown down on the inferior surface ; covered with minote 
scales, resembling leaves, but varying in breadth. Mo- 
noicous. Leaves dense in structure^ papillose, cellaloso- 
crenulate; the perich»tial closely adpressed, pale straw- 
coloured, elongato-acuminate. Calyptra dimidiate. Outer 
peristome of 16 rather opaque teeth ; inner divided into as 
many equidistant lacinuBy without any interposed processes. 
The leaves are like those of Haphhymenium microphpUmm^ 
Schwaeg., but the branches are more distant, the stems 
more scaly, the capsules shorter, the lid more rostrate, while 
the inner peristome of Schwaegrichen's plant is that of 
a true Hypnum. 

Plagiochila, Ne€8 ei Mmt. 

1. P. Jitime^om, Tayl. Caule decumbente; surcnlis adsoen* 

dentibus, subsimplicibus, amplioribus, planis; foliis ma- 

joribus, imbricatis, patentibus, dimidiato-cordatis, obtusis, 

apice paucidentatis, marine ventrali basi rotundato ; peri* 

goniis linearibus, spicatis; in surculos productis; caly- 

cibus terminalibus campanulatis, bilabiatis, d^iticulatis, 

dorso alatis, ala denticulata ; capsulis subezsertis. — On 

Pichincha ; Prof. W. Jameson. Nov. 1846. 

Loosely cffispitose; shoots 2-3 inches long, \ inch wide^ 

olive-green. Leaves complanate^ imbricated so that the 

inferior covers about \ of the next superior, the bases broad, 

the ventral margins passing across the stems, the dorsal 

tumid and recurved, and slightly decurrent. Perichietial 

leaves more erect and more denticulate than the cauline. 

Calyx large, the lips obtuse^ Capsule oblongo-ovate. Peri- 

gonial leaves each containing a single anther within its 



NEW MU8CI AND HBPATICifi. 34l 

▼entricose base. This is one of the most specious of the 
genus; it is alUed to P.ens^Hay Tayl.^ differing by the 
shorter, more erect shoots, the leaves more distinctly denti- 
culate at their summits, their cells far larger, their dorsal 
base not so decurrent, while the ventral presents a lai^er 
volution across the stem. 

Madotheca, Dumart. 

I. M. trachiata, Tayl. Caule adscendente, bipinnato; foliis 
imbricatis, patentibus, oblongis, convexis, obtusissimis, 
integerrimis, basi undulato-crispatis ; lobulis subimbricatis 
ligulato-ovatis, margine undulatis, basi ciliatis; stipulis 
oblongis rotundatis, cauli adpressis, basi decurrente la- 
ciniato*ciliatis ; perichaetii lateralis sessilis foliis subinte- 
gerrimis, lobulis stipulaque subdivisa ciliatis.— ^ On Pi- 
chincha; Prof. W. Jamewn. Nov. 1846. 
Stems 4-5 inches long; shoots complanate; primary 
branches rather distant, patent, the secondary short, acumi- 
nate, recurved. Leaves convex, with recurved tops, the one 
inferior, scarcely covering one eighth of the next superior; 
inferior margin by no means decurrent ; lobules, with their 
tops erecto-patent, their bases applied close to the stem. 
The perichsetium about one Une long, having 3-4 pairs of 
leaves, whose margins are sparingly denticulate, but those of 
the lobules and of the terminating stipule strongly ciliate. 
We have not seen an authentic specimen of M. subciliata^ 
L. et L., collected likewise by Professor Jameson in the 
Andes of Peru; but the characters given justify the suppo- 
sition that it differs from our species by the ovate and 
decurrent leaves, the upper of which are ciliate all round 
their margins, and all of them ciliato-dentate at the ventral 
base, whilst the bases of the lobules and stipules are nearly 
entire* — See Pug. vii. p. 9 of Lehm. andlAnd. 

Phaaghicoma, Dumort. 
1. P. /oort/b/ttim, Tayl. Caule procumbente, subpinnato ; foliis 



S42 DR. lbichardt's ovbrland jourxby 

laxe imbricatis, oblongis^ decurvis, integerrimis, apice re- 
curvis basi decurrente complicatis, lobolis basi tomidis, 
apice foliis adpressis, rotundatis^ dentatis ; stiputis integris, 
majoribus^ rotundato-oblongis ; calyce demum axillari, 
elongate obovatOy supra compresso, apice cordato, tubo 
diviso coronato. — On Musci from Pichincha; Prof. W. 
Jameson. Nov. 1846. 

One to two inches long, dusky olive ; shoots sparingly 
branched towards their tops in a dichotomous manner, nearly 
patent. Compared with P. bicohr, Nees, it is distinguished 
by the less imbricated leaves, the more oblong stipules, and 
by the calyces destitute of folds. 



Some Observations on Dr. Lbichardt's Overland Journey 
from MoRETON Bat on the East Coast of AustraSa 
to Port Essinoton on the North Coast : with a Mqf.* 
By R. Hrward, Esq., F.L.S. 

The indefatigable and enterprising Dr. Ludwig Leichardt 
who last year accomplished the arduous task of an overland 
journey from Moreton Bay on the East coast of Australia, to 
Port Essington on the North West coast, has lately been 
delivering a course of lectures at Sydney, N. S. Wales on 
the subject of his Journey. From these interesting papers 
and from other sources the following observations have been 
compiled, whic . as they tend to throw some light on a 
portion of the island - continent that has hitherto been 
shrouded in obscurity, will we trust afford information 
to all those who are interested in the progress of dis* 
covery now being carried out in Australia. Dr. Leichardt 
considers, tliat from the conformation of the surface of the 
country, the nature of its soil and vegetation, its supply of 

* W^ are indebted to the kindness of the Council of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society and to John Murray, Esq., for permission to use the 
map prepared by them to illustrate Dr. Leichardt's route. 



'■U3,Ji 







SrrW'V* ^' 



>y 



^ 



^ E S 



. r^' T^* ^^ \ 



'^'UMR^ 






(\\»?' 







TO PORT BS3INOTOX. 343 

water and its meteorological relations, the whole line of route 
may be diyided very naturally into about eight sections, each 
of which bears its peculiar character. Three belonging 
to the East Coast, three to the Gulf of Carpentaria, and 
two to Amheim's Land, and the north-west coast of 
Australia, 

I. The first comprises the scrubby country between 
Darling Downs and Peak Range, with the Dawson and the 
Mackenzie rivers, 2?® — 23*^ S. latitude, and is eminently 
characterised by the frequency and by the peculiarities of its 
scrubs. It is principally composed of sandstone, which, 
judging from its coal beds and the impressions of plants con- 
tained in it, is identical with the sandstone formation of the 
Lower Hunter. But in several localities it has been broken 
by basalt (whinstone), which forms either peaks, as Mount 
Aldis and Mount Nicholson, or the spine of large ranges, as 
Expedition Range. The basalt is generally connected with 
plains or with very openly timbered and treeless downs, 
clothed with a rich vegetation. But not only the high level 
land west of Darling Downs, which slopes almost impercep- 
tibly to the south-west, but the valleys of the rivers and the 
sides of the mountains were covered with extensive scrubs 
principally composed of a species of (Acacia^ A. pendtUaj 
A. Cunn?)* which has received the name of bricklow from the 
squatters^ between the Severn and the Condamine. This 
shrub or small tree has a foliage of greyish green colour, and 
grows so close that it is impossible, or only with the greatest 
difficulty^ that a man on horseback can make his way through it. 
The prospect from the Downs was rendered extremely pleasing 
not only on account of the open view which they allowed to 
the eye, tired of the uniform density of the scrub, but also on 
account of small copses of bricklow, Fktsanus and Bauhinia, 
which were picturesquely scattered over them, and which 

* 80 named by the late Allan Cunningham in his journey of 1S27 
when endeavourinff to reach the country to the westward of 152^ E. lon< 
gitttds tn Latitude 28* S. 



344 DR. LfilCHARDT^S OVERI.AND JOORNBT 

often clustered round stately bottle-trees (Sterculia ^p.) the 
shady retreat of numerous kangaroos and wallabiea, Tliete 
Downs were covered with yarious grasses and herbs, bat the 
vervaini a wiry plant, prevailed to such a degree on many of 
them, that Dr. Leichardt called them Vervun Plains. 

Though the banks of the Mackenzie, so far as it was tm- 
veiled along partook of the scrubby character of the country, 
there is reason to believe that the scrub ceased a little lower 
down, and its large supply of water makes it probable that it 
forms a considerable stream towards the sea coast It dis- 
embogues very possibly at Broad Sound, in lat 21^ 3(y S. 
as the natives pointed to the north-east, when asked about 
the course of the river. The country south-east of Expe- 
dition Range between Zanua Creek and Erythrina Creek, 
was, for a great distance to the eastward, flat, and openly 
timbered ; it was well grassed and tolerably well provided 
with water at the foot of the range. Its latitude was 24P 5(y, 
but the course of its waters seemed to be directed either to 
Port Curtis or to Keppel Bay. Should a practicable com- 
munication with the sea coast be found, there is little doubt 
that this will become a valuable district for pastoral pur- 
poses. 

II. The Plains of Peak Range, with the Isaacks, and the 
Upper Suttor rivers; between 23^—20^ SC S. latitude 
bears a character very different from that of the first section. 
Here a long range of noble peaks, composed of domite, ex- 
tends far to the W.N.W., and offers to the west and south- 
west a wide view over basaltic plains and open downs, which 
alternate with low and openly timbered ridges. To the 
eastward of those peaks, basaltic ridges, with gently undu- 
lating outlines^ narrow plains, and abrupt sandstone ranges^ 
form numerous valleys, along which creeks descend to the 
eastward^ winding in their lower course through an imraense 
level country, and joining the Isaacks, which comes from the 
north-west, and forms the chief outlet of the waters to the 
sea. An open forest covers the whole district, with the 
exception of some narrow belts of scrub along the Isaacks 



TO PORT E8SINGTON. 345 

and on the sandstone ranges ; and the moat luxuriant grass 
dotbed not only the black soil of the basaltic plains, but the 
stiff flats and the sandy banks of the creeks and river. The 
supply of water was, however, not in proportion to the 
number or size of the channels ; and it was on the magnifi- 
cent downs of Peak Range that Dr. Leichardt and Mr. 
Calvert nearly perished for want of water. It was here that 
the party felt for the last time a hot wind, from the west and 
soutii*west, which direction points to that desert interior 
whidi even the persevering boldness of Captain Sturt has 
not been able to conquer. Waterholes existed, however, in 
the upper part of the eastern creeks, and swampy lagoons 
seemed to become numerous down the Isaacks, which joins 
the sea very probably near the Mackenzie, in Broad Sound. 
The Upper Suttor partakes of the character of the Isaacks, 
but as it was hi more accessible from the head of the latter 
than horn its own lower course, it has been placed in the 
second division of the journey, though it belongs to the 
system of the waters of die third. 

IIL The Lower Suttor, and the Burdekin rivers, with 
their taUe land, 2lo — 18o S. latitude, characterised by its 
supply of running water^ its primitive rocks, its limestone, 
its numerous ranges, and its fine open well-grassed forest. 

The elevation on the upper course of these streams renders 
the dimate much cooler than might be expected from its 
latitude; and besides that several large tributaries, as the 
Cape, the Clarke, the Perry, drain in all probability large 
tracts of available country ; if a settlement is to be established 
on the east coast it ought to be at the moutb of the 
Burdekin, which is supposed to be at Cape Upstart, on the 
sotttfaem extremity of Hali&x Bay. Should the entrance of 
the river be barred, as is the case with all the rivers of the 
east coast south of Wide Bay, it must be remembered that 
the inner 4>arrier, which extends firom Gape York down to 
Bunker's Islands, forms along the coast a channel of smooth 
water, which may be considered in the light of a river, the 



346 DR. lbichardt's overland journey 

navigation of which has been repeatedly recommended by 
Captain King, the very best authority on such a sabject. The 
flats along the river are chiefly formed by the detritus of 
coarse granitic rocks^ the feldspar of which has been trans- 
formed into clay mixed with grains of quartz derived from 
the same source. Stiff' clay soil was limited, and confined to 
hollows and depressions, round which the poplar-gum gene- 
rally formed a belt of bright green foliage. Rotten ground 
was not uncommon,, but it always proved to be a mixture of 
clay with sand. The open forest of narrow-leaved ironbark 
and box, on a rather stony ground, alternated with plains of 
various extent, richly grassed and frequently watered by 
numerous running brooks and springs. Large and deep 
lagoons were scattered over the valley, or were parallel to the 
river. But the approach to this interesting country is inter- 
cepted by a very mountainous region, and by many deep 
creeks, over which more practicable roads wM no doubt be 
found in the progress of colonisation. The basalt appeared 
to have been broken by a still more recent eruption of lava, 
which expanded partly over it, and formed as wild and 
irregular fields of rock as ever covered the .slopes of a vol- 
cano. 

Dr. Leichardt makes the following observations on tbe 
Botany of the East coast. The vegetation changed very 
little from Moreton Bay to the northward. The open forest 
was generally formed by the narrow-leaved and silver-leaved 
ironbark, the flats were covered by box, the rocky shores of 
the rivers and creeks, by bloodwood and Moreton Bay ash ; 
and the immediate banks of the creeks were lined with 
flooded gums and Coiuarina which, farther northward, gave 
way to the drooping tea-tree, Melaleuca Leucadendrtm. 
Lhm, No species of Araucaria were seen, but CaUiiri», (the 
cyprus-pine), covers the whole continent wherever a sandy 
rocky soil favoured its growth. The drooping niybll ceased 
at Peak Range, the bricklow at the heads of the Burdekia 
and the Upper Lynd, where also the ironbark disappeared. 
Several species of Bauhinia adorned the scrubs with their 



TO PORT E8S1NOTON. 347 

rich white blossoms^ and an arborescent species of Cassia 
with Tcry long narrow seed-vessels, was observed between 
lat. 27^ SO' and 19^ Careya arboreay Roxb^ was first met 
with at the Suttor, the clustered fig-tree first at the Burdekin ; 
GrevUlea mimosoides R. Br. and Hakea lorea R. Br. appeared 
first in lat. 26^ 42', GrevUlea lanceolata, a new species showed 
itself first at the Suttor, where it was growing on a light 
sandy soil with Pandanus spiralis R Br.; GrevUlea cerato- 
pkytta^ R. Br. and Acacia equiset\folia were first met with in 
lat 19* 19^ The poplar-gum, a species of Euccdypttis with a 
bright green foliage, formed patches of forest along the 
Isaacksy and grew on the stiff hollows along the Burdekin. 
An arborescent Zamia was growing on the heads of Zamia 
Creek, and on Expedition Range in lat. 24^ 43' ; a 
Cycas about four to five feet high, with pinnate leaves of a 
ghuicoua colour, on the Burdekin in lat. 18^ 45^ and a Scia* 
daphgUum in the valley of lagoons, in almost the same lati- 
tude. A Nyn^haa was first observed on Brown^s lagoons 
in lat 24^ 45', and a species of Nelumbium near the Macken- 
zie river in lat 23^ 21'. 

IV, The Lynd, the Mitchell, and the east coast of the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, between 18<)-~16<^ S. latitude. The fall 
towards the level country which forms a broad belt round 
the Gulf of Carpentaria, is much more rapid than the ascent 
from the east coast; and the course of the Upper Lynd is 
much more mountainous and wild than that of the Upper 
Burdekin. It is extremely interesting to the geologist to 
obaerre the same succession of rocks, granite, talchiste, por- 
phyry, and sandstone, in descending to the Gulf, which were 
found at the east coast in ascending to the table land. But 
limeatone was not met with on the west side of the York 
Peninaula, though it appeared extensively developed on the 
Burdekin. Basalt has broken through the various rocks, but 
the level country itself is formed of a clayey ironstone with 
grains of quartz, which extended all round the Gulf to Port 
Esaington, and may be considered of a newer formation. 
The Lynd was joined by several running creeks, and was in 



348 DR. LBfCHARDT's OVERLAND JOURNBY 

its whole course well supplied with water. The country 
openly timbered, and well grassed, and at the lower part of 
the Lynd and paraUel to the Mitchell, were very lai^ and 
deep ponds in which a species of Nymphaa grew and around 
which the pasture was particularly rich. The rivers witfaki 
the tropics are almost all remarkable for the immense width 
of their beds, which are filled with sand, with the exception 
of those spots in which the naked rock cropped out. They 
were overgrown with small trees, and the number and aixe of 
the latter depends upon the frequency and strength of thorn 
rushes of water which occasionally sweep down. The Upper 
Lynd was, for instance, covered with trees, whilst the bed of 
the Mitchell was entirely free from them. It was near this 
latter river that the only serious casualty occurred to the 
expedition viz : the death of Mr. Gilbert the naturalist who 
was speared by the natives in a night attack, and two others 
of the party were wounded. They observed watermarks fif- 
teen and eighteen feet above the level of the bed of thenver 
evidentiy showing that a large body of water flows down to 
the sea in, perhaps, unusually rainy seasons. In finding 
these large channels, either dry or with small streams, occa- 
sionally lost in the loose sands, are we then to suppose that 
the power of the floods which formed them was formerly 
greater than at present, and that the decrease of moistnie, 
which has been remarked by the old inhabitants of the 
colony, has equally taken place in the tropics ? Analogy 
certainly justifies such a conclusion* Large tracts of country 
on the east coast of the Gulf were covered with box f^ 
species of EucalypiusJ^ and with a small tea-tree with broad 
lanceolate leaves. These trees generally indicated a stiff soii, 
which in the level oountry was never firee from shallow holes^ 
such as are called melon*holes by the squatters, formed, no 
doubt, by the infiltrating rain and 6tandii^ water. In many 
of these holes were found dead crabs, and even finesh-water 
turties, and many shells, which also proved that long drought 
had prevailed and destroyed these animals. Another feature 



TO PORT BSSINGTON. 349 

of the coontryi are slight undalations, on which grew a few 
scattered rather stunted trees, amongst which was GremlUa 
mmomde$y R. Br, with its long, narrow, drooping, silvery 
leaves, which particularly attracted the attention of the tra- 
vellers. The finest and most available country was along the 
creeks and rivers. Here the soil was much lighter, and the 
bloodwood, the leguminous ironbark, and a species of Pmi^ 
damu grew well on it, forming an open forest. All the 
rivers cf Australia have lines of holes and hollows parallel to 
them; these are generally tilled by high floods, and keep 
the water much longer than the rivers themselves. Lagoons 
of this description were very numerous along the Staaten, 
the Van Diemen, the Gilbert, and the Caron, and appeared 
to be tlie constant resorts of the natives. To the north of 
the Staaten, towards the sea coast, there is a succession of 
plains, but the grass was generally stiff and wiry. If we 
compare the course of the rivers on the east coast of the 
Golf of Carpentaria, it will be considered renuu-kable that 
the Lynd, which rises in the latitude of the head of the Gulf 
from the Table land of the -York Peninsula, should go to the 
north-north-west, and belong to a system of waters which 
joins the sea in lat. 15^ S. instead of taking a direct course 
to the westward, and of disemboguing in or near the head of 
the Gulf. A number of coast rivers, of probably very short 
courses, the Nassau, the Staaten, the Van Diemen, the 
Gilbert, and the Caron, take their origin from the mode- 
rately elevated country which bounds the valley of the Lynd 
and Mitchell to the westward. 

V. The <' Plains of Promise,'' so called by Captain 
Stokes, at the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria in W S. 
latitude, with the Flinders, the Albert, and the Nicholson 
rivers. These plains were covered with a variety of tender 
grasses and herbs, but bare of wood with the exception of a 
few straggling trees. The narrow valleys of the creeks were^ 
however, filled with open scrub, formed by a small tree, 
which we called raspberry jam-tree, because its fresh*eut 
wood had the scent of that preserve. Should a liarbour be 



350 DR. LEICHARDT*8 OVERLAND JOURNEY 

found at the head of the Oulf of Carpentaria, which might 
allow ships to approach and to moor in safety, it woald not 
only open this fine country to colonisation, but would allow 
the produce of the high land of the York Peninsula to be 
brought down to the Gulf of Carpentaria as well as to the 
east coast. Cattle and horses could be easily driven from 
coast to coast, and they would even fatten on their route, as 
water and feed are every where abundant. 

VI • The scrubby west coast of the Gulf, with the Van 
Alphen, the Abel Tasman, the Seven Emu, the Robinson, 
the Macarthur, the Limmenhight, and the Wickham levers, 
between 180—16° S. latitude. 

This portion of the journey was as remarkable for the 
number of large salt water rivers, as for the density of its 
tea-tree scrubs, and for the extent of its stringy-bark forests. 
They here came again to hills and ranges, and pebbles of 
granite and porphyry made it evident that the great arc of 
high land which sweeps round the head of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria again approached the sea coast. The Van 
Alphen, the Abel Tasman, the *Robinson, the Macarthnr, 
and the Limnenbight Rivers, formed broad channels of water, 
and offered to our travellers a magnificent sights when, after 
long and harassing stages through a dense scrubby monoto- 
nous forest, they came suddenly upon them. 

Captain Stokes, when exploring the head of the gult^ was 
struck with the comparatively low temperature in this 
latitude. Though the want of a thermometer prevented Dr. 
Leichardt from making any exact observations, he was still 
able to collect a number of facts which tend to corroborate 
Captain Stokes's statements. In travelling along the east 
coast of the gulf, they had generally light easterly and south- 
easterly airs during the day, but a strong cold wind from the 
south-west and south by west, set in at night, from which 
they suffered the more, as they avoided keeping a large fire, 
being fearful of the hostile natives. 

At the head of the gulf the night winds came mora and 
more from the southward, and changed to the south-east, 



TO PORT ESSINGTON. 351 

and even east-south-east as they advanced along the west 
coast. The stronger the sea breeze was during the day, the 
heavier was the dew during the nighty which was easily ac- 
counted for by the action of the cold southerly land breeze 
on the warmer moisture with which the sea air was charged. 
The bracing nature of the south breeze at night had a very 
beneficial influence on their constitutions. 

VIL The River Roper and Amheim Land, 15^—13^ AV 
S. latitude. 

The Roper is the only large fresh water river of the west 
coast of the gulf, as far as they followed it to the northward. 
It is fed by a great number of running creeks and brooks, all 
closely fringed by belts of Pandanua. On the steep nnd 
boggy banks of this river, Dr. Leichardt lost four of his 
horses, which unfortunately compelled him to abandon the 
largest portion of his botanical and geological specimens. 
Almost the whole country along the river was open, well 
grassed, and available for depasturing purposes. At its 
upper course exist fine plains, which are bound by sandstone, 
ridges, and diversified by creeks, forming an extremely 
pleasing landscape. The high land was covered with an 
open stringy-bark forest on a sandy soil, but its level is 
frequently interrupted by steep rocky sandstone hills and. 
ridges, at the foot of which tea-tree swamps with a peaty soil 
formed frequently the heads of creeks. It has been previ- 
ously mentioned that the fall of the high land of the York 
Peninsula is more sudden to the westward ; the same is the 
case in a still higher degree in Amheim land, for there is not 
only a very rapid fall in the creeks, but there are precipices 
500— 800 feet high, which border the valley of die South 
Alligator River, and over which numerous cascades rushed 
down to join their waters with those of that river. It was 
very remarkable that the only slope which allowed Dr. 
Leichardt and his party to descend into the valley is formed 
by granite, whereas the whole of Amheim land and the 
ranges of the Roper are composed ot sandstone, which has 



352 DR. leichardt's overland journey 

been broken through by basalt^ near the diyisions of the 
waters of the Gulf of Carpentaria and the north-west coast* 

VIIL The Alligator River, and the Cobourg Peninsula, 
130 40'— IP 21' S. latitude. 

The leading features of this district are large swampy 
lagoons, extensive plains at the lower part of their course, 
densely wooded ironstone ridges, and a great number of 
creeks in the Coburg Peninsula, with limited flats of light 
alluvial soil, which are richly clothed with herbs and grasses 
during and immediately after the rainy season. These creeks 
generally enlarge into swamps called <^ Mariars'' by the 
natives, before they are lost in the mangrove thickets, which 
covers their junction with the sea. Along the Roper the sea 
breeze continued strong and regular from the eastward, but 
the night breeze became indistinct, probably in consequence 
of a great number of parallel ranges, which intercepted its 
course. At the head of the river, however, they again feh a 
strong but warm wind from north-north-west to north*norlli- 
east, about nine o^clock at night. This was considered to be 
the sea-breeze firom the north coast of Australia, flowing 
probably up to the high land along the valley of the Liver- 
pool River* The 14th November, when on the high land of 
Amheim land, and on western waters, they experienced the 
first thunderstorm since they had left the east coast ; similar 
ones rose almost every day to the 2drd of November, and 
veered invariably from south-west, to north-east. It was 
the time when the north-west monsoon sets in, and these 
thunderstorms appeared to be the first indications of the 
change. Dr. Leichardt had been extremely anxious to reach 
Port Essington before the setting in of the rainy season, as 
there was good reason to believe that the peninsula was con- 
nected with the main by a neck of low land and mangrove 
swamps, which would have been rendered impassable by any 
continuance of rain. Though he afterwards found that con- 
necting ridges run from the main land into the peninsula, it 
would notwithstanding have been extremely difiicult to cross 



TO PORT esSIN^STON. 35S 

the piainfl viwd flats, which were large and numeroas along 
the Alligator rivers and Van Diemen Gulf. They were again 
favoured with fine weather until they were fairly on the 
peninsula, when the thunderstorms recommenced, and on the 
day of their arrival in Victoria, heavy rains set in, which 
rendered the flats boggy, and flooded the creeks. 

Dr. Leidiardt states that the sea breese at Victoria is ex- 
tremely weak» and he thinks that Captain Macarthur is 
correct in attributing partly to this fact, the fever, from 
which the garrison has several times severely suffered. It is 
extremely difficult to assign any other reason for the want 
of salubrity. The country is undulating and hilly, the soil is 
sandy, and absorbs rapidly the heaviest showers ; the forest 
is open, the mangrove thickets which cover the mouth of the 
creeks scarcely deserve the name of swamps, as they are 
washed by the tide, and form no accumulation of vegetable 
matter, which might produce the miasma or malaria which 
generally renders tropical oountries so dangerous. After 
nin the air is iiresh and pure and the ground dry. Those 
localities, which are freely exposed to sea breese, as for 
instance Croker's Island, are, according to Captain Macarthur, 
very healtby« 

On the character of the botany of the remaining portion of 
his journey Dr. Leichardt uakesi the following observa- 
lk>na. 

When entering upon the system of the waters of the gulf, 
the eharacter of the vegetation changed very considerably, 
and a number of new forms appeared which bore resemblance 
to the flora of the Malay lalanda and of India. The head of 
the Lynd was remarkably rich in various plants and trees. 
Caehlo$pertmm^ gosafgmm^ Kunth and a rose-coloured Sier* 
euMa attracted their attention by the beauty of its blossoms, 
a species of EuetUyptus with its butt covered by short 
Coliaceoua bark bearing seed-vessels of immense size, and 
blossoms of an <»ange colour was also observed. A rubia- 
ceotts tree belonging to the Sareoeephaiea was distinguished 
by fidi dark green umbrageous foliage, and a dwarf GrevUim, 

VOL. VI. D D 



354 DR. lbichardt's overland journey 

by its branches of crimsoiiTcdoured flowers. Two species of 
TermifMliaf either shaded the creeks or grew on the rocky 
slopes. Lower down the river, a species of SiravcuKum^ 
with loose drooping racemes of red blossoms fringed the 
shallow swampy lagoons ; and on the banks of the MitcheU^ 
in latitude 15^ 51' a species of Corypha grew to a large siae, 
and in great numbers. A yellow ViUarHa shared with the 
NympJuBa the ponds, and several yellow Iponueas twined 
round the trees at the very edge of the water. Various 
species of Melaleuca took the place of the EucafyphUy which 
disappeared, with the exception of the box^ as we approached 
the coast One species of Pandanus, was growing on a light 
sandy soil in the open bloodwood forest, and formed broad 
belts at the outside of the forest land along the levels of the 
Alligator Rivers ; another species crowded round the run- 
ning creeks in an almost impassable jungle on the west nde 
of the gulf. The nonda-tree, which belongs in all probability 
to the order Rhamnacea, was a fine shady spreading tree, 
laden with yellow plums, between the Lynd and Van Dtemen 
Gulf. The raspberry jam tree covered the slopes of the salt 
water rivers and the valleys of those creeks which intersected 
the plains at the head of the sgulf. The stringy-bark tree re- 
appeared on the sandy flats of the Upper Lynd ; but on the 
west coast of the gulf it formed the principal part of a 
scrubby forest. Over Ambeim Land and the north-west 
coast towards Port Essington, the orange-blossomed Euca^ 
lyptusy a leguminous tree with a dark fissured bark^ and a 
species of lAvistona had an equal share in the composition of 
the forest. In^a moniliformis DC. was first seen at a tribu- 
tary creek of the Mitchell : but was afterwards with a broad- 
leaved species of Terminalia, a white gum tree^ and the man- 
grove myrtle {Stravadium) a constant companion of creeks and 
waterholes. A species of Bossiita {Acacia bosnosoideSy A. 
Cunn ?) with flat stem, composed principally the scrub of the 
west coast of the gulf, and it was here that we observed 
Grevillea pungens with thyrsi of scarlet flowers. A noble 
species of Cycas which frequently attained the height of 



TO PORT E8SINOTON. 355 

fifty feet, formed large groves on Cycas Creek and the 
Robinson ; but disappeared on leaving the river, and was not 
observed again until they arrived at Port Essington, where 
two or three small trees were seen growing near Victoria. 
The Coryphoy which we had observed on Palm-tree Creek, 
and under Expedition Range, was found again on the 
Mitchell at Beames's Brook, and on the South Alligator 
River. Very stunted specimens of Seaforihia elegans, R. Br. 
grew on Amheim Land, but noble trees of it were on the 
patches of brush along the Alligator Rivers, and formed 
groves and even a whole tract of forest between Raffles Bay 
and Port Essington. 

It is generally believed that Australia is poor in edible 
fruits and vegetables. There is no doubt that very few are 
good, but it will be seen by Dr. Leichardt's remarks that the 
number of the edible productions of the vegetable kingdom 
was by no means small. They boiled the young shoots of 
some species of MeBenAryanthemum^ Chenopodiumy Pariulacca, 
and Skmchus as vegetables. The Seaforihia, Corypha and 
lAvtBtona palms, yielded young edible shoots ; but the two 
latter were either bitter or gave only a small supply, whilst 
the SeafortMa shoots (myroin of the natives of Port Essing- 
ton) {iffurded most excellent eating. Salicornia sp. a small 
plant with articulate fleshy stem, which grows always on soil 
impregnated with salt, tasted well when boiled with meat, 
particularly when they were without salt. The young leaves 
of a T)fpha and the lower part of the leaf-stalks of the 
Nehimbtum were good to eat, and the stem of a species of 
CjfmKdium was edible, but very glutinous and insipid. A 
small round tuber, about three-quarters of an inch in diame- 
ter, of a sweet agreeable taste, was found in a camp of 
natives at Comet River, and belongs probably to a water- 
plant with floating leaves like Potamogeion. In the scrubs 
between the Mackenzie and Peak Range and along the 
Isaacks, were found large watery, slightly pungent tubers of 
a vine, which bore blue berries of a still more pungent 
nature. At the head of the Lynd, two kind of tubers were 

D D 2 



856 DR. LBICHARDT's OVBRL.AND JOUBNBY 

found in great abundance in a camp of the natiTes ; bot tiiej 
were ezcessiTely bitter, and neiUier roasting nor boifing 
would render theoi palatable; at last they pounded them 
carefully, washed the pulp, and obtained a tasteless starch, 
which very much resembled arrowroot. The seed-vessek, 
the stems (ombelborro) and tubers (toori) of the Nympkaa 
were eaten by the natives of the upper Burdeldn, and cf the 
east coast of the gulf» and gave the travellers some hearty 
meals. The thick root of a little bean with yellow blossoms, 
and those of a species of Catwohmbu on die plains of the 
Albert, formed the principal part of the repast of NywalPt 
tribe, near the East Alligator River. But the finest and 
most substantial food, was the allamur, or murruatt, the 
mealy rhizoma, or subterranean stem of a sedge, which the 
natives, of the Alligator Rivers and of the Coburg Penin- 
sula obtained in large quantities. Amongst the fruits there 
was a small lemon, which abounded in the scrubs of Expe- 
dition Range and Comet River. The seeds of the kourad- 
jong (Grewia sp.) yielded, when boiled for a long time, an 
agreeable acidulous drink. Those of SiereuUa heterqpkjflk 
(the kooremin), and of the rose-coloured StercuUa, round the 
gulf, made, when slightly roasted, a fine cofiee, and the 
remaining grounds were good to eat The spongy wood of 
the bottle-tree, a species of SiereuUa^ contained a oellulsr 
mealy substance between its fibres, which, when chewed, 
satisfied the cravings of hunger. 

The seeds of the Mackenzie bean, so called, firom being 
found first and most abundantly in the sandy bed of that 
river, formed a good substitute for coffee; those of the 
Nelumbium were however much finer, and the remaining 
grounds were agreeable to eat, and wholesome. The seeds ^ 
the vine-bean of the Roper a species of Mu^na ? when 
pounded and boiled for a long time formed a very satisfying 
meal. Several species of Capparu^ either shrubs or small 
trees, had edible fruits, they contained a sweet pulpy snb» 
stance, in which the seeds were embedded; the latter were 
however very pungent. At the Isaacks k little tree with 



TO PORT B88INOTON. 357 

coriaceoas leaves bore a small oblong fruit, having a sur* 
rounding calyx like a little acorn, with a thin, but sweet rind ; 
the abundance of this fruit made up for the scantiness of its 
edible parts, it was much sought after by crows and cock- 
atoos. At the head of the Isaacks and in the valley of 
lagoons they found a purple fruit with a many-celled seed* 
vessel; the thin rind had a slightly astringent acidulous 
agreeable taste ; the tree had a pinnate leaf resembling that 
of the red cedar. Santalum lanceolaium yielded occasionally 
blue edible berries of the size of small cherries. The species 
of Fii$amu which is mentioned in Sir Thomas Mitchell's ex- 
peditionsi gave a rich harvest of fruit in the bottle-tree 
scrubs west of Darling Downs. A native mulberry with 
small white fruit, of a sweet taste, grew on the fields of lava, 
at the Burdekin ; and an edible fruit of a white colour, with 
persistent calyx and viscous, like the fruit of the mistletoe, 
grew on a small tree along the upper course of the same 
river. Several species of figs, the rough purple fig Ficua 
mmmtiaf the small round yellow fruit of Fleus auBtralis, and 
the clustered fig of the Burdekin, were successively gathered. 
The latter yielded by far the richest harvest, as numerous 
bunches of the fruit were sprouting out of the trunk and 
largest branches from top to bottom. They were of the 
stse of a small garden fig, of a yellow colour when ripe, but 
generally full of small flies and black ants ; they were very 
heavy and indigestible, and the party several times suffered 
from eating too many of them. Carey a arborea Roxb. 
(belonging to the Barringtonnem) bore a harmless fruit, 
which, however, we never found perfectly ripe. The little 
gooeeberry*tree Coniogeton arboreseena Bl.? belonging to 
the Terebmihacea had a fruit of the size of a small com- 
pressed cheijy, which was boiled, when not ripe enough, 
to obtain from it an acidulous drink, but which was very 
agreeable to eat when sufficiently ripened. The seed vessels 
of PamtanUM spiralia B. Br. when ripe, contain a very 
sweet pear like pulp between their fibres ; it proved very 
agreeable at the time, but extremely pungent, and a severe 



358 DR. lbichardt's overland journey 

purgative. The natives roast and soak them, and probably 
drink the fluid with which they have washed out the pulp ; 
it is probable if this fluid were to undergo fermentation it 
would yield a spirituous liquor. After having used the 
seed vessel the natives break it to obtain the kernel, which 
is also good to eat. 

The seeds of Cycas appear to form a considerable part of 
the food of the natives at Cycas Creek and the Robinson. 
They are cut in slices, and spread over the ground and 
dried; when brittle they are soaked for several days in 
water, and afterwards tied up in tea-tree bark, to undergo a 
sort of fermentation, which destroys their poisonous prin* 
ciple, for in a fresh state they are violently cathartic and 
emetic. Three species of rose-apple Eugenia, were col- 
lected, one was a large scarlet fruit, with longitudinal ribs of 
a coarse and strong aromatic taste, another was of a delicate 
rose colour, and extremely pleasant The smaller fruit of a 
species of Acmena was also occasionally gathered along the 
western creeks of Amheim Land. A small rubiaceous tree 
at the Upper Lynd bore a rather dry, round, many-seeded 
acidulous fruit, which tasted like coarse rye bread, it was called 
the little bread-tree. The nonda fruit, oblong in form, about 
an inch in length, and of yellow colour when ripe, was very 
agreeable, and it appeared that the emus were very fond of 
it; they ate principally the unripe fruit, which was exces- 
sively bitter. It seems as if this bird was altogether fond of 
bitter fruits, for it also fed on the fruit of a small euphor- 
biaceous tree, which was perhaps the most bitter fruit that 
ever was tasted, and this bitterness was imparted to the 
flesh, and even the marrow of the bird. At Raffles Bay were 
found the lugula, a species of Anacardium, the succulent 
fruit stalks of which were very agreeable ; but^the envelope 
of the seed was exceedingly sharp and blistering to the lips 
and skin. 

The gibong Persoonia falcaia^ R. Br. and the fruit of 
Exocarpm lat\folia Lab. were occasionally found and eaten 
in Arnheim Land. One species of Acacia^ a sapindaoeous 



TO PORT ESSINGTON. 359 

tree, and two species of Terminaliay yielded a fine supply of 
edible gum, and the fruit of a species of the latter genusi 
was tolerably good to eat. 

The native nutmeg of Port Essington Myristiea sp. is of 
an oblong form, and not so large as that cultivated by the 
Dutch, but strongly aromatic. From the blossoms of the 
drooping tea-tree Melaleuca Leueodendran Linn, they pro- 
cured a laige quantity of honey. The native marjoram, 
belonging to the genus Anisomeles R. Br. was used for tea, 
and for flavouring soup. On one occasion an edible mush- 
room was found in the scrubs west of Darling Downs. 

In their endeavours to find substitutes for tea, they were 
once severely punished from using the seeds of a species of 
Aeacia, which produced violent sickness, and bowel com- 
plaints in several of the party. Mention has been made of 
the blistering qualities of the lugula, still more remarkable 
was that of the glutinous juice which exuded from the seed 
vessels of a species of Grevillea on the banks of the Mac- 
arthur. The pulpy substance which separated the seeds of 
an arborescent species of Cassia^ had an acidulous taste, and 
was a mild and very effective medicine. 

Dr. Leichardt considers that a very large proportion of the 
country he travelled over will be available for colonisation, 
and that the greatest partis fit for pastoral purposes, except- 
ing only the scrubs of the east coast of Australia, the moun- 
tain gorges of tlie Upper Lynd, and the tea-tree scrubs of 
the west coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria. But even here 
broad belts of fine country extend along both sides of the 
larger rivers, and will very probably be found quite as good 
88 the country of the Roper. Horses and cattle will do well 
over the whole extent, particularly at Expedition Range, 
along the Isaacks, the Burdekin, the east coast of the gulf, 
and on the plains at its head. The rapid increase of the 
buflUoes on the Coburg Peninsula, and the excellent con- 
dition of the herd of cattle which they keep at Port Essing- 
ton, shows that the north-west coast of Australia, is no less 



360 DR. lbichardt's overland journbt 

favourable for the development of animal life. Tbe elevatioi^ 
of Peak Range and of the Table Land of the Bordddn, 
renders it probable that these regions are fit for sheep. 

The cotton, the indigo, the cocoa-nut, the banana, the 
arrow-rooty the sweet potatoe, the bread-froiti the jack* 
fruit, the sower-sop, the pine apple, the mango, and mangos* 
tine grew well at Port Essington; and Captain Maearthor 
informed Dr. Leichardt that according to the statement of 
the Malays, who had examined the swamps west of tbe 
settlement, they would do excellently for growing rice. The 
large plains of the Alligator Rivers would suit equally well, 
and to an almost unlimited extent. 

If a line is drawn from Halifax Bay to Port EsnngtoD, 
and divided into three almost equal parts, the points of 
division would fall on Halifax Bay, on the head of the Galf 
of Carpentaria at Limmenbight, and Port Essington. Should 
good harbours be found, and settlements be established oo 
those points of division, they would scarcely be as fur from 
each other as Sydney from Port Phillip, and the overland 
communication would be probably equally easy, or would be 
rendered so after a very short time. 

In addition to these observations Dr. Leichardt gave a 
very extensive list of the zoological productions met with in 
the course of his journey and also some interesting remarks 
on the natives that they fell in with, among which the fol- 
lowing remarkable circumstance is mentioned. The ear of 
the native Australian so sensitive to noises with the origin 
of which they are acquainted, as the rustling of a lisard or 
snake, or the rapid start of a kangaroo rat, did not perceive 
the foot-fall of the horses, and they were once with their 
whole train near a camp of jabbering, laughing, moving 
natives, without their being aware of the approach of tbe 
party. Once, a native walked at dusk into the camp, and 
was surrounded by the horses before he knew that other 
beings save himself were present. 

Dr. Leichardt has collected the following facts in proof 



TO PORT B881NOTON. 361 

of the extraordinary drought experienced on the North Coast 
and which have induced him to suppose that part of the 
country had been remarkably dry for a succession of years. 

1. The condition of large channels of rivers and creeks, 
which were either entirely dry or contained only tiny 
streams not at all proportionate to their widths. 

2. The occurrence of dead crabs and fresh* water turtle on 
the box flats at the east side of the Gulf of Carpentaria* 
The turtle requires a great supply of water, and those 
skeletons which were observed did not appear to have been 
carried thither by the natives. 

3. Extensive shallows on the west coast of the Gulf, 
surrounded by heaps of dead fresh-water muscle-shells, of 
large sice, which were overgrown by small tea-trees, about 
four or five years old. The muscles must have lived and 
grown for a number of years in those hollows, which were 
now entirely dry. 

4* The plains of the East Alligator Range were covered 
by dead fresh- water shells, particularly of the genus lAmnaa 
which most have lived and grown in shallow holes and 
lagoons, which then existed all over those plains. 

5. lines of drooping tea* trees along several salt-water 
creeks at the west coast of the Gulf, were dead, in conse- 
quence of the want of the usual freshes, as the tree seems 
not to live on water entirely salt. 

It seems impossible, in the present state of our informa- 
tion, to account for this remarkable phenomenon of the 
decreasing supply of water on the surface of this continent. 
The supposition of a gradual rise of the land would expUdn 
why arms of the sea recede, and partis of the bottom of the 
sea beoome dry; but it would not explain the decrease of 
moiBtore in the atmosphere, or the greater evaporation or 
absorption of tiie waters in lagoons, which are not connected 
with any watercourse. The rise of the country would rather 
lead us to expect a greater precipitation of moisture round 
ita elevated points. From observations made on the unin* 



362 DR. lbichardt's ovbbland journbt 

habited parts of the oolony it appears that this dessication is 
not dependant upon colonisation, upon the clearing of the 
ground, and the increase of stock, though there is no doubt 
that the latter must make a great impression on limited 
water^holes not supplied by springs. We are, therefore, 
compelled to look for the cause in some until now unknown 
change of the atmosphere which may be periodical, and allow 
us to hope that the Australian continent will be again fayoured 
with a series of more rainy seasons. 

Dr. Leichardt concluded his lectures by laying before hb 
audience the plan of an expedition on which he intended to 
start in October last. Captain Sturt's expedition baring 
shown that the interior, in the longitude of the head of the 
gulf, is a desert at least to latitude 24^ S. where the explorer 
was compelled to return. He considered therefore that it 
would not be advisable to attempt to cross the continent in 
that or in a higher latitude ; he therefore proposed to pro- 
ceed at once to latitude 23^ S. where he found the Mac- 
kenzie and Peak Range, during bis last journey ; and as the 
Mackenzie was well supplied with water, he intended to 
follow it up to its sources, which he expected to find abont 
80 or 100 miles to the westward of the spot where he first 
came on the river. He would then be able to ascertain 
whether the western branches of the supposed water-shed go 
to the southward to join the system of the Darling, or 
whether they turn to the northward, and form the sources of 
the larger rivers of the head of the gulf of Carpentaria. 
Should the latter be the case, and should the country be 
sufficiently well watered, he would of course proceed to the 
westward, keeping the. same latitude, and try to reach the 
waters of the north-west coast. But should want of water 
not allow him to continue his journey to the westward, or 
even to the northward, he would retrace his steps down the 
Mackenzie, and follow the track of his last journey to the 
Burdekin, where it is joined by the Clarke, in lat. 19^ 12' S. 
He then proposed to follow the latter river, and expected to 



TO PORT B88INOTOM. 863 

find the heads of the Flinders, after having crossed either a 
table-land or a dividing range. He would then continue his 
joomey to the Albert, and follow that river up to ascertain 
the latitude of its sources, and the nature of the country. 

He would then continue on a westerly course, to come 
succsessively to the heads of the Nicholson, the Van Alphen, 
the Abel Tasman, the Robinson, and the Macarthur, and 
from the latter river he hoped to reach the waters of the 
west coast, in about latitude 17^ 18^ Should success attend 
hU journey he would then turn to the southward, and work 
his way parallel to the north-west and west coast until he 
reached Swan River. 

This journey he hoped to complete in two years, though 
unforeseen difficulties might procrastinate it beyond that 
period. That his most sanguine expectations may be accom- 
plished will be the sincere wish of all who can appreciate the 
labour and anxiety that such a journey has imposed on the 
persevering and inde&tigable traveller.* 

* We sre indebted to the kiDdness of J. P. Townsend, Esq.* for the 
of adding the following well-deserved complimentary lines on the 
to Sydney of Dr. Leichardt 



ON DR. LEICHARDrS RETURN FROM PORT ESSIN6T0N. 

Thy footsteps have returned again, thou Wanderer of the Wild, 
Where Nature from her lonely tlirone in giant beauty smiled ; 
Pllgfim of mighty wastes, untried by human foot before, 
TViumphant o'er the wilderness, thy weary journey's o*er. 

Thon hast battled with the dangers of forest and of flood. 
And amid the silent Desert a conqueror hast stood : 
llMm hast triumphed o'er the perils of mountain and of plain. 
And won a nation's loud applause to greet thee home again. 
Long had we mourned for thee as lost, and plaintive dirges sung. 
For Time a wild, mysterious veil around thy fate had flung. 
And Hope's declining energies with feeble effort strove 
Against the boding voice of fear that haunts the heart of love. 

And Rumour with her hundred tongues, her vague and blighting breath. 
Had whispered tidings sad and drear— dark tales of blood and death : 
Till tortured Fancy ceased to hope, and, all despairing, gave 
Thy name a hallowed memory— thy bones a desert grave. 



S64 SIR T. li. mitcbei^l'b discoveries 

But» no ! that proud intrepid heart clave to its purpose higK 
like Afric's martyr-traveUer, resolved to do or die; 
Like him to find a lonely death in desert sands of flame. 
Or win a bright eternity of high and glorious fame I 

Oft in the silent Wilderness^ when brave men might have quailed* 
Have thine unfailing energies to soothe and cheer prevailed ; 
For well thy hope-inspiring voice could speak of perils past. 
And picture each approaching one less deadly than the last. 

And oft e'en that stout heart of thine has saddened to despair. 
When o'er some mild and lonely scene the moonlight shioing fair. 
Hath bid thy softened spirit feel how lonely were thy lot 
To die— thy mission unfulfilled, unknown, unwept, foigot. 

And when beside thy comrade's grave, thy stricken heart bowed down. 
And wept o'er that glad spirit's wreck, its dream of young renown. 
Oh I there was bitterness of soul in the silent prayer that rose. 
Ere they left him in the Desert to his long and lone repose. 

At length the hour of triumph came ; the white man's track appeared ; 
Visions of bright and holy joy thy toiUwom spirit cheered ; 
A glorious pride lit up thy heart, and glowed upon thy brow. 
For Leichardt's name among the great and good is deathless now. 

Thy noble work of victory by deeds of blood unstained. 
For man's appointed purposes a glorious world obtained ; 
Thy step upon the Wilderness, the harbinger of peace. 
Hath bid that wild and savage night of solitude to cease. 

Proud man ! in ages yet to come the hisf ry shall be told 
Of that adventurous Traveller, the generous, true, and bold. 
Who, spuming hope of selfish gain, disdaining soft repose. 
First taught the howling Wilderness to blossom like the roee. 

£d. K. SihvmtnmM.. 



On Sir T. L. Mitcheiil's digcaveries in the interior f(f 
New South Wales. By R. Hsward, FX.S. 

Since the above observations on Dr. Leichardt's jouniey 
were written, intelligence has reached this oomitry of the 
return to Sydney of Sir T. L. Mitchell from his expedition 
to the northern parts of Australia, an extract from his 



IN NEW SOUTH WALES. 365 

despatches it is presumed will prove an interesting addition 
to Dr. Leichardt's journey^ tending as it does to confirm 
many of Dr. Leichardt's discoveries, and also putting us in 
possession of new facts in regard to the geography and botany 
of that portion of Australia. 

At the commencement of the exploration they found the 
heat excessive^ and water so very scarce, in the channel of 
the River Bogan^ that they were obliged to abandon that 
routcy and it was only with great difficulty^ and after consi* 
derable delay, the party could be conducted to the River 
Darling. Throughout the month of January, Fahrenheit's 
thermometer stood frequently at 1 1 7^ ; in the shade it was 
•eldom below 100^. The intense heat killed all their kanga- 
roo dogs, and roost of the party were attacked with opthal- 
mia ; the draught oxen were also so much distressed that 
acme of them fell dead on the journey, and the expedition 
was obliged to halt for two weeks at the ponds of Cannonba, 
between the River Macquarie and the Bogan. It was subse- 
qoently ascertained tiiat they could only hope to readi the 
Darliiig by the marshes of the Macquarie. 

Sir Thomas, with his party, reached the junction of the 
Maoquarie with the Darling, in long. 147^ 33' E. lat. 30^^ 6' & 
A few miles higher up he found a good ford across the 
Darling (or Barwan as the natives call it in that part), and 
advancing over a fine open country reached the Narran 
swamp at 26 miles from the Darling. This swamp appears 
to be almost an exact counterpart of the marshes of the 
Maoquarie. The Balocme, which Sir Thomas describes as 
'' only inferior to the Murray in breadth and depth,'^ in long« 
148^ 21' E., and lat 2^ 31' 8., separates to the south of 
tliat point into various channels. The most westerly and 
main branch is the Culgoa^ which joins the Darling about 
thisty miles above Fort Bourke; three others. Sir Thomas 
haa reason to believe, reunite and join the Darling higher 
up. The Nanran terminates in the swamp of the same name. 
Sir Thomas remarks : 

** The Narran seems a wonderful provision of nature for 



3SG SIR T. L. 

the supply and retention of water in a dry and parcbed 
country. The division of the main river into others already 
mentioned, is no less so ; irrigating thus from one principal 
channel extensive regions of rich earth beyond the Darling, 
while the surplus, or overflow, instead of passing, as in 
common cases, to the sea, is received in the deep channel of 
the Narran, and thereby conducted to that extensive reser- 
voir where, on rock or stiff clay, and under ever-verdant 
Polygonunij it furnishes an inexhaustible supply for the sup- 
port of animal life. 

'^ Along the banks of the Narran, the grass is of the very 
best description, Panicum loevinode, and Anthisiiria austroBi 
(barley grass and kangaroo grass of the colonists) growing on 
plains or in open forests, very available, in every respect, for 
cattle stations. The seeds of the Panicum bevinode constitute 
the chief food of the natives, who bruise them between stones, 
and bake the dough into cakes. As I advanced, these natives 
fell back on the main river, where the assembled body received 
our party very kindly." 

The expedition then ascended the Narran and the Balonne 
till it reached a natural bridge of rocks, in long. 143^ 4S' E., 
and lat. 28^ 2^ S. Here it halted to form a depot, while Sir 
Thomas, with a small party, examined the country to the 
N.W. The country proving poor and sandy he returned to 
the camp, and on the 23rd of April resumed his course up 
the banks of the river with ten men and the light carts, 
instructing those left behind to follow him in one month. 
From the abundance of water in the river, it was inferred 
that it must have other tributaries besides the Condamine ; 
the junction with that river was not observed, though its 
course was seen. The Cogoon, a small tributary of the 
Balonne, was traced upwards to an isolated hill range, the 
centre of which is in long. 149^ 2' E., and lat. 2^^ 23' S. 
The north-western summit of these elevations — ^Bindango, 
is connected, by a low neck of grassy downs, with small 
knolls of trap rock belonging to one of the masses of the 



IN NSW SOUTH WALES. 367 

coast range, in which the Balonne appears to have its 
source :— 

*' Northward from Bindango, other waters fall to the 
nortb-west, and I perceived in the remote distance one gap, 
in a tabular sort of rocky country, through which I hoped 
the water-course would lead; but I was disappointed in fol- 
lowing it down, for this promising little river (the Amby of 
the natives) turned to the southward of west, and I found in 
the gap only a convenient pass for our carts to the interior 
country. I named this St. George's Pass--in hopes it may 
yet become a point on an important line of route. The 
ooontry through which this pass led consisted in general of 
sand-stone^ where the tops of cliffs were distinguishable from 
the northward by the luxuriant grass upon them — a rather 
unusual feature in a sand-stone country. Southward and 
back from the pass, much good open forest land appeared 
around, as the prevailing characteristic.'' 

Next day a river *' following to the south-west/' and 
*^ fully as large as the Darling," was discovered ; this was the 
Maranoa of the natives. Extensive reconnoissances both to 
the east and west convinced Sir Thomas that the course of 
this river was not favourable to the direction of his journey ; 
forcing its way through the rocks, it flowed steadily to the 
S*W. The party lef); behind rejoined their chief here on the 
1 at of June; when it was resolved to trace the Maranoa 
upwards by the right bank, and for that purpose Sir Thomas, 
with a part of his men and four months' provisions, started 
on the 4th. 

Passing several tributaries of that river, they reached a 
chain of volcanic summits connected with a mass of table* 
land; which was called Hope's Table Land. A pass between 
this and a higher range towards the coast was penetrated 
along a stream, which, after flowing some space to the N.W. 
turned like the rest to the S.W. Hence a long ride to the 
northward brought Sir Thomas to another chain of rooun- 



^68 SIR T^ L. Mitchell's discovbribs 

tains extending westward about the 25th parallel. The 
rounding country is thus described : — 

" Beyond that range, whose summits are all of trap rock, 
I found deep sand-stone gullies, and in following down one 
of these I reached an extensive grassy valley, which termi- 
nated on a reedy lake in a more open country. The lake 
was supplied by springs ariring in a swamp at the gorge of 
the valley which supported a flowing stream of the purest 
water. This stream spread into the extensive reedy lake, and 
to my surprise, was absorbed by it, at least so as to escape 
through some subterraneous outlet, for the channel of the 
river in which the lake terminated was dry. Betnming to 
the party we soon brought the cuts and dray down the 
sandstone clifls to the banks of the Salvator, and panned 
that river downwards until I discovered, which was aooa 
obvious, that its course turned to the eastward of north, 
consequently that we were upon a river falling to the oasteni 
coast.^^ 

From the rugged nature of the scenes around, tiie name of 
Salvator had been given to this river, and to another of a 
miMer character, that of Claude ; they unite to form the 
^egoa. The ^smokes'' showed that the good land about 
Hi&ai was peopled. The Salvator was crossed in* laU 84^ 
3V S. ; the Claude about 10 miles further on. The river 
formed by their union flows to the N.E., and is conjectnied 
to reach the sea about Broad Sound.* 

A difficult sandstone country succeeded. On emei^ging 
from its ravines, a river, the Belyando, was struck flowing 
where first seen 4x> the N.W. The expedition encamped on 
its banks in long. 14^ 1 7'E. and lat. 34o S. After following iu 
channel as far north as 31^ S<y S. (two degrees within the 
tropic), it turned to the N.fi., and was recognised to be the 
Cape River of Dr. Leiehardtt — 

^M have smce ascertained^ says Sir Thomas, <<that we 

* The Mackenzie^ probably, of Dr. Leicbardt. 



IN N£W SOUTH WALES. 369 

were still on the seaward side of the division of the interior 
waters; or rather that the eastern coast range, hitherto 
supposed to extend from Wilson's Promontory to Cape 
Tork, is only imaginary; while the estuaries of two im- 
portant rivers, affording easy access from the eastern coast 
to the rich plains of the interior, are realities which have 
remained undiscovered. That there was no feature deserving 
the name of a coast range to the westward of the Belyando 
was but too evident from the absence of any tributaries of im- 
portance; the sandy channels of water courses from that 
quarter having had no effect in changing the course, or 
character of the river, which last was very peculiar and 
remarkable, especially in its habit of spreading into several 
chains of ponds, surrounded by brigalow scrub, apparently a 
provision of nature for the preservation of surface water, 
resembling the network of rivers in the south. On the 
banks of one of the tributaries we found some trees seen by 
tts nowhere else ; one was a true 6g-tree, having small leaves, 
and with the fruit fully developed and ripening." 

No time was lost by the party in retracing their steps to 
the camp on the Salvator, to resume their search for waters 
flowing to the Gulf of Carpentaria. At this part of his nar- 
rative Sir Thomas pauses to observe :— 

** I ought to mention here that I have found the Syphon 
barometer of great utility in these researches, affording the 
only means of judging of the relative height of the various 
ranges; thus I ascertained when far up the Balonne, that we 
were but littie higher than tiie bed of the Darling ; that the 
Nairan has scarcely any inclination at all ; that the Belyando 
at the lowest point attained by me was not 600 feet above 
the sea ; and in the present case, that the range under ihe 
parallel of 25^ S., is the highest we have crossed, extending 
into the western interior; our route across it is in long. 147^ 
2S' £») where the mean height above the sea exceeds 2000 
ieet; yet this we were only made aware of by the extreme 
cold, or by the barometer, for there is nothing in the appear- 
ance of the country to lead to such a conclusion ; on almost 

VOL. VI, & £ 



370 SIR T. L. Mitchell's discoveries 

every clear night, Fahrenheit's thermometer fell to 9 d^., 
and occasionally at 4 a.m. the mercury was as low as 7 deg."* 

Resuming his journey with a small party, the Surveyor- 
General reached a gap in a westerly range, connected with 
hills to the northward, in long. 146® 42' E., lat 24® 50' S. 

^' On ascending the range early next morning, I saw open 
downs and plains, with a lineof river in the midst, the whole 
extending to the N.N.W. as £blt as the horizon. Following 
down the little stream ' from the valley in which I had passed 
the night I soon reached the open country, and during ten 
successive days I pursued the course of that river, through 
the same sort of country, each day as far as my horse could 
carry me, and in the same direction, again approaching the 
tropic of Capricorn. In some parts the river formed splendid 
reaches, as broad and important as the river Murray ; in 
others it spread into four or five channels, some of them 
several miles apart ; but the whole country is better watered 
by numerous tributaries arising in the downs than any other 
portion of Australia I have seen. The soil consists of 
rich clay, and the hollows give birth to water-coarses, in 
most of which water was abundant. I found, at length, that 
I might travel in any direction and find water at hand^ with- 
out having to seek the river except when I wished to ascertain 
its general course, and observe its character. The grass con- 
sists of Panicum kevinode and several new sorts, one of which 
springs green from the old stem. The plains were verdant; 
indeed, the luxuriant pasturage surpassed in quality, as it 
did in extent, anything of the kind I had ever seen. The 
myall treet and salt bush (Sahola) (so essential to a good 
run) ; are also there. New birds and new plants maxlced 
this out as an essentially different region from any I had pre- 
viously explored ; and although I could not follow the river 
throughout its long course at the advanced season, I was 

* This, if there is not an error in the quotation, is a most extraordi* 
nary circumstance. Twenty-five degrees of frost at an elevation of 011I7 
2000 feet in latitude 36'' S. has never previously been recorded. 

t Sir T. Mitchell considers this to be the Acacia pendula, A. Cunn. 



IN NEW SOUTH WALES. 37 1 

convinced that its estuary was in the Gulf of Carpentaria; 
at all events^ the country is open and well watered for a 
direct route thereto. That the river is the most important 
of Australia, increasing as it does by successive tributaries, 
and not a mere product of distant ranges, admits of no dis- 
pute; and the downs and plains of Central Australia, through 
which it flows, seem sufficient to supply the whole world 
with animal food. The natives are few and inoffensive. 
I crossed the river at the lowest point I reached, in a 
great southern bend, in long. 144^ 34' E., lat. 24° 14' S., 
and from rising ground behind the left bank, I could trace 
ita downward course far to the northward. I saw no CalUiris 
(pine of the colonists) in all that country, but a range show- 
ing sandstone cliffs appeared to the southward, in long, 
about 1450 EL, lat 24^ 30' S. The country to the northward 
of the river is^ upon the whole, the best; yet in riding 90 
miles due east from where I crossed the southern bend, I 
found plenty of water and excellent grass ; a red gravel there 
approaches the river, throwing it off to the northward. 
Ranges extending N.N.W., were occasionally visible from the 
country to the northward/' 

The discovery of this river and the country through which 
it flows was the more gratifying afler having been disap- 
pointed in the courses of so many others. Sir T. Mitchell 
haa most appropriately called this evidently important river 
after our most gracious Sovereign, the '* Victoria."* From 
this point Sir Thomas hastened back to rejoin his comrades 
left behind. The only other results of the expedition are 
indicated in his notice of their employment during his ab- 
aence: 

^ I reached that camp on the 8th ultimo, having been 
absent about a month, found the cattle and horses refreshed, 
and in condition for pursuing our route homewards. In nine 

* It wiU be a carious coincidence if the Victoria of Sir T. Mitchell 
ahould erentually prove to be identical with the Albert of Capt. T. L. 
Slokcs, which river that officer hut saw flowing through the Plains of 
PnM8ise» and disembouching in the Ghilf of Carpentaria. 

B K 2 



372 Slii T. L. 

days we reached the depot camp, where I left Mr. Kennedy 
with the heavy drays and cattle, and received the agreeable 
intelligence that, during the long period in which that party 
have been stationary, the natives had given no trouble : that 
the men were all well, and the old cattle in good condition. 
I had straightened the route in returning, so that it is now a 
roost convenient road, well watered by permanent supplies. 
Mr. Kennedy's inquiries amongst the natives led to a very 
important discovery, which we have since made, namely, 
that the Maranoa turns south about thirty miles below where 
he had his camp, and joins the Balonne only a day's journey 
above this spot whence I write. We have also diacoTered 
on the banks of this river much rich pastoral land, and about 
lat. 26^ 30' S., open downs, resembling on a smaUer scale 
those on the Victoria ; and whether the vast extent of inter- 
vening country may not admit of a direct passage across 
from these to the central downs, without crossing the Plato* 
nic ranges, remains to be ascertained during a season when 
the water holes are better filled. Into that oountry the 
channels of the Warrego and Nive turned when I had lo 
leave them ; much native smoke arose there ; and I regret 
that I cannot now explore the course of these two rivers. 
The survey of the Maranoa forms a line permanently sup- 
plied with water and grass, from this camp to £he &rthest 
limits I have reached, and directly in prolongation of my 
road across the Hawkesbury and Hunter, intended originally 
to have been made to Liverpool Plains. One link only is 
still wanting to complete the chain ; it is from this natuiml 
bridge on the Balonne to the furthest point reached by me 
in my journey of 1831, a distance of about seventy milea; 
and I hope to find the country in that direction passable for 
this party in its way homewards." 

Numerous observations and measurements were made, 
and Sir Thomas intimates to the governor that he possesses 
rich materials on the present occasion for a map of that part 
of Australia which he has explored. 



HABVBY ON A NEW GENUS OF PROTEACEiE. 37^ 



Short Description of a New Oenus of Plants, belonging to the 
Order PROTSACBiB, from South Africa; by W. H. 
Harvey, Esq., M.R.I.A« &c. 

{With a Plate, Tab. XV.) 

Dr. Lindley, in his account of the Swan River vegetation, 
notices the remarkable fact that the generic groups of Pro- 
ieacea appear to have been so folly represented in .the very 
limited collections made previously to the revision of the 
order by Mr. Brown, that among the great number of new 
species since discovered, no new genus, with the exception 
of Mangleeia, has been recognised. Such a circumstance, 
occurring in an order so extensive and diversified in character 
as this is, is indeed extraordinary. It is therefore with a 
strong feeling of pleasure that I proceed to detail the cha- 
racters of a South African shrub, belonging to this order, 
which appears to be distinct from any African type. For a 
knowledge of it I am indebted to Sir W. J. Hooker, who 
baa not only liberally presented me with specimens, but 
permitted me to name and describe the genus. This I 
riiall do under the name of 

Faurba, Harv. 

Involucrum nullum. Fhres spicati. Perigonium quadripar- 
titum, equale (?), deciduum. Stamina 4, apicibus concavis 
ladniarum perigonii inserta. Squamuhe 4, hypogynce. 
Ovarium sessile, uniloculare, uniovulatum* Stylus fili* 
formis, persistens ; stigma oblongum, quadrangulare, ver- 
ticale, glabrum. Nux monosperma, sessilis, undique bar- 
bata, stylo persistente caudata. — Frutex Capensis, glaber; 
foUis lanceolatis petiolatis, integerrimis; spicis terminalibus, 
gracSibus, 

Faurea saHgna, Harv. 

Hab. At Macalisberg, South Africa; Messrs. Burke and 
Zeyher. 



74 HARVBT ON A NEW GENUS OF PROTBACEA. 

Frutex. Rami adulti glabri, corragati, cylindrici, flexuosi; 
juniores minutissime appresse pubescentes. FoUa alterna, 
lanceolata, acuta, basi secus petiolum attenoata, 3-4 undas 
longa, subfalcata^ verticalia, patentia, glaberrima, nitentia^ 
minutissime punctata, uninervia, venis reticulatis, anasto- 
mosantibus. Petioli plano-compressi, supra minutissime 
pubescentes. ^pica terminates, subsessiles, 3-4 undas 
longse, involucro nullo suffultee. Flares sessiles, nuniero- 
Bissimi, sparsim in rachi sulcato inserti, spiraliter quadri- 
farii, approximati, quisque bractea squamseforrai minata 
subtensus. Alabastri (tantum visi) appresse, pubescentes, 
patentes, sursum leviter currati, 3 lineas longi, clavati. 
Stamina ad apioem laciniarum inserta; filamenta brevia; 
- antherse oblong®. Ovarium ovatum, sessile, lana longa 
sericea vestitum, uniovulatum. Stylis filiforrois^ longus. 
Squama hypogyruB 4, deltoideae, acuminata, glabrse. Nux 
capillis lutescentibus densissimis barbata, stylo persis- 
tente rufo nitido glabro caudata. Sem/en . . . . ? 
From the above generic character it will at once be seen 
that Faurea is mainly distinguished from Protea by the 
inflorescence ; but this is accompanied by so great a diffe- 
rence in habit, and affords, throughout the order, such an 
important guide to affinity, that it will be allowed to be, in 
the present case, of generic importance. In Protea, as is 
well known, the flowers are aggregated in dense capitula, 
surrounded by an imbricated involucre composed of many 
large, coloured scales : here they are disposed in slender 
spikes, destitute of involucre. Having never seen the ex- 
panded flowers of Faurea, I am unable to say whether there 
be any difference in the disposition of the leaves of the 
perianth. In the other parts of the flower, and especially in 
the bearded nut, tipped with its permanent style, there is a 
dose resemblance to Protea. From all the other S. African 
genera, the differences, independentiy of inflorescence, are 
more marked. In no other genus is the style persistent. 
The nearest approach in inflorescence occurs in Atdax, whose 



HARVBY ON A NEW GBNU8 OF PROTEACEiB. 375 

male flowers are in terminal racemes ; but the resemblance is 
distant. 

I bestow the generic name as an affectionate tribute to the 
memory of my lamented friend, W. C. Faure, Esq., son of 
the Bey. A. Faure, senior minister of the Dutch Reformed 
Church at Cape Town, a young man of much promise, and 
a most ardent Botanist; whose death occurred under pecu- 
liarly trying circumstances. In 1844, he left the Cape for 
India, having received a commission in the Hon. E. I. Com- 
pany's military service. '^ Soon after his arrival,'^ writes a 
mutual friend, ^'he was seized with cholera, and brought 
very near to death, but eventually recovered. A few months 
afterwards, he had to join his regiment, and in so doing to 
pass through a part of the country infested with robbers and 
people of bad character. While going through a jungle or 
rarine, with another officer and a few soldiers, he was shot 
at by some persons concealed in the wood : the aim proved 
too true : he fell, and with difficulty reached the next station, 
where he died, twelve hours after, far from family and 
firiends, and just at the outset of his career ! His amiable 
temper and great talents had made him generally respected.*' 

My acquaintance with Mr. Faure commenced in 1838 and 
terminated in 1840, when I returned home from the Cape. 
During those years he was frequently my companion in short 
excursions in search of plants ; and I much enjoyed and 
valued his society, independently of the bond of union 
which our common love of Botany brought with it. I still 
cherish the memory of those delightful walks, along the hills 
or by the shore ; and deeply do I sympathise with his family 
in their bereavement. Mr. Faure had an extensive acquain- 
tance with Cape plants, especially those of the more acces- 
sible districts. He had closely studied the beautiful genus 
Oxo/tr, and was familiar with the variations of a large number 
of its species. The determination of these was his favourite 
botaniod task ; but to none was he indifferent ; and in con- 
necting his name with a South African shrub, I pay but a 
just tribute to the memory of one, who, had his life been 



Sja NOTES OF ALOiB. 

spared, would probably have become a distingaiahed Bo* 

tanist. 

Tab. HT. Fig. 1. Portion of a spike with unezpanded 

flowers ; /. 2. Petal and stamen ; /. 3. Pistil and sqaame ; 

/. 4. Ovary laid open to show the solitary ovule ; /. 5. 

Nut v^^magmfied. 



Notes ofAi,QM observed at different cdtitudes in Aberdeenshire^ 
by G. Dick IB, M.D., Lecturer on Botany in the UmversUy 
and King's College of Aberdeen. 

{Continued from p. 206 of this volume.) 

The former paper was devoted solely to remarks on 
Desniidiets collected at different altitudes during a short 
excursion, into the interior of Aberdeenshire: the present 
communication will comprehend the other Alg<e observed 
upon the same occasion. 

With the exception of the Diatomacea and Oscillaiorieai 
the productions, about to be noticed, have not given rise to 
such disputes respecting their true nature, as those already 
discussed* Still, the Zoospores of certain species, shortly after 
emission, have certainly been described as animals, and placed 
among the Infworia ; their further development has . given 
rise to statements that animals, in some cases, become after- 
wards vegetables. 

The motions of certain species of Oscillatoria are at least 
equally distinct as those of any organisms usually considered 
to belong to the vegetable kingdom, and yet it has been 
denied that they possess any independent power of motion.^ 
They move notwithstanding. Three kinds of motion may 
be observed in them ; first, the oscillating, one end of the 
filament being fixed, the other describing a 8^;ment of 
a circle with greater or less rapidity; second, a distinct 

* Hassall, British Fresh-water Algae. 



NOTES OP ALGiB. 377 

bending of the filament upon itself, presenting the ap- 
pearance of a writhing motion ; third, the progrestiye gliding 
motion of an entire filament or of a fragment, resembling 
that of certain MoUusca or Planariea. 

Mr. P. Orant has directed my attention to a remarkable 
motion, which may be observed in newly collected specimens 
o( fftenuUoeoecus binalie. This beaatiful species propagates 
freely by self^-division ; and the cells vary in number in 
different individuals, in some 2 and 4, in others 8, and 
more rarely 16. The phenomenon in question is that of 
rotation of the cells in the interior of the mucous matter 
which surrounds them. Leuwenhoeck observed long ago 
that, in the ova, of certain MoUusca, the yolk revolves in the 
surrounding fluid, at a certain stage. If there be no mistake 
about the phenomenon alluded to in HamatococcuSy and I 
cannot detect any source of deception, and if to it, we add 
the mode of subdivision of the cells, we have a remarkable 
analogy between the ovum of certain animals, and an or- 
ganism decidedly vegetable, and of very simple structure. 
In the ovum of the animal it is well known that the motion 
is produced by ciliffi, which make their appearance at an 
advanced stage ; what may be the true cause in the plant I 
am unable at present to say.* 

The Diatonuiceie here enumerated must not be considered 
as presenting a complete view of the species occurring at the 
altitudes alluded to ; for the present, the more common 
forms are alone mentioned. Respecting their right to a 
place in the vegetable kingdom no doubt can remain, after 
the recent very important discovery of Mr. Thwaites; that 
lealous and accurate observer having detected a species of 
Etmoiia in conjugation, as well as Gomphonema mitmiiisbniym. 
Respecting one genus, viz. Schizonemay it may not be irrele- 
Tant to state, that the firustules seem to be developed from 
cells, propagating by self-division as well. The very general 

* The motion in the Hmmatococau is very slow, compared with that in 
the o?t in question. 



378 NOTB8 OP AIsOM. 

diffusion ofDiatomacea is well known : I have found them 
very abundant in the excrement of the fresh water mussel, 
(Mya marfforiiifera, Linn.) Some If^iaaria seem to feed 
upon the smaller species : I have seen NavicubB on the out- 
side of and mixed up with the so-called stomachs in what 
were supposed to be Leucophrys patula and Bursaria vorH- 
eeUa of Ehrenberg : the siliceous lories are rejected after the 
digestion of their contents. The smaller spedes of CZot- 
terium, &c., often share the same fate. I have also seen 
Navieul€B and other forms of Diatomaeea in what was sup- 
posed to be the stomach of a parasite (probably a Cercaria) 
which infests Limneus pereger. In the 6ne mud deposited 
from the sea foam, at and above high water mark, tSba 
storms, I have found a mixture of fresh and salt water 
forms. 

I. Pannanich difis, at about 1100 feet. 

Coccochloris protuberana, Heematococcus murorum, Litho- 
nema crusiaceum^ Lyngbya puncialia^ Oscillatoria m- 
pestrU?, Scythymenia rupestria ?, Stigonema atrovirenSy 
Diatoma fiocculosum. 

IL Craigendarroch, about 1300 feet. 

Conferva ericeiorum, Hassallia ocellata, Heematococcus Mui&, 
Tetraspora lubrica^ Tolypothrix diaioria. 

III. Ehoil, at 1600 feet. 

Drapamaldia glomerata^ Hesroatococcus binaUs, Nostoc com- 

munej N. apharicum, Oscillatoria ?; Amphora 

ovaUa^ Cymbella helvetica^ Epithemia alpeatria, Eunotia 
diodon, E. monodouy Surirella biaeriaia. 

IV. Lochnagar, at 2000 feet. 

Hassallia ocellata^ HsBmatococcus MfuiKf, Lyngbya zonata. 

V. Lake of Lochnagar, 2563 feet. 

Bulbochate aeiigeraj Hassallia oceUataj Tolypothrix distorta ; 



NOTE8 OF ALOiE. 37^^ 

in boggy places near the lake were observed, Coccochloris 
tariaiiliSf Haematococcus binalia. 

VI. Lochnagar, at 2600 feet. 
Hsmatococcus fttna/tr, and Zygnema ) 

VII. Lochnagar, at 3600 feet. 

Hsmatoocos dtno/Wy Lyngbya zonaia, Nostoe commune^ and 
Oacillatoria ■ ? 

Vm. Near Loch Aitchichan, at 2800 feet. 

Hasaallia oeellata, Hflsmatococcus binaHs, Stigonema mamil- 
/lonifM, Tetraspora luMca; in the loch, at 2967 feet. Con- 
ferva ericetarwnf Oscillatoria nigra? and Scytonema Myo- 
ekrouif the latter, along with Jungermannia emarfftnata,* 
was in great profusion, covering the stones in the bottom, 
Diatoma floccuhsumt Eunotia Modon, Navicula Suecica^ 
Sttrirella bUeriaia. 

IX. Near Linn of Dee, about 1190 feet. 
Drapamaldia glomerata and Lyngbya ztmata. 

X. Near Castleton of Braemar, about 1 100 feet. 

Coccochloris protuberatu, Sorospora moniana, Stigonema 
atroviretu. 

XL On tihe table-land, north side of Loch Callater, in a 
ipring, was found abundantly, Lynbya eopulataj the altitude 
was not measured, but estimated as about 2000 feet. 

XIL Little Craigendall, at about 2064 feet. 
Nostoe apharicwn. 

XIIL Little Craigendall, at 2400 feet. 
Bolboohote seiigera, Hassallia oeeUataj Hssmatococcus bt- 

* Corthm eaiemOatui, was observed about the edges, tod Coifnbetes 
^puhdaiui in the loch. 



360 BOTAXY OF THB AZORES. 

naliB, H. rupeitrU, Nostoc cosruleumj Raphidia viritii 
Sorospora montana.* 

In order to afford some idea of the altitadinal range of Uie 
Algm enumerated here» I add a list of such of them as hare 
been observed at Aberdeen, near the sea level, Bulboek^te 
setigeray Coftferva ericetorum, DrapamaUia glamerata^ Hoi- 
idllia oceliaia^ Hmmaiococeu$ binaliSf Lyfigbya Zonata^ No9toc 
camnnmey N. coeruleum^ Raphidia viridiSf Tetraspora hibneoy 
Tolypotkrix distoria. 

The Hill of Fare, a nearly isolated range of small extent, 
not much exceeding 1000 fiset at its highest point, com- 
mences about fourteen miles west from Aberdeen, and 
extends four or five miles nearly east and west. I have 
observed in its streams, Lenumia fltmatilis^ TrentepoUia pud- 
chellaf Drapamaldia tenuis^ Lgngbya ZonatOf Batrachoiper- 
mum mtmiltforme, B. t»$fiim,t and on wet rocks and in 
marshes on the higher parts of the hill at 600 to 600 
feet, Siiffonema airovirens, £>• matMUosum^ and Scyionema 
myochrous. 

It is scarcely neeessary to remark that the Deami^eit 
appear to have in general a greater altitudinal range than 
most of those Alga enumerated here ; it is, however, pro- 
bable that future observations may add considerably to the 
number of species of the other tribes, growing at high alti- 
tudes. 



Supplementary Notes on the Botany op thb Azobbs; by 
H. C. Watson, Ebq. 

By their geographical position, if not by their geological 
relations also, the Azoric Isles become invested wiUi a 

* Pkidnm mHdmm and C okfm h etea areOe^ T w«re teen in msrsfaoi at 

this altitude. 

t B vagum was observed some years ago in Loch Phadricb, near 
Castleton of Braemar, at about 2000 feet. 



BOTANY OF THE AZOBBB. 381 

greater botanical interest than would otherwise appertain 
to their own scanty flora ; which itself has probably been 
augmented by the importation of several species from Europe. 
The consideration of this peculiar interest induces me to 
print a supplementary list to the *' Catalogue of Azorean 
Plants/^ which was published in the London Journal of 
Botany about three years ago (vol. 3, p. 582-617) I am 
now enabled to add nearly fifty pheenogamous species, dis- 
covered in the Island of St MichaePs, or San Miguel, (with 
very few exceptions) through the persevering researches of a 
resident botanist, Thomas Carew Hunt, Esq., Her Majesty's 
consul at the Azores. 

And it seems desirable also to place on record some cor- 
rections and other notices relating to species included in the 
''Catalogue" formerly published, which subsequent cultiva- 
tion of thou in England, the receipt of more perfect speci- 
mens from Mr. Hunt, or the remarks of other botanists, 
have better prepared me to do. AH the species enumerated 
in the subjoined suj^lemeatary list, excepting Viola tricolor 
and LoHum perenne^ which were sent from Flores by Dr. 
Mackay, have been communicated to the Botanical Society 
of London or to myself, from the islands of St. Mary's (very 
few) and St. Michael's, by Mr. Hunt, together with an 
ample supply of duplicates of most of the rarer species of the 
Azores, for distribution to the members and correspondents 
of that active and useful Society. I may be allowed to 
observe here, while referring to Mr. Hunt's valuable exer- 
tions towards coropletiog our knowledge of Azoric botany, 
that in sending his collected specimens to the London 
Society, he has taken the course which best insured their 
immedUUe distribution into numerous herbaria in England, 
Europe and America. 

1. Supplementary Hit qf Azoric Species. 

Papaver Rhoeas, L. 
Rapistrum rugosam, Berg, 



382 BOTANY OF THB AZOBB8. 

Capsella Bursa-pastoris^ De C. 

Viola tricolor, L. 

Spergula arvensis, Z. 

Hypericum Elodes, L» 

Erodittm moschatttm, fFUld. 

Myrtus communis, Z. 

Ononis arvensis, L. {Aut Brii.) 

Yicia Bithynica, L. 

Lotus macranthus, Lowe. 

Prunus Lusitanica, L. 

Myiiophyllum altemiflorum, De C. 

Altemanthera polygonoides, Br. 

Aichryson Tillosum, Webb. 

Daucus Carota, L. ? 

Ammi Yisnaga, Lam. 

Ammi Huntii, Wats. (desc. infra, p. 384.) 

Conium maculatum, L. 

Coriandrum sativum, L. 

Smyrnium Olusatrum, L. 

Vinca major, L. 

Erythnea lutea, R. et S. 

Myosotis arvensis, L. 

Cynoglossum pictum, Aii. 

Lycopus europaeus, L, 

Lamium amplexicaule, L. 

Ballota nigra, L. 

Marrubium vulgare, L. 

Verbascum virgatum, With. 

Statice Limonium, L. 

Thrincia hirta, De C. 

Pyrethrum Parthenium, Sm. 

Senedo erraticus, Bert. 

Xanthium spinosum, L. 

Plantago Serraria, L. 

Amaranthus ? 

Achyranthus argentea. Lam. 
Trichonema Column®, Beich* 



BOTANY OF TBU AZORES. SR3 

Alliam subhirtutom, L. 
KuscuB aeuleatas, L. 
Potanu^ton lucens, L. 
Festuca elatior^ L. 
Lolium perenne, L. 
Gymnogramma Lowei, Hook, et Am. 
Lastrea multiflora, Newm. 
Lycopodiam complanatum^ L, 
Equisetum limosum^ L. 

Mr. Hunt has also collected and sent examples of SUene 
Armeria, Sphraa FUipendulay Cedronella triphytta, and Phleum 
praiense ; but accompanied by the suggestion^ that they were 
introductions through cultivation or otherwise. Two others 
are marked doubtful in the list. The species which I enter 
doubtfully under the name of Daucua Carota (linn.) is con- 
sidered by Dr. Charles Lemann, to be " certainly D. neg* 
lecius, Lowe Prim. FL Mader.'' It also resembles the 
specimens distributed among Borgeau's Canary plants^ under 
the name of D, parviflorus (Desf.). To the Amarantkus I am 
not able to assign a specific name with any confidence. Two 
other species are entered under names of most variable 
application. The Potamogeton lucetu has narrower leaves 
than our British plant, and is without fruit. The Festuca 
elatior would be so named by English botanists ; but it is 
not Fe$iuca pratensiB (Huds.) ; neither is it exactly the plant 
intended under name of Festuca arundinacea (Schreb.) in the 
'Lfondon Catalogue;' though nearer to the latter than to 
the former, and probably the same as (or included in) 
^. arundinacea of Koch's Synopsis. It might seem strange 
that a conspicuous shrub, the Myrtus communis^ should have 
been overlooked by Hochstetter and Outhnick as well as by 
myself, if truly native in the Azores. Mr. Hunt deems it to 
be truly indigenous, though now very scarce, through being 
in request with the tanners, and destroyed by them. 

The Ammi Huniii appeared to be an uudescribed species ; 



384 BOTANY OF TH£ AZORES. 

for I could find nothing corresponding with it in De Can- 
dolle's " Prodromus/' or in the " Repertorioin'' of Walpers. 
And wishing that it should bear the name of its discoverer, 
I described it accordingly, in a paper communicated to the 
Botanical Society of London, in June, and to be reported in 
the Phytologist for July, 1847* It was distinguished from 
Ammi majtis by the following character : 

Ammi Huntii (H. Wats, ms.)^ caule glabro striato, foliis 
ternato-pinnatis bi-tripinnatisTe, fdiolis elliptico-lanceolatis 
margine cartaligineo inciso-serratis, involucri foliolis trifidis 
pinnatifidisve, segmentis linearibus subintegris vel lanceo- 
latis inciso serratis (foliiformibus). A. majori propinquam, 
sed faciliter distinguendum. Herba verosimiliter annua sea 
biennis. Caulis ramis divergentibus sive (prsBcipue sape- 
rioribus) divaricatis. Folia inferiora decoraposita subtri- 
pinnata sive plus minus bitemato^pinnata ; foliolis 2-3 poll, 
long.^ 1^1^ poll. lat. Pedunculi petiolis vagtnantibus op- 
positi. Umbellee generalis radii numerosi (10-20) tenaes 
divergentes. Umbellulse multiflorie. Corolla parva alba. 
Habitat in insula Azoriea ^' San Miguel ;'* claro 7\ C. 
Huniio ooU. et coipm., anno 1846. 

2. Notes on some of the species enumerated in the ** Catalogue 
of Azorean Plants.^' — (London Jour. Vol. iii. p. 585.) 

1. Ranunculus corttLsatfolius (WiUd.) var. — '^Tliis is not 
the true species, but the R, QraudifoUus of Lowe, whidi I 
formerly considered a variety of R. cortus^foUus^ but, having 
since seen ripe fruit, I have changed ray opinion, and believe 
it to be a distinct species/' — P. J3. Webb^ Esq,, in letter. 

8. Fumaria capreolata (Linn.) — Perhaps equatty near the 
Canary specimens distributed by Bourgeau, under the name 
jof F. media (Lois.) and which do not seem to differ greatly 
from the F, capreolata of the same collection. 

0. Cardamine Mrsuta (Linn.) — Mr. Hunt sends speci- 
mens from St. Michael's. They belong to the form con- 
aideced the typical one by British botanists, not to C, 



BOTANY OF THE AZORES* 385 

iylmiica (Link). The latter is nearer C. Calderarum (6uth.) 
though distinct enough from that much prettier Azoric 
species. 

14. Raphanus Rigfhanistrum (Linn).— Cultivation during 
four years in England, that is, during four descents of this 
annual plant, has partially annihilated the difference which 
was at first obvious between the pods of the Azoric and 
wild English plants. 

15. Cakile marittma (Scop.) var. — ^The peculiar form of 
the pod, and its usually seminiferous lower joint, have 
hitherto proved hereditary in the plants raised in England ; 
but the differences are too slight for specific diagnosis. 

19. Viola odorata (Linn.) — ^The Azoric plant is apparently 
the same thing with V. Maderensis (Lowe), but I fear it is 
neither truly aboriginal in the Azores, nor a species distinct 
from V, odorata. Mr. Webb thus remarks upon it by letter: 
^ This is certainly the Maderensis of Lowe, but it is only 
one of the hundred forms of V, odorata.** 

31. Arenaria macrorhiza (Req.)^Specimens collected by 
myself, and others since communicated by Mr« Hunt, must 
belong to this species, according to the brief description in 
Flora Azorica, where it is enumerated as a variety of A. 
marina (Linn.) This latter is said, by Seubert, to be fre- 
quent on the coast rocks of all the islands. I do not 
recollect to have seen it there, but a maritime form of 
A. rubra was observed in some places, and the ordinary 
A. rubra (Linn,) more inland. Mr. Hunt also sends me 
A^rubra, 

89. Hypericum decipien$ (Wats.) — ^This, writes Dr. C. 
Lenuinn, ^ is identical with H. Baticum of Boissier, who 
gives » figure, and remarks in his Addenda to the Flora of 
Spain, that it is probably only a variety of H. undtdaium 
of SchoasbflB, formerly considered a variety of H. quadran^ 
gubam (Linn) but quite distinct. We have this species also 
in Madeira.** Most of the botanists to whom 1 communi- 
cated specimens of the Azoric plant, pronounced it to be 
*^ a southern form of H, guadrat^fulum" Thinking otherwise 

voi«. vu p y 



386 



BOTANV of TIIB AZORES. 



myself, and not finding any description tif the 
Prodromus of De CandoUe, I pubU:^he<I il i 
the above name. I have no douht nuw, that it 
perforatum of the Flora Azorica, although cleur^ 
guished from the Linnean perforatum^ by its let: 
stem and other less obvious characters^. 

45. Hex Perado (Ait.) — Possibly two species^ 
Azores ; one with broader, more obtuse, and eatif 
the other with the more oval leaves spiriulone, or 
serrate at the margin* But we cannot found a 
such diflferences in an IleXy unless accompanied 
other character, and the flowers and fruit of the 
are yet unknown to me. Dr. Seubert conaideraj 
forms as a single species. And Dr. C. LeiDi 
the Canary /. platyphylla (Webb) to the presenl 
also* 

76. Rubus Hoc/isietterorum (Scub,)— **A large 
form of R.frutkosm.'' P. jB. W>W. If so, all o« 
Rubi are also but forms of R. fruticosu^. 

99. ^^ Daucus /7Q/y^<7mM^ (Gouan).'' — Having rcodl 
additional specimens from Mr. Uunti I can now i 
say, that there are two species, perhaps more, in 
The two correspond tolerably well with our twoj 
species, Carota and niaritimus^ or Hispanicus. The 
to my eyes, look like D. Carota^ arc referred bj 
Lemann to the D. neglectus (Lowe.) 

100. « UmbcUifera.'* (Petrosehnuoi Seuherii 
infra). — Mr. Hunt informs me that my No. 100 mu 
Kundmannla Sicula (Flo. A20.) from the tocatit 
tlie plant so designated interrogatively in the 
to. The description cited by Seubert (Dc Cand. 
is sufficiently applicable to bear out Mr* Hunt's sn 
the fruit of the Aroric plant being unknown at 
Seubert's Flora. But assuredly the plant of 
belongs to a diflfcrcnt gvrms, by it* fruit; and It 
other ^uflicient Jistinctioux from a specimen of 
maHnia, shown to me by Dr> C. Letnsnm llie 



BOTANY OF THE AZORES. 387 

small, and it is by no means with confidence that I now refer 
this dubious plant to the genus Petroselmum^ where it will 
stand next to the P. trjfoliatum (Wats.) According to present 
unnatural arrangements of the Umbellifera into generic 
groups, I have felt obliged to separate the Ammi Huntii from 
these two ; although the three species, united with a fourth 
from the Island of Flores (of which I possess only a single 
very immature specimen), might form together a natural- 
looking genus by their similarity of foliage and general habit. 
They combine badly with the other species of Petroselinum ; 
and the Ammi HuniU is referred to its genus more on 
account of the pinnatifid involucrum than aught else, 
though, on the whole, associating with A. majus better 
than the others do with any species of Petroselinum. In 
the annexed character I compare the new species with P. 
trtfotiatumi thus : 

Petroselinum Seubertianum (H. Wats, ms.) — Caule striato 
divaricato-ramoso, petiolis vaginantibus, foliis ternato-pin- 
natis bitematisve, foliolis ovatis acutis basi ssepissime 
iniequalibus margine calloso omnibus (etiam supremis) dense 
aerrulatis, involucri foliolis lineari-lanceolatis integerrimis, 
raro nuUis aut caducis, involucelli ovatis cuspidatis margini- 
bus merobranaceis. Herba (annua seu biennis?) glabra, 
pedalis aut minor. Folia pinnata, biternata, &c. Foliola 
ineequaliter cordato-ovata, ssepius ovata, rarius elliptico- 
lanceolata. Pedunculi foliis oppositi vel in ramuUs termi- 
aales. Umbelln multiradiatee 10—20. Umbellulse multi- 
florae 20^40. Flores luteoalbidi ? Kundmannia Sicula, 
^^. Flo* Azo. 42. Habitat ad vias juxta litus insularum 
Pico et San Miguel. Prnter characteres indicatos a P. 
M/oHaio (Wats.) gracili, stricto, elato, distinguendum statura 
humiliori, caule robustiore, e basi fere ramosissimo, foliis 
crassis fere omnibus decompositis, et serraturis numerosis 
etiam in supremis. 

105. Viburnum Tinus (Linn.) In the numerous speci- 
mens sent by Mr. Hunt, there are many with the bark of 
Uie young shoots densely hairy, others with the same part 

F F 2 



388 BOTANY OF THE AZORES. 

quite smooth ; but I do not see that this character is 
eiated constantly with any other differences between the 
specimens. 

113. Campanula VidalH (Wats.)— Found by Mr. Hunt 
locally in St. Michaels and St. Mary's. Inflorescence 
racemose and few flowered, about 3 to 8, or panicled and 
many flowered, about 10 to 30 ; that is, varying with the 
luxuriance of the plants. The figure (Hook loon. 684), was 
taken from a specimen with a few flowered raceme, and 
with the flowers scarcely sufficiently advanced for «• 
hibiting the "corset-like contraction** near the middle of 
the corolla. It is not improbable that this remarkable con- 
traction may be exa^erated in the dried specimens, owing 
to the thickness of the capsule, which will prevent the base 
of the corolla firom contracting so much in proportion to the 
middle or upper part. Being glutinous, and of a texture 
between succulent and coriaceous, it is a troublesome plant 
to dry J both adhering to the paper, and becoming mouldy 
through the long retention of its moisture. It is, apparently, 
Br true Campawda^ as indicated by the more advanced firnit 
on some of Mr. Hunt's specimens. 

1 22. Erythraa Massani (Sweet)—** I can never believe thia 
is the same as the Armorican plant.*' P. B. Webby B9g. 

128. Myosotia Azorica (Wats.) — I have raised numerous 
plants of this and the pale-flowered M. maritima (Hochst) 
each year since 1842. They seldom survive to flower again 
a second season, although sufficiently protected from frost, a 
few degrees of which they will bear without injury. It is 
curious to observe that the rich deep colour of the corolla 
of M. Azorica has a tendency to fail in this country. My 
plants have run so much into varieties in the colour of the 
flowers, and even in the form both of flowers and leaves, that 
I am now unable to say of some of the specimens, whether they 
should be referred to Azorica or maritima ; while, too, some 
of them approximate to the Canary species which is labdled 
" M. sylvatica,'* by Messrs. Webb and Bourgeau. In their 
wild state in the Axores, and the first year in Ekigland, they 



BOTANY OF THE AZORES. 389 

ippeared as easily distinguishable as any other two species 
of their genus ; and, indeed, among the cultivated plants^ 
equally distinct examples may still be found, although others 
run so much alike. All the specimens of M, maritima, which 
I collected in Pico, the only habitat in which I found the 
species, were growing on the rocks by the shore, exposed to 
the sun, and with very little soil for their roots. All were 
obviously unhealthy, being shrivelled, twisted and distorted, 
with fruit mostly abortive, and only 2 to 4 inches in height. 
But wken grown in flower-pots in England, with a sufiiciency 
of soil, supplied with water, and kept rather in shade> they 
become straight, healthy plants, of 12 or 18 inches high, 
bearing a resemblance to our M. syhaiica. Some of the 
pale-flowered examples of M. Azarica very nearly meet these 
highly developed examples of the if. mantima ; not only in 
the pale tint of the flowers^ but also in the more rounded 
segments of the corolla, and the enlarged circle or '* eye'' 
around the orifice of the tube ; the segments or lobes of the 
corolla being obliquely cordate, and the ^^ eye'' very small, 
in the deep-eoloured plants of 3f. Azorica. It would be 
difficult to express on paper the differences in those small 
folds or elevations of the corolla, which surround the orifice 
of the tube in Myosoiis, Primula^ &c. ; but they afford practi- 
cal distinctions to the eye, available for recognizing species. 

148. Hyoscyamus Canarieniis (Ker.) — ^* Not distincdy 
different from the H. Albui of Dalmatia, which is a very 
variable plant." Dr. R. C Alexander, in letter. 

150. Sibthorpia Ewop^a (linn.) — It may be worth men- 
tioning that two or three good botanists have sought to 
correct my labels for this plant, by intimations that it is the 
Duandra pro$irata; but assuredly it is our English Sib- 
ihorpia. The DUandra has not been found in the Azores^ 
though native of other Atlantic islands. 

156. Lysimachia Azarica (Homem^) — ^The specimens col- 
lected by myself in Fajral and Flores, and the plants raised 
from their seeds in England, were so easily distinguished 
from L. nemoTum (Linn.) by their narrowly elliptic (not 



390 BOTASfT OF THB AZORB8. 

subulate) calycine segments, and their procumbent (not pros- 
trate and rooting) sterns^ with the less describable dif- 
ferences of colour and susceptibility to frost, that I did not 
hesitate to retain L. Azorica as a distinct species in my 
formerly published 'Catalogue/ Since that time I have 
received a root from St. Michael's, accidentally in the soil 
with other living plants^ kindly sent to me by Mr. Hunt; 
and as this example from St. Michael's, as well as other 
dried specimens from the same island, stand between my 
former examples of Zr. Azorica and the English L, nemorwm^ 
both in the form of the calyx, and in their long, trailing, 
and occasionally rooting stems, I find it impossible now to 
indite any written character which will distinguish L. AzoricB 
from L. nemorum* Nevertheless, the eye can do so by slight 
peculiarities of colour and form ; and a frosty night shows 
most convincingly that some difference of constitutional 
susceptibility exists between the English species and its 
Azoric representatives, though the leaves of the latter will 
bear some few degrees of frost. 

178. Thrincia nudicaulis (Lowe). — It has been made quite 
clear by Mr. Hunt's specimens, that both this species and 
T. hirta (De Cand.) are found in the Azores. The chief 
character on which Mr. Lowe founded his species, is imper- 
fectly obvious at an early stage in the growth of the fruit, 
and my own specimens being immature, and perhaps mii^led, 
doubts arose in referring them to either, as mentioned in the 
" Catalogue.'' 

180. Tolpis umbellaia (Bert.)— The Aaoric plant is doubt- 
less identical with the T. criniia (Lowe) of Madeira; bat 
scarcely distinct from the European T. umbellaia. 

182. Tolpis macrorhiza (De Cand.) — After examining 
numerous specimens from Mr. Hunt, I still consider that 
this species is an Azoric as well as a Madeira plant. Some 
of the specimens are referable to the T. nobilU (Hochst) 
Besides these, there are many other forms among then, 
which do not well accord with either of the species here 
mentioned; but whether there are more than those two 



BOTANY OF THE AZORES. 391 

species, or whether all the various Azorean forms belong to 
one or two very variable species, I do not feel myself pre- 
pared to say. Indeed, the genus Tolpis (or SchmidHa) in the 
Azores, seems to be as troublesome in species and varieties, 
as is that of Hieracium in Britain. 

183. Microderis rigens <De Cand.)— I believe it may now 
very confidently be stated that the M. umbeUata (Hocbst.) is 
identical with the M. tigens (De Cand.) The scape varies 
in being glabrous or slightly hispid, and the inflorescence is 
strictly neither umbellate nor corymbose ; though the latter 
term applies well enough in most cases. 

188. Bidens leucantha (Willd)— *^A mere variety of B. 
pilosa (Linn.)" P. B. Webb, Esq. 

200. Senecid Maderensis (De Cand.) — If we take the pre- 
sence or absence of stipules, as the diagnostic character 
between Maderensis and malv^tfoliuSf both species occur in 
the Azores. Judging by the specimens, living and dried, 
the latter may be a more robust plant ; its stem rising to 
three feet high, under cultivation, and being as thick as a 
finger near the ground. 

214. Atriplex patula (Linn.) — ^This species may be held 
doubtful. My specimens are in an early stage, and possibly 
belong to A. rosea (Linn.) 

223. Polygonum * » ♦ ? — This is identical with the spe- 
cies distributed among Bourgeau's Canary plants, under the 
name of Persicaria serrulaia (Moq. et Webb.) As I found 
it myself in two of the islands, and have since received 
specimens from a third, St. Michael's, while I neither found, 
nor have received, the Polygonum Persicaria^ it seems pro- 
bable that the species enumerated under this latter name, in 
Flora Aaorica, may be the Polygonum serrulaium (Lag.), and 
not the Linnsean P. Persicaria. 

222. Polygonum maritimum (Linn.) — The straggling habit 
and long intemodes of the plants raised in England, which 
led me to suspect the identity of P. marUimum (Linn.) and 
/'. Rati (Bab.), belong only to those of the first season ; as 
they become older, the shorter and more bushy habit of P. 



392 BOTANY OF THE AZORES. 

mariiimum becomes evident* Having cultivEted both species 
under similar conditions, I am disposed to receive them as 
sufficiently distinct. 

226. Persea Azorica ^Seub.) — <^It is a vcnm^tme Laurri. 
very nearly allied to L, nobilis^ and the second species of die 
genus, distinguished by very few technical differences firom its 
congener, principally the greater number of stamens, the 
female flower, &c. It is Laurw Canariensisj Webb, et Berth. 
Geogr. Bot* and Webb, Phytogr. Can. sect. 3, p. 227^ t. 204, 
non Willd."— P. B, fFebb, Esq., in letter. Mr. Hunt 
thinks that there are two species under this name, in the 
Azores, and which are familiarly distinguished by the inha- 
bitants. 

230. Euphorbia Styxiana (Wats.) — Mr. Webb considers 
this only a large form of E. melltfera (Ait.) whidi attains an 
arborescent stature in the Canaries. Through the idndness 
of Mr. Hunt I am now in possession of several young living 
plants of it ; and so far as can at present be seen, they tend 
rather to confirm than to oppose the suggestion of Mr. 
Webb. I intended the name to commemorate the Styx 
steam-vessel, not to be " Stygia.*' 

238. Urtica Azorica (Hochst) — Both Mr. Webb and Dr. 
Alexander pronounce this to be the Urtica neglecia (Gnss.) 
Others have supposed it the U, membranaeea (Poit.) 

242. Juniperus Owycedrus (Linn. ?) — *^ This plant appears 
to me identical with a species I collected near Cadis, on the 
aea-coast beneath the village of Barossa, (vide It. Hisp. 
p. 10,) and which I considered as J. macrocarpa. It is 
<ii8tinct from the Canarian J. Cedrus (Nob.) which becomes 
41 fine tree, with pendulous branches, like those of the Goa 
Cedar.'"— P. B. Webb, E99. The Aaoric Juniper also be- 
comes a tree, with a short stem, from one to two feet in 
diameter, and often with the branchlets elegantly pendu- 
lous. 

252. Potamogeton natam (Linn.)-*-This, and perhaps n. 
263 ("P- heten^hyVMS, Linn.?*') also, may be really P. 
fiuitanM (Roth.) 



BOTANY OF THE AZORES. 393 

254. Losala purpurea (Wats.) — Quite different from n. 
152 of Bourgeau's Canary plants, distributed under the name 
of L. purpurea (Link.) and L, Berthelotii (Nees). The spe- 
cimens from Bourgeau approximate more closely to Luzula 
ekgan* (Lowe); and if the specific name "purpurea** is 
rightly applied to those specimens, it cannot be retained for 
the Azoric species. For a specific name to this latter, we 
most either adopt the inconveniently long ^* purpureO'Splen- 
dkns*^ of Seubert, or my own earlier one of " Azorica^^ which 
I proposed in this Journal, in 1843, (and used on my labels) 
instead of the incorrectly applied ^^elegamP I may refer to 
the * Catalogue* for further explanations. 

284. Setaria verticillata (Beauv.) — Mr. Hunt has fully 
confirmed this as an Azoric plant, by sending dried specimens 
of it from St Michael's. It also came up in earth sent at the 
roots of other things from the same island. 

293. Deyeuxia Azorica (Hochst.) — Dr. Charles Lemann 
pronounces my n. 293 to be Piptalherum mtUtiflorumJBeBXLY.) 
It may still be the D. Azorica as well. 

298. Agrostis pallida (De Cand. ?)— The same excellent 
botanist considers my n. 298 to be certainly the Deyeuxia 
aupUosa (Hochst.) ; as, indeed, was suggested in the ' Cata- 
logue.* It seems doubtful, however, whether either of these 
two plants should be placed in the genus Deyeuxia. 

308. Bromus mollia (Linn.) var. — This variety (or, pos- 
sibly, species) has now been raised four successive years in 
England, and preserves its peculiarities quite unchanged. 
But it is difficult to describe its differences on paper, com- 
pared with the ordinary state of B. mollis. The dense panicle, 
longer hairs, and more oblong form of the spikelets, give an 
eyesight distinction, but scarcely a describable one. 

310. Brachypodium sylvaticum (Beauv.) — Both the gla- 
brous and pubescent varieties have been sent from St. 
MichaePs by Mr. Hunt. 

331. Nephrodium Fcenisecii (Lowe.)— The typical form 
(**alatum'* Lowe) is now clearly ascertained to be identical 
with Aqridium dUatatum var. recurvum (Bree, in Mag. Nat. 

VOL. VI, G G 



394 BOTANY OP THE AZORES.' 

Hist. 1831), which is the Lastrea recurva (Newm.) of tlie 
present day, among English botanists. The identity having 
been pointed out to Mr. Newman, he announced the fact 
in the Phytologist for May, 1846. Mr. Webb independently 
arrived at the same conclusion about the same time, and 
mentioned it to me by letter, dated June 3, 1846. The 
oblong variety {" productumi*' Lowe) may be a distinct species, 
as is believed by Mr. Newman ; but it appears nearer to 
Lastrea recurva, than to the Lastrea muUifiora (Newm.), 
which is the L. dilatata of other English authors. It wiU be 
seen from the ' Supplementary List,' that this latter species 
has also been found in the Azores by Mr. Hunt. If thit 
zealous botanist would collect a number of these Lastreas, it 
is far from improbable that we should make out more than 
these two species in the Azores. 

345. Ophioglossum vulgatum (Linn.) — My specimens, col- 
lected in Flores, differed so very little from some English 
examples of O. vulgatum^ that I referred them to this species ; 
although they may be O. Lusitanicum equally. But I some- 
what hastily assumed, that the Ophiofflossum of the Flora 
Azorica must be the same species with that from Flores. 
Having since received from Mr. Hunt a few St. Mfchad*s 
specimens of a diminutive OpMoghssum^ producing several 
narrowly lanceolate fronds from the same rhizoroa, I cannot 
doubt that this is identical with the Ophioglossum from 
Terceira, described in Flora Azorica, under name of •*©. 
polyphyllum (A. Braun !)" I trust Mr. Hunt will ascertain 
whether this small species or variety can be traced up to tiie 
larger 0. Lusitanicum or vulgatum^ by intermediate forms, or 
whether it is always diminutive in St. Michael's, and regu- 
larly produces several leaves, barren and fertile^ from a single 
root. 

3. Species enumerated in the Flora Ajioriea ; but of yfkieh J 
have seen no specimens, 

Nigella arvensis, L. 
Chelidonium majus, L. 



BOTANY OF THE AZORES. 395 

Fumaria offieinalis, L. 
Nasturtium flexoosum, 8eub, 
Alyssum maritimuai; L, 
Hypericum perforatum^ L, 

? H. decipiens, Wats. 
Enrum Lens, L, 
TVifolium lappaceuro, L. 
Lotus Creticus, L. 

? L. macranthus, Lowe, 
Medicago lupuliiia, L. 

M pentacycla, De Camt. 

Potentilla anserina, L, 
Poterium Sanguisorba, L. 
Illeoebrum verticiilatum, L, 
Petroselinum sativum, Hoffnu 
Pimpinella dichotoma, L. 
Kundmannia Sicula, De Cand. 

? Petroselinum Seubertianum, JFats. 
Galium MoUugo, L. 
Scabiosa neglecta, Hornem, 

? S. nitens, A. e/ S. 
Vaccinium Maderense, Link, 
V longiflorum, fFiekst. 

? ¥• cylindraceum, Swi. 
Cioendia filiformis, Beich. 
Erythopa latifolia, 8m. 

? E. Centaurium, Per$. 
Myosotis stricta^ lAnk. 
Origanum Creticum, L. 

? O. virens, JUnAr. 
Lyoopersicum esculentum, Dm. 
Euphrasia ofRcinalis^ L. 
Linaria Sieberi, Reich. 
L ■ ■ cirrhoaa, 

? L, GriBoa, Chav. 
Tolpis barbata^ GaerU 

G G 2 



396 BOTANY OF THE AZORES. 

Gnaphalium Pensylvanicum, WiUd. 
Chrysanthemum pinatifidum, L. 
Senecio pseudo-elegans, Le89. 
Calendula officinalis, L. 

? C. arvensis, L. 
Plantago media, L, 
' Lagopus, Zr. 

Chenopodium rubrum, L. 
Rumez strictus, lAnk. 
Polygonum Persicaria, L. 

? P. serrulatum, Lagasc. 
Ricinns communisi Lam. 
Urtica Lowei, Seub* 
Scilla maritima, L. 
Ruscus androgynus, Zr. 
Lemna minor, L. 
Potamogeton pectinatus, L. 
Juncus maritimus, L. 
Sdrpus maritimus, Zr. 
Carex rigidifolia, Hochst, 
Arundo brevis, Roth. 
Poa loliacea, Huds. 
Allantodea axillaris, Kaulf. 
Adiantum Capillus Veneris, L. 

In addition to the numerous specimens sent on difierent 
occasions by Mr. Hunt, both to myself and to the Botanical 
Society of London, I also deceived some others from Dr. 
Mackay, English vice-consul at Flores; and Mr. Sansom 
has shown me some few which had been brought to him 
from St. Michael's. But I have not yet been able to see 
Azoric examples of any of the above species enumerated in 
the Flora Azorica; some of which may be not truly native, 
(Ex. : CheUdonium majuSy Petroselinum sativumy) while others 
may have been published under incorrect names, (Ex. : Hf* 
pericum perforatum^ Kundmanma Sicula^) and others^ again. 



AJjQJE TASMANICifi. 397 

are confessedly garden plants, (Ex.: Jjycaperricum esculenr- 
tum^ Ru9CU9 .androffynua.) By thus printing a list of such 
species, I may call the attention of Mr. Hunt and other 
botanists more particularly to them, and so eventually lead 
to their confirmation or rejection in any future Flora of the 
Islands. 



Algjb Tasmanicjb : being a Catalogue qf the Species of 
AhQjR collected on the shores of Tasmania by Ronald 
Gunn, Esq., Dr. Jeannerett, Mrs. Smith, Dr. Lyall, 
and Dr. J. D. Hooker ; with characters of the new species^ 
by J. D. HooKBR, M.D., and W. H. Harvby. 

In the 3rd. vol. of this Journal, p. 430 et seq.. Dr. Harvey 
described a considerable number of the species now to be 
enamerated. Since the publication of his paper much time 
has elapsed, and other collections have reached us^ which 
afforded several new species, whose characters are here 
given. Full descriptions of the whole, with figures of 
several of the more interesting, have further appeared in 
Dr. Harvey^s ^'Nbbbis Austbalis/' in the press. 



Ser. I. RHODOSPERMEiE, or FLORIDEiE. 
Fam. 1. ReoDOMBLBiB, J. Ag. 

1. Claadea elegans, Lam. — Harv. I. c.p. 430. 
Hab. Geoxge Town, Mr. Ounn, 

2. Dictymenia tridem, Orev. — Harv. L c.p.'430. Ner. Austr. 
it 

Hab. Geoiige Town, Mr. Ounn. 

3. Dictymenia eo^ferta^ HtLry.—F\tcus cof^ertus^ Br. in 7\ini. 
Kit. t. 184. Delesseria cof^ertoy Ag. 8p. Alg. \. p. 177* 
Harv. Ner. Austr. t. 8. 

Hab. Tasmaniaj Mr. Gunn. A single specimen. 



398 ALOiB TASIIANICA. 

4. Pollexfenia pedicellaia, Harr. 1. c. p. 431. Harr. Ner. 
Austr. t. 5. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Ounn. 

Jbannerbttia^ Hook. fil. et Harv. 

Frons proUfera. PhyUodia plana, membranacea, costa era* 
nescenti percursa, striis curvatis e costa ad marginem 
oblique proficientibus notata, e cellnlis qnadratis ooloratia 
formata. Ceramidia ignota. Stichidia lanoeolata faadca* 
lata per totam frondem di^persa, tetrasporaa duj^ct aerie 
foventia.— Alga Australasica, spedosay purpurea, foUaeeOf 
phpUodUs hbatis. 

5. Jeannerettia hbataj Hook. fil. et Hanr. in Harv. Ner. 
Austr. p. 20. t. 4« 

Hab. Port Arthur, Dr. Jeannerett. 

G. Lenormandia marginata^ Hook. fil. et HarV.; pbyllodiis 
tenui-membranaceis lato-lineari-oblongis obtusissimis sub- 
emarginatis ciliatis, e Aargine limboque prolifekis, atichidiis 
marginalibus sparsisque^ nervo tenui. — Harv. Ner. Amtr. 
p. 19. t 2. 

Hab. Mouth of the Tamar, Mr. Gunn. 

7* Polyphacum Smithue^ Hook. fil. et Harv.; pbyllodSs 
anguste linearibus basi cuneatis obtusissimis subematgi- 
natisve ramulis lanceolatis simpliciusculis minutis obaitis, 
stichidiis solitariis pedicellatis corymboso-multipaititis 
secus marginem frondis ordinatis.— ffarv. iVi^. Atut.p. If. 
t 3. 

8. Polyzonia incisa, J. Ag. in Linn. 15. p. 24* 

Hab. Tasmania, parasitical on various Algee ; common. 

9. Polysiphonia Hookeri, Harv. Ner. Aust. p. 40. 1. 12. Pel 
acanthophora, Harv. in Lond. Jcum* Bot. 3. j»« 44 1» {n0i ^f 
KUtz.) 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

10. Polysiphonia Hystrix^ Hook, fih et Harv.; fitmde m- 
tacea cartilaginea inarticulata vage ramosa vel sdidiebo-' 
toma, ramts majoribus diataii^bae secuAdis allermsve ton- 
giiMtmig arcuatis parum divisis, rainoribua patentibiu flimi- 
libus, omnibus per totam lon^tudiiiem ramulis mukificfis 



AhQM tasmanicjb:. 399 

ona8ti09 ramulis articulatis breviasimia subulatis junioribus 
basi tantum BpinuloBii adultis glomerato-spinosiasimis api- 
culatis, articttUs diametro sublongioribiis bistriatis, — Harv. 
Ner.At0tr.p.4hi.U. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr, Gunn» 

11. FoljmphQmAjirute^f Harv. Lond. Journ. Bot. I.e. p. 439. 
Hab, Taamanii^ Mr, Gum* 

12. Polysipboniayii^cefceytf^ Harv. 1. c, p. 439. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

13. Polysipbonia canceliaia, Harv. L c. p. 440. Ner. Austr. 
t. 15. 

Hab. Very common ; parasitical on Sargassum para" 
4o9ums &c. 

14. Polysipbonia mollis^ Hook. fil. et Harv. ; frondibus arti- 
culatis pellucidis basi setaceis mox capillaribus supra 
tenuissimis flaocidis gelatinosis, caule irregulariter dicho* 
tomo decomposite ramosissimo^ ramis ramulisque gradatim 
tenuioribus erecto-patentibus, axiUis acutis, ceramidiis 
numerosissimis ovatis, articulis bistriatis inferioribus dia^ 
metro lequalibus mediis duplo-triplove ultimis sesqui-sub- 
duplo longioribus. Harv. Ner» Austr, p. 43. 

Hab. Parasitical on the larger Algn, Mr. Gunn. 

15. Polysipbonia versicolor, Hook. fil. et Harv. ; majuscula, 
coccinea madefacta aurea, fronde e filis repentibus orta 
ramoaiMima setacea parum atteuuata^ caule indiviso furca- 
tove per totam longitudinem ramis lateralibus ramulisque 
subulatis onusto, ramis patentibus simplicibus v, divisis^ ra- 
mulis simplicibus subacutis patentibus altemis secundisve 
subdisticbisy articulis diametro sesquilongioribus, sipboni- 
bus subdeoem, ceramidiis infra apices ramulorum sessilibus 
ovatis» ffarv, Ner. Amtr^p. 43. /• 16. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr* Gunn. 

16. Polyaipbonia monUifera, Hook, fit et Harv.; majusculai 
coocbea, fronde (e filis repentibus orta ?) oapillari fiaccida 
daeoBiposite ramosa, caule parum diviso ramis lateralibus 
ramolisque filiformibus ornato, ramis altemis v. s«pe se** 
cundis erecto-patentibus simplicibus^ ramulis simplicissimis 



400 ALGiB TASMANICiE. 

capillaceis gracilibus secundis alternisve, aiticalis diametxo 
subtriplo longioribus, siphonibus 10-12, tetraspoiis don- 
gatis juxta ramulorum basin in seriem moniliformein or- 
dinatis magnis internis rubria. Harv. Ner, AuBir.p. 49. 
U 16. 

17. Polysiphonia ericoides, Harv.; posilla, fronde e fiKs 
repentibus orta, erecta articulate parum ramosa, ramulis 
subulatis simplicibus quadrifariis imbricatis denais veatita, 
ramis similibus, articulis diametro triplo brevioribus multi- 
striatis, siphonibus 16, geniculis omnibus hyalinis. Harv. 
Ner. Austr. p. 50. 

Hab. Tasmania, Rev, Mr. Eunng. 

18. Polysiphonia cladostephua, Mont. — P. byssoclados, Harv. 
L c. p, 436. 

Hab. Tasmania; very common. Parasitical on Sarffossa, 

19. Dasya Gunfdana^ Harv. Ner. Aust. t. 17. — PoL Gan- 
niana, Harv. L c. p. 437- 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

20. Dasya Laurendanaj Harv. Ner. Austr. t. 18. — ^Pol. Laa- 
renciana, Harv. L c. p. 438. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

21. Dasya capillaria. Hook. fil. et Harv. ; punicea, csspitosa, 
caulibus capillaribusintricatisperflaccidis sensim attenuatis 
decomposite ramosis, ramis primariis basi inarticolatis 
pluries alteme ramosis, ramulis multifidis in filaarachnoidea 
tenuissima dichotoma desinentibus, articulis ramonun dia- 
metro 3-5-plo, ramellorum multiplo longioribus, atichidiis 
pedicellatia lanceolatis attenuatis. — Harv. Ner, Aust. p, 60* 
/. 19. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

22. Dasya vUlosa, Harv. 1. c. p. 433. Ner. Austr. t. 20. 
Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

33. Dasya naccarioideSy Harv. I. c. p. 432. Ner. Austr. t. 22. 
Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

24. Dasya verticillataj Harv. 1. c. p. 434. Ner. Austr. t, 24. 
Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

25. Dasya bolboduete^ Harv. c. p. 434. Ner. Austr. t« 25. 



kJjQM TASM ANICiB. 4ol 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gnnn. 

26. Dasya hormocIadM, J. Ag. in Linn. 15. p. 32. Harv. 
Ner. Aastr, ined* 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. The Tasmanian sped- 
mens are much larger and more luxuriant than those 
described by Agardh, which we have examined in the Her- 
barium of Senator Binder, of Hamburgh, but otherwise 
the same. 

27* Dasya ceramioides, Harv. L c. p. 485. Ner. Austr. ined, 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Crunn* 

Fam. 2. CfiONDRiEiB, J. Ag. 

28. Cladhymenia GunmH^ Harv. — Laurenda ? membranacea, 
Harv. I. c.p. 443. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

29. Laurencia elata^ Hary. — ^L. pinnatifida, |3. elata, Ag. Sp. 
Alg. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. 6tmn, Dr. Jeannerett^ &c. — A common 
form in Tasmania, perhaps worthy of specific distinction. 
The frond is 12-18 inches high, 3-4 times pinnated, and 
becomes a fine pinky red in fresh water. 

30. Laurencia obtuia, laanonr.-^Harv. I. c. p. 444. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

31. Laurencia botryaides, Gaill. — Harv. L c.p. 444. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

32. Laurencia papiUoia^ Qrev.-^Harv. L c. p. 444. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gtmn. 

33. Laurencia Fcrsterij Grev. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

34. Laurencia doiyphylla^ Qr^r.—Harv. I. c.p. 444. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

35. Laurencia /aiiiunma, Qrey.^Harv. I. e. p. 444. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

36. Lanrenciayiff{/blui, Hook. fil. et Harv. ; fronde circum- 
acriptione oonioo-ovata dense ramosa robusta, caule indi- 
▼iao y. yage ramoso, ramis lateralibus crebris altemis 
quadrifiuriis basi et apice attenuatis simplicibus pinnatis 



402 AI.GJI TA8MAN1GA. 

bipinnatisve, pinnulis fusifonniboB plus minw attennatiB 
obtusiusculis. 

Hab. Sullivan's Cove^ Dr. LyaU.^'Dx. Lyall's specun^u, 
of which we have seen but two, are young, and posatbij^ 
at a later period of growth, would have presented a very 
diffisrent aspect. They are mudi more robust than L. 
temdmma, with the branches and ramuli xemarkably fusi- 
form, but may possibly be connected with that species. 

37* Dehsia elegans. Hook. fil. et Harv. -— Bonnemabonis 
elegans, Ag. Sp. Alg. 1. p. 198« Uofv. L cp. 442, 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

88. Lictoria taxiformisy J. Ag. in Linn. 15. p. 22. — ^Aspara- 
gopsis Delille, M(mU Fl. Can. p. 8. /• 6. Cbondria taad- 
formis, Ag. Sp. 1. p. 368. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn, (1288.) — Avery widely distributed 
plant, being found in the^ Mediterranean, at the Canary 
Islands, and on the S. American coast, as well as in Tas- 
mania. Mr. Gunn's specimens are remarkably fine. 

39. Champia Taemanica, Harv. 1. c. p. 407* 1. 19. 

Hab» Port Arthur, Mrs. Smith; Circular Head, Mr. 0mm* 

40. Chyloclodia Tasnumteoy Harv. 1. c. p. 444. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gtmn. Perfect specimens are stiB 
wanting to complete the history of this spedest 

41. Chylodadia q^Aw, Hook. fil. et Harv. ; majuscola, cauk 
distincto subsimplici; ramis ramulisque articulato-OQ»- 
strictis oppositis v. verticillatiB sparsisve elongatis iterm 
divisis, articulis ramulorum diametro brevioribus» cem* 
midiis magnis ovatis. C, kal^brem^ Harp. L c. EapcL 5fa 
— ^var. (3. arcuata; ramis ramulisque sparsis arouatis apue 
s«pe hamatis. 

Hab. George Town, Gunn. — ^Nearly related to C. Miformtf 
which it greatly resembles, bat from which it is essentially 
distinguished by the differently shaped oeramidaay which 
are also, proportionably, much larger^ ^. is a remaikabb 
variety, distinguished by its arching branches, whose tips 
curl round other AIgm in their neighbouihood* 

42. Chrysimenia davellosoj J. Ag. 



ALGA TASMANlOJfi. 40lk 

Hab. Sulliran's Cove, Dr. LyaU; George Town, Mr. Giiim. 

Fam. 3. Dslbssbriks^ /. Aff. 

43. Delettwria crauinervia, Moat. 
Hab. SuUivan'a Cove, Dr. LyaU. 

44. Delesseria endim^fMay Hook. fil. et Harv. ; fronde Imeari 
▼age diohotoma membrana crispatissima alata^ margine 
lobato, lobis deotiiim diehotomo-multifidis obtasisj soris in 
lobtdonim apioibas sparsis circolaribtts. 

Hab. Tasmania, R. Gunn. Esq. — A very distinct spedes, 
having many essential characters in common with D. alatai 
bot immediately distinguished by the excessively curled 
ftnd finally lobed margin. The fixmd is 6-8 inches high^ 
or more, with a strong oosta> which gradually becomes 
&int in the younger segments. 

45. Delesseria (Hemineura) ^9Mbsa, Hook. fil. et Harv.; 
fironde tenni^membranacea late ovata pinnatifida v. bi- 
tripinnatifida, pinnulis lobatis obtusis subserratis^ costa 
angostissima interrupta basi et apioe laciniarum evanefr- 
oente, oocoidiis conioo-comutis in costa loborum sessilibuB 
solitariis, soris marginalibus sparsis. NUophyUum «nt- 
n/GTve^ Harv. m Herb* 

Hab« Tasmania, Mr, Ouim. — This is a remarkable plant in 
many respects, and possibly may become the type of a 
new genus, for which we would propose the name Hemi' 
neura, in allusion to the ourious interruption in the costa 
of the firondy whioh becomes obsolete toward the base 
and apex of all the lobes, primary as well as secondary. 
The form of the oonoeptades is also singular. We are not 
sufficiently acquainted with D. interrupta, Ag«, and are 
unable to say whether it should rank in the same group 
with thia or not. 

46. Nitophyllum iffine, Harv. 1. c. p. 447> 
Hab. l^Mmaaia, Mr. Cktnn. 

47* NitophyUamjMUMla/aiii, Qter.'^Harv. I. e.p. 446. 

Hab. Tasmania^ Mr^ Qwm. 

48. Nitophyllum Gufmanam, Harv. ; fusco-purpurea (?) sic- 



^04 ALQjE TASlffANICJS. 

citate fbsoescensj fronde latissima basi crassiore atipitata 
avenia flabellatiin fissa, laciniis lato-cuneatis plus minoi 
furcatis incisisqae, margine minute eroso-criapatalo, sons 
minutis puctiforinibus densissime apicem yereus sparaia. — 
Harv.inHerb. 1840. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. — Firond 8*12 inches or more 
in expansion, with a very short stem^ which is rapidly dis- 
solved into the thickened, but veinless, base of the les£ 
Colour in the dry state a deep brown, probably a dull 
purple when recent. 

49. Nitophyllum mult^artUwn, Hook. fil. et Harv* ; fronde 
stipitata flabelliformi multipartita, laciniis angusds linean- 
bus dichotomis obtusis, margine plane integro ciliatove, 
soris minutis punctiformibus densissime apicem versos 
sparsis. — NiiophyUum^ n. «p. Harv» L c, p. 446. 

Hab. George Town, Mr^ Gunn ; Sulivan's Cove, Dr. Hooker. 

50. Plocaminm /irocemm, nobis. — Thamnophora procers, J. 
Ag. in Linn. 15. p. 10. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunit, &c. 

51* Flocamium costatum, nobis. — Thamnophora costata, /. 

Ag. L c. p. 10. 
Hab. Tasmania. We fear that T. Cunninghamny Grev., can 

only be considered a narrow variety of this species. 

52. Plocamium anguBium^ nobis. — ^Tham. angusta, J. Ag* L c 
p. 10. 

Hab. Tasmania. Very common. 

53. Plocamium coccineam, var. flexuotwn, nobis ; fronde 
valde fleznosa subdichotoma fulcris hamafis hie illic in- 
structa, ramis elongatis, ramulis angustissimis fere a4>il- 
laribus. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn, (1335). This has a very pe> 
culiar aspect, owing to the great difference in breadth 
between the branches, and the pectinate ramule which 
they bear; but the ramulification is essentially the same 
as that of th^ common state of P. coccineamf which every 
one allows to be a very variable species. 



ALGiB TASMANICiB. 405 

Fam. 4. SpHiBBococcoiDBiS, J. Ag. 

54« Rhodymenia (CalophylUs) coccinea, Harv. — Spheerococcus 
australis, Harv. L c. p. 445. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mrs. Smith and Mr. Gurm. I am obliged 
to alter the specific name, as there is another R. ausiraKs, 
Sond^ a different species. 

55. Rhodymenia (Calophyllis) Lamberti, Grev. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr, Gvnn. A single specimen only. — ^This 
is a very little understood plant, and known to few ; the 
specimens which commonly pass under this name be- 
longing very frequently to R. variegaia, which greatly 
resembles it, but which is a thinner and more meinbranous 
species. 

46. Rhodymenia (Calophyllis) ^mftrtato, Hook. fil. et Harv. ; 
fronde purpurea tenuissime membranacea venulis ramosis 
tenuissimis percursa flabelliformi profunde laciniata, la- 
ciniis cuneatis vage furcatis, mai^ne ramentis creberrimis 
pusillis dentatis polymorphis fimbriato, apicibus laceris. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. 6tmn, (1328.) — ^This has strikingly 
the habit of R. Hombromanay but a much thinner frond, 
composed of fewer layers of cells, and the system of 
internal veinlets, resembling those of PoUex/enia pediceU 
lata, distinguish it firom any state of that species. Unfor- 
tunately the fruit is unknown. 

57* Rhodymenia coralUfia, Grev. ? 

Hab. Port Arthur, Dr. Jeannerett. Imperfect specimens. 

58. Rhodymenia /Mi/mato, var. SamiensiSf Grev. 
Hab. Port Arthur, Dr. Jeannerett^ Dr. Lyall. 

59. Rhodymenia membranacea^ Harv. — Halymenia membra- 
nacea, Harv. L c.p. 448. 

Aab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

60. Gradlaria Uchenaidesy Grev. ? — Harv. I. c.p. 445. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. Imperfect specimens. 

61. Hypnea (Dicranema)ytirce/fo/a, nobis; fronde compressa 
pluries dichotoma, azillis angustis rotundatis, ramis erectis, 
apicibus obtusis. 



406 AhOM TASMANICiB* 

Hab. Port ArthuFj Dr. Jeamnerett; Tasmania, Rev. Mr* 
Ewwff, 

62. Hypnea charoides, Lamour. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gtinn, 1314. 

6B. Hypnea divaricata, Orev. i 

Had. Port Arthur, Dr. Jetmnerett. — The spedmens are 
scarcely sufficient to determine the species. 

64. Hypnea epUcopalia, Hook, fil, et Harv. ; fronde ooocinea 
parum divisa, ramia primarits elongatis, secundariia latera- 
libua crebris basi attenuatis apice aubulatis scBpisaime nudis 
bamatiat ramulia longiosculis erectis haai et apice at- 
tenuatis. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Giiiiii,— Probably a laige growing 
species, but our specimens are not very perfect. 

Fam. 5. Cbtptonbms>e, /. Ay. 

65» Dasyphlsea Tlajmaiuca, Hook. fil. et Harv. ; caule ccsaso 
aubindiviso, ramis lateralibus creberrimis patentibus basi 
et apice subattenuatis obtusis^ ramulis densis quadrifiuiis 
itemm ramulosis anguste-linearibua vix atttfiuatisy ramulis 
fiructiferis perbrevibus fiisiformibus. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mrs. Smith.— We have only seen a angle 
specimen of this plant, which is very different in ap- 
peaifince from the figure given by M. Montagne of bis 
D. insignia ; but in every essential character there is a dose 
affinity. 

66. Ctenodus BiUar^Uerif Kuta. 

Hab. Tasmania, very common. 

67* MehxithBLiijaL abscissa, Mont. 

Hab. Port Arthur^ Dr. Jearmerett. 

68. Iridiea micanSf Bory. (?) 

Hab. Sandy Cove, Dr. jLya//.— Imperfect scraps onlj^ of what 
may be this apecies. 

69. Oelidium ghmduUrfolium, nobis ; Tadioe tamosa, fronde 
filiform! anguatissima elata vage pinnatim ▼• flabeUatim 
lamosa flexuosa^ pinnis distantibus oppositia aut altemia 
nunc apicem ramorum versus fiuciculatis flagelliformibos 



ALOA TASMANICiB. 40/ 

longiBsimia simplicibus farcatisve attenuatis, ramalis seti- 
formibus plus minus vestitis, setis brevibns patentibus 
orebris subulatis clavatisque apice fructiferis. 
Hab. Circular Head, Mrs. Smith. — ^A very beautiful and 
distinct species. 

70. Gdidium comeum, var. crinak. 
Hab. Tasmania. 

71. Ginannia yiir^etfo/a, Mont. 
Hab. George Town, Mr. Ounn. 

72. Acropeltis phgUophorOy nobis ; caule (vix noto) fiUformi 
nunoso, ramis flabelliformibus planis basi obsolete costatia 
pluries dichotomis, laciniis linearibos sape proliferis, axillis 
TOtundatis, margine integerrimo, peltis terminalibns. 

Hab. Port Arthur, Dr. Jeanmereit. — ^The habit of this is 
irery similar to that of Kkodymema jlabeUjfomiMj or R. 
earalHna, but the structure is different, and the fructifica- 
tion resembles that of the typical species. 

73. Gigartina IMda, Orev. 

Hab. Sandy Cove, Dr. LifoU^ Dr. Hooker. 

74. Oigartina ocfevfaritf, var. pinnaia. 

Hab. Sandy Cove, Dr. LyaU. — More branching, and more 
regularly pinnated than the European form, and possibly 
distinct; but without seeing more numerous specimens 
we are unwilling to multiply species. 

75. Gigartina ehondrindeBi nobis; livida, fronde stipitata 
apioe flabellatim ramosa disticha cartilaghiea, ramis plano- 
oompressis linearibos ban cuneatis pluries dichotomis pa- 
tentibus ftatigiatb, axillis latissime rotondatis, apicibus 
obtnsis. 

Hab. SaBdy Bay, Dr.Lyatt.—ln habit this dosely resembles 
tlie narrow farm of CAomdna criqma, but the structure 
is widely different, and exactly similar to that of G. UvUta, 
from which it diSera in ramification. 

Mychodba^ Nov. Oen. 

F^rom oyHndiBoea, carnoso-membranacea, intus lacunis sosgnis 
dHpticis vacuis alveata, tota e filis tenunsimis sxin versus 



408 AhQM TASMANICiV. 

densioribus reticulatim anastomosantibas intricatis con- 
stituta, peripheriam versus in fila brevissima monilifonait 
desinentibus. Tetrtupora zonatim partitas, inter fila peri- 
pherica nidulantes, per frondem disperse. — ^Algae Austra- 
lasicae, Jusco-rubescenies^ memhranac&B^ decomponte ra- 
masa; TB,mis pluries altetTie divisis. 

67. Mycbodea caryu^^a, nobis; fronde camosa flacca ramo- 
sissima, ramis horizontalibus flexuosis crassis pluries 
divisis, minoribus setaceis filiformibus acatis, lamolis 
paacis subalatis ; lacunarum parietibus crassis. 

Hab. Tasmania^ Mr, Gunn, 

77- Mychodea membranacea, nobis; fronde membranaoet 
eUta ramosissima ramis patentibus sensim attenui^ 
pluries divisis minoribus subdichotomis, axillis rotondatiB, 
ramulis elongatis attenuatis acuminatis; lacunarum parie- 
tibus tenuibus. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn, — Greatly resembling ibe 
former in general habit, but here the walls of the internal 
cavities or lacuna are membranaceous and thin, though 
the membrane is traversed by filaments. In M. camo$a 
they are much more gelatinous, very thick, supported by a 
large network of filaments. 

Rhabdonia, Nov, Gen. 

Frons membranacea, fiUformis, ramosissima, e filis longitudi* 
nalibus intertextis ramosis anastomosantibus firondem per- 
currentibus eztus in strato cellulari peripherico desinentibos 
formata; cellulffi periphericse interiores magnsB uni-plaxi- 
seriatee, ezteriores coloratce minores, uniseriatee. TUrs- 
spora oblongee, zonatim partitee, inter cellulas ezteriores 
nidulantes. — ^Alg® Australasics, graeUeB^ purpwrem^ pbtriei 
alieme ramosa ; ramis virgatu. 

78. Rhabdonia coccinea, Harv.; fironde purpurea demam 
coccinea ultra setacea decomposite ramosa pyramidali 
ovatove, ramis virgatis iterum divisis erecto-patentiba% 
ramulis erectis basi angustatis acutis. — Chryrimema eoe* 
cinea, Harv. I. c. p. 



ALGiE TASMANlCiE. 409 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn^ 1301. 

79. Rhabdonia nigrescenSj nobis ; fusco-rubra, siccitate ni- 

grescens, fronde .setacea decomposite ramosissima rigida, 

ramis iteram divisis erecto-patentibus, ramulis basi angus* 

tatb acutis. 
Hab. Tasinaniai Mr, Gunn. — A more slender^ and far more 

rigid plant than the last, and of a much darker colour ; 

but in other respects nearly allied. Their aspect is very 

different, and yet it is not easy to fix on a good specific 

distinction. 

Fam. 6. CsBAMiEiB, J. Ag, 

80« Thamnocarpus Gunnianus^ Harv. in Hook. Ic. PI. t. 662. 

Hab. Port Arthur, Mr. Gunn. 

81. Thamnocarpus? Laurencia^ nobis; purpureo-coccinea, 
fronde cartilaginea filiformi basi cyUndracea apicem versus 
subcompressa ramosissima, ramis altemis erecto-patentibus 
distichis iterum divisis ramulis lanceolatis. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. — Until the fruit of this 
plant be observed, its position must be considered doubtful. 
The structure of the stem is very similar to that of the 
Thamnocarpi. 

83. Thamnocarpus PtUota^ nobis; fironde plano-compressa 
lineari costata vage ,'pinnatim composita disticha, ramis 
erectis ancipitibus pinnatis bipinnatisve^ pinnulis basi vix 
angustatis erectis falcato-incurvis saepe secundis, glandulis 
marginalibus, favellis pedicellatis minutis involucratis, in- 
volttcri ramulis simplicibus incurvis. 

Hab. Port Arthur, Dr. Jeanmrett^ Dr. LyalL In habit this 
greatly resembles a Ptiloia^ especially P. corallina; but 
the structure of the stem is different \ in the fructification 
there is very httle difference. 

83. Ptilota articulataf J. Ag. in Linn. p. 36. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

84. SpjiidiA filameniosa^ Uarv. I. c. p. 449. 
Hab. Tasmania, common, Mr. (runn. 

86. Ceraniium rubrumf Ag.— //arv. /. c.p. 449. 
VOL. VI. H u 



410 XLQM TASMANICiB. 

Hab. Tasmania, common. 

86. Ceramium DeslonffchampsUj Graill. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

87. Ceramium nodomm, Kutz. — C. diaphanum var,, Harv. 
L c. p. 449. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr* Gunn. 

88. Ceramium ramutosum^ nobis ; fronde capillaii sensim 
attenuate dichotoma, azillis inferioribus distentibus sa- 
perioribus approximatis^ ramis ad fere omnia articala 
ramulos tenues breves patentes simplioes furcatosre emit- 
tentibus, apicibus strictis acutis ; articulis inferioribus dia- 
metro 3-4-plo longioribus, zoni distinctis angustis, inter- 
stitiis pellucidis elongatis ; tetrasporis unilateraUbns emm- 
pentibus; favellis subterminalibus involucro polyphyilo 
subtensis. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. Nearly allied to C. nodosum. 

89. Ceramium (Echinoceras) monUe, nobis; fironde setacea 
elate dichotoma moniliformi, ramulis lateralibns tenoi- 
capillaribus pluris dichotomis fastigiatis, apicibus patenti- 
bus obtusis, articulis inferioribus diametro duplo loogiori- 
bus zonis decurrentibus interstitiisque angustissimis, mediis 
superioribusque zonis distinctis interstitiisque diametro 
equalibus, aculeis paucissimis brevissimis biarticulatis in 
ramulis ultimis soliteriis unilateralibus estemis; tetra- 
sporis soliteriis inarticulis turgidis aculeatis immerns ; &• 
vellis involucro polyphyllo subtensis. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. — With the size and much of the 
habit of C. rtibrumf this species approaches C. aeaiMth' 
notum in character. It is a very handsome and distinct 
plant. 

90. 'Ballia Brunonis, Harv. 
Hab. Tasmania^ Mr. Gunn, &c. 

91. Wrangelia /?/iifiioM, Harv. 1. c. p. 450« 
Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

92. Wrangelia crassa^ nobis; fronde pelliicide articukts 
crassa pinnate v. bipinnate, pinnis pinnulisque oppoaitis e 
quoque geniculo ramellos binos oppositos pinnatim com- 



ALOiE TASMANICJB. 4ll 

posttos emittentibus, articulis ramorum diametro triplo 
rmmelloram seztuplo longioribus. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn.— Allied to W. muUifidih but the 
diameter of the frond is thrice as great, and the ramelli 
proportionably thicker. 

93. WrangeUa comosa, Harv. — Callithamnion ? comosum, 
Harv.L c.p.ASl. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. — 'Vhe/avell^ of this plant 
are involucrate, but not terminal In this last respect, there- 
fore, it departs from the character of the typical species. 

94. Wrangelia nobUis^ nobis ; caule dato craaao opaco birsuto 
bi-tripinnatim ramoso, ramis altemis virgatis, pinnis iuee- 
qualibos simplicissimis plus minus articulatis e quoque 
geniculo ramellos tenues binos oppositos emittentibus, 
ramellis purpureis pellucide articulatis monosiplK)niis pin- 
natis subbipinnatisve strictis patentibus, articulis ramorum 
diametro sesquilongioribus pinnarum eequalibus breviori- 
busye ramellorum diametro 4*6plo longioribus. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gufin. — ^The fruit is unfortunately 
a desideratum, and the genus may therefore be questioned. 
The habit is very similar to that of Dasya bolbocfueie^ while 
the structure and mode of branching are more like those 
of W. eomoia, on a much larger scale* The stems are 
6*12 inches long, and as thick as small twine ; the ramelU 
2-S lines in length. 

95. WrangeUa Jeannerettii, nobis ; fronde ultrasetaoea hirt^ 
inartieulata nodosa cartilaginea laze pinnato-dicfaotoma, 
ramis subsimplicibus hirtis junioribus e nodis auperioribus 
nunellos binos oppositos minutissimos crassos tri-quadri- 
pinnatos emittentibus, articulis ramellorum diametro equa- 
libus. 

Hab. Port Arthur, Dr. JeannereiL-^Frmt unknown. Stem 
4«l> inches long, thicker than a hog's bristle, irregularly 
branched. Ramelll exceedingly minute, 3-4 times pinnated, 
very beautiful. 

96. Oriffithsia (Halurus) radiei/brmii, nobis; fronde crassa 
imtfticulata opaca pinnatim bipinnatimve ramosa, ramis 

H H 2 



412 ^ ALGiB TASMAKICA. 

filiformibus distichis sensim attenuatis rameilis brevissimiB 
simplicibus furcatisve incurvis densissime velatis, invo- 
Idcris pedicellatis e foliolis dichotomis arete conniventibiis 
constantibus tetrasporas ad fila multifida affixa foven- 
tibus, articulis ramellorum diametro eqoalibas v. sesqai- 
longioribus. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gufin,Stems 6-8 inehes higb, as 
thick as small twine, twice pinnated. Colour dark-red. It 
resists fresh water much better than any other species of 
the genus. 

97. Griffithsia setacea^ Ag. 

Hab. Tasmania, abundant. Mr. Gunn. 

98. Griffithsia corattina, Ag. — G. flabelliformis, Harv. 1. c p. 
450. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn, — We fear that the Tasmanian 
form^ constituting the G.flabelliformis, Harv.^ is not suf- 
ficiently distinct from some European states of the sj>ecies. 

S9. Callithamnion peUucidumy Harv. — Spyridia peUadda^ 
Harv. L c. p, 449. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr, Gtmn. 

100. Callithamnion cruciatum, Ag. — Hixrv, L c.p, 453. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gnnn. 

101. Callithamnion P/ffmu&i, Ag. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. Parasitical on lActoria laxi- 
formis. 

102. Callithamnion latissimum^ Harv. 1. c. p. 452. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

103. Callithamnion an^rtM/a^tim^ nobis ; filis capillaribus dense 
cflBspitosis pellucide articulatis tenuibus pluries biptnnatim 
decomposite-ramosissimis roseis^ divisuris omnibus al- 
temis^ plumulis (v. ramulis penultimis) virgatb strictis 
longissimis circumscriptione anguste-lanceolatis pinnatis 
erectis, pinnulis abbreviatis patentibus furcatis ▼. secaode 
pinnulatis, tetrasporis globosis solitariis apicem Tersus 
pinnularum sessilibus^ articulis primariis diametro 6-8pIo^ 
secundariis 5plo, ultimis triplo longioribus. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. — Densely tufted, 2-4 indies 
long, capillary, in all parts pelluddly jointed. 



ALOM TASMANlCiB. 413 

Series II. MELANOSPERME^E, or FUCOIDEiE. 

Fam. 1. FuGEiB. 

104. Scaberia Agardhn, Grev. (1830).— Castraltia salicor- 
nioides^ Bich. (1834.) 

Hab. Abundant on rocks, near low water mark at George 
Town, Mr. Gum. (1349 ) 

105. Phyllospora como$a, Ag. 
Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

106. Hormoseira BiUardieri^ Mont. — Fucus moniliformis, 
Labm. t. 262. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gtinn. — ^We fear that authors make 
too many species in this genus. 

107. Seirococcus axUlarU, Grev. — Fucus axillaris, Turn. t. 
146. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

108. Xifhophom BiUardieri^ Mont. — Fucus gladiatus, Labill. 
Hab. Port Arthur, Dr. Jeannereit and Dr. Lyall. 

109. Fucus canfluens, Br. {})—Tum. t. 141. 

Hab. Tasmania, Dr. Lyall. — ^A single very imperfect spe- 
cimen, which we refer to this species with some doubt. 

110. Sargassum /Miroifoanfiii, nobis. — Fucus paradoxus, Turn. 
/. 156. Cystoseira paradoza, Ag. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. Very common. ^This 
plant is paradoxical in many ways. Its male receptacles, 
represented in Turner's figure, are cylindrical and smooth, 
and larger than the females^ which are three-angled, the 
angles armed with conical protuberances. Mr. Gunn's spe- 
cimens are numerous, and in a very perfect state, other- 
wise we should not venture to refer those which bear 
such opposite-looking receptacles to one species, and we 
cannot help fearing that too much stress has been laid on 
the/mn of the receptacles in the Sargaaa. 

111. Saigassum BaoidUmumf nobis in Lond. Joum. 4. 
Has. Sandy Cove, Dr. Lyall and Dr. Hooker. 



414 ALOiE TABMANlCiB. 

112. ShTgajssMm flaccidum^ Sond. in Bot. Zeit. 1845. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

113. Sargassum capiUaceum^ nobis; caule compresso flexaoso 
pinnato bipinnatove^ pinnis longissimis filiformibos apice 
longe attenuates setaceit, foliis capillaribus pliuiea dicho- 
tomis crebris alternis superioribos in pinnulaa foliosas mu- 
tatis, vesiculis globosis muticis supra aziUaribus; reoep- 
taculis . . . . ? 

Hab. Tasmania^ Mr. Gnnn. — Nearly related to S.flaeeiibmy 
but with a somewhat different habit and larger maticoos 
vesicles. It also comes near the variety copiUtfoUum of S. 
pennigerum. 

114. Sargassum heterophyUumy Ag. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. A single, imperfect specimen. 

115. Blossevillea torulosaf Dne.— Fucus torulosus^ Ttam^t. 
157. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

1 16. Blossevillea retroflexa^ Dne.— 'Facus retroflexus, Labitt, 
t.260. Turn, t 155. 

Hab. Cape Van Dieroen, LabiUardiire. George Townj Mr. 
Gunn, 

117. Blossevillea retorta^ (?) Dne. — Fucus retortus, Tkm. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. — ^The specimens are imperfect, 

and hardly sufficient. 

118. Blossevillea uoiferay nobis; caule gracili subcylindraoeo 
angulato subinarticulato basi nodiusculo maricato supra 
bipinnatim ramoso, pinnis stipitatas circumscriptione ovmtis 
alternis pinnulatis, pinnulis crebris patentibus filifbnnibus 
pinnato-dichotomis fastigiatis laciniis erectis elongatb aim- 
plicibus, axillis rotundatis, vesiculis e pinnis primariis ortis 
breve pedicellatis globosis ellipticisve muticis crebenime 
inter pinnulas sparsis, receptacnlis terminalibus lanoeoIatiB 
actttis nee torulosis. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. — ^A very handsome and dis- 
tinct species. 

119. Blossevillea caudatUy nobis; caule ignoto, ramia (pb- 



ALGiB TABMANICJS. 415 

nia ?) gradlibus flexuosis compressis pinnatira compositis 
sabarticulatis, articulis uncialibus, pinnulis paten tibus 
alternis flexuosis pinnato-dichotomis, laciniis erectis fiii- 
formibus elongatis attenuatis simplicibus, receptaculis 
dongatis torulosis longe acuminatis vel in filum setaceum 
excurrentibus^ yesiculis eUipticis muticis sparsis. 
Hab. Tasmania, Dr. Sinclair. Sandy Cove, Dr. LyaU. 

Fam. 8. Laminarika. 

120. Macrocystis/iyri/b'a^ Ag. 
Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

121. Capea biruncinatay Mont. 
Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. 

Fam. 9. SpOROCHNOIDSiK. 

122. Sporochnus radictformis, Ag. — Fucus radiciformis, Jktm. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

123. Carpomitra inermis^ Kutz. — Fucus inermis, Br. — ^Turn. 
Herb. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

Fam. 10. DiCTYOTBJS, Grev. 

124. Hn^mn polf/podioideSf Ag. 
Hab. Port Arthur, Dr. Jeannerett. 

125. Dictyota jpantcu/o/a, J. Ag. in Linn. 15. p. 5. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. — ^The ramification of the main 
stem and branches is somewhat pinnate; the branches 
furnished with lateral, alternate, dichotomo-multifid fasti- 
giate segments, whose ladniGC are very narrow. 

126. Stilophora rhizodes^ J. Ag. 
Hab. Sandy Cove, Dr. Hooker. 

127. Stilophora ? australis, Harv. 1. c. p. 453. 

Hab. George Town, Mr. Gtinn.— Scarcely a Stilophora^ and 
possibly a Nereia, Zanard. It would be desirable to exa- 
mine a more perfect specimen. 



416 ALOiB TARMANIC^. 

Fam. 11. SpHACBLABiEiE^ /. Ag. 

128. Sphaoelaria hordeacea^ Harv. in Hook. Ic. PI. 
Hab. Tasmania^ Mr. Gvnn. 

Series III. CHLOROSPERMEiE, or ZOOSFERMELS. 

Fam. 12. Siphonba, Grev. 

129. Caulerpa hypnoideSy Ag.— Facas hypnoides^ TWn. /. 
173. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

130. Caulerpa sedoides, Ag.— Fucus sedoides, Tlim. /. 172. 
Hab. George Town, Mr. Gunn. (13570 

131. Caulerpa BrownH^ EndU; surculo nudo, frondibus 
erectis vage ramosis, ramis paucis gracilibus simplicibos 
ramentis cylindraceis tenuibus quadrifturiis patentibus dense 
obsitis basi nudis. 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. — A single, not very perfect 
specimen. 

132. Caulerpa yifrq/blui, nobis ; surculo vestito crasso, finon- 
dibus erectis crebris longissimis simplicissimis undique 
ramentis furcatis cylindraceis incurvis imbricatis mucrona- 
tis vestitis. — C. Selago, nobis, Lond. Jowm^v. 4. {excL Syn.) 

Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. Also at New Zealand. — At 
first sight, this strongly resembles C. SelagOy but is a much 
larger and stronger plant, with its mrctifi, as well as 
fronds, densely clothed with forked ramenta, the latter 
character admirably distinguishing it from every other 
described species. 

133. Codium iomeniosum, Stack.— 4s^. sysLp* 177- 
Hab. Common in Tasmania. 

Fam. 13. Confbbvjb. 

134. Conferva clavaia, Ag. Syst. 
Hab. Tasmania, Mr. Gunn. 

135. Conferva vatida, nobis; fills simplicibus longissimis 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 417 

ultraftetaceis crassis nitentibus membranaceis iGcteviridibus 
crispatis implezis, arttculis diametro 3-5plo longioribus ad 
genicala constrictis. 
Hab. Tasmania, ilfr. Gunn. (1345.)— Filaments twice as 
thick as those of C. crassa, loosely bundled together, 
glossy but not mucous, bright green. 

Fam. 14. ULVAORiE. 

136. Enteromorpha compressOf Grev. 

Hab. Tasmania. 

137* Ulva latimma, Linn. 

Hab. Tasmania ; both very common. 



Ckmiribuiioni towardB a Flora of Brazil, being the Cha- 
racier$ of several new species qf Compositjb, belonging to 
the tribes VaRNONiACSJs aad Eupatoriacbjk, from the 
Pramnce of Ooyaz ;* by Gborqb Gardner, Esq., F.L.S. 
Stqferiniendent of the Royal Botanic Gardens^ Ceyhn. 

(Coniimiedfirom Vol. V.p. 491.) 

VERNONIAOBiB, LcSS. 

Vbrnonia, Schreb. 

Sect. Lbpidaploa, DC. 

3255. V. chrysophylla ; tota rufo-sericeo-villosa, caulibus e 
rhizomate lignoso pluribus simplicibus teretibus sulcatis 
apice compressis subnudis, foliis sessilibus obovato-oblongis 
obtusis subcrenatis, cymis scorpoideis contractis oligoce- 

* Wbsn my former papers on these two tribes were prepared, I 
eoold not lay my hands on my Goyas coUections» the bundles containing 
them having been lost during my removal from England to Ceylon. I 
have, however, been fortunate enough to obtain, by purchase, at the sale 
of Professor Graham's Herbarium, his set of my plants from that 
Province, which, although an early one, I find to be deficient in nearly 
one hundred species of Ckmf09iim alone. 







pttmlb apby!]ta» eipitiilii ao-Sorts drritery Iniroli 
fwntUftti iqitainis lii&eftri4&t]ceolAtiA aoatis 3-n< 
Yiiosis, achieiliD daoK wrioeci-YtUoso^ |»ppi 

Hap* Ctiaptda de M&ctgtbeiim, ProTinoa of Goyis, O 

Hcft» l-l|*pedali$. Folia 2-S poD. Icmg^ poUi 

eonacm^ sopni ttdpresae piloso-TiUosa, sukli: 

lunt»* CorolU gl&lm^ nalaci». Pipits mil 

hienim molto irapemna» 

Ailted to T. MipJer, Less, from wbidi it is distil^ 

by its stouter ImUt, brger and oamoeocift leftVM, miiy 

cdour, bif^er h«ul», lente nal arwinimHwl iiiiidiiiaa| 

and pure w1itl« pippiis, fl 

4177* V' pmn^em . caute baiti scifirtiticoto erecto pam 

nmoso t«feti scrafto adpresse dnereo^pubeaoctite, 

sessLlibiis Usemribwaicittia apiculatb tuajfiiie inl^ffl 

revolutis supffa adpresse pobanmibus aobtiu i 

tomeutoma, eapit&ilis ad apieea fasiomm longe p 

latia 4-^fionJy iavolocii sqaamis gbbrii lineari-laiM 

acum&natift moltiseriabbu&y T<N!cptaecilo nodcK m 

dense serioeo-Tilloao, pappi aerie ezterna anguala pi 

acuta. 

Hab. Dry upland Campos near the Villa de Arrajai 

Tince of Goyaa. April 1840. 
Suffrutex btpedalis. Folia 9 polL longa, 1^ lin. lata. C 
violacea, glabra. Pappus rufesoens. 
This will range along with V. laxa^ Oardn., firom wl 
differs in its much longer, narrower leaves, laxer habi 
more numerous florets. They both belong to tb 
diyision of the section Lqndaploa. 
3794. v. mamocqAala; oinle. barbaoeo ereoto simplioi 
dense hmuginoso-tomenloso naqoe ad apieem foUcMMi! 
sessQibos late oyato^suborbiculatis utrinque oblaai 
crenatis membranaceis supra scabriusculis sparse ] 
subtos villoso-tomentosis, capitulis magnia multifloi 
apioem caulis solitariis aphyllis, involucri camps 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 419 

sqoaais imbricAtis ovato-oblon^s obtusis eztus villosis 
nargine dense ciliatisy oor. lobis apice pilosis, acbaenio 
striato seriebus 10 pilosis notato, pappi serie externa 
paleaoea acuta achsenio duplo breviore. 

Has. Dry upland campos near Arrayas, Proyince of Goyaz. 
April, 1840. 

Herba li-2-pedalis. Folia S-S^ poll, longa, 2-2^ poll, lata, 
pennivenia, yeais subtus prominulis. Capitula poUioem 
lata. Corolla violacea. AcbaBniam sesquilineare. Pappus 
sordidus. 
This as a species will range along with V. grandifiora. 

Less. 

3794 (bis). V. squamosa; caule suffiruticoso erecto tereti 
Btriato cinereo-lanuginoso apice parce ramoso, foliis sessi- 
libns longe lanceolatis coriaceis utrinque attenuatis apice 
aoatis integris supra scabris subtus flavicantibus tomen- 
tosis penniyeniis, ramis subscorpioideis, capitulis globosis 
55-60-floris sessilibus axillaribus vel extra-axillaribus folio 
florali breTioribus, inyolucri squamis multiserialibus laze 
imbricatis concayis oyato-ellipticis obtusissimis glabrius* 
culis dliatis, oor. lobis puberulis, achienio 10-striato yil- 
loso, pappi serie interna ad apicem subdayata, externa 
paleaoea acuta achsenio duplo breyiore. 

Hab. Dry upland Campos, near Villa de Arrayas, Proyince 
ofGoyaz. March, 1840. 

Soffrutex bipedalis. Folia 4-6 poll, longa, 10^ lin. lata. 
Corolla purpurea. Pappus sordidus. 
Near V. elaoata^ Oardn., and perhaps V. obseura. Less. 

4179. V. rednosa; caule suffruticoso tereti striato minute 
adpresse tomentoso apice paniculato-ramoso, foliis breye 
petiolatis lanceolatis basi apiceque acutis integris utrinque 
pubemlis et creberrime minute resinoso-punctatis, cymis 
terminalibns tripartitis, ramis breyibus, capitulis secus 
ramos ad axillas sessilibus solitariis unilateralibus 10-floris 
folio florali breyioribus, inyolucri cylindracei squamis 
pubescentibus extus ad apicem resinoso-punctatiSj intirois 



420 FLORA OP BRAZIL. 

lineari-oblongis acutis S-nenrtbas, oor. lobis extus pilosis, 

achienio serioeo-villoso, pappi serie externa paleaoea breri. 

Hab. Dry sandy Campos between Arrayas and San Do- 

mingos, ProTince of Groyas. May^ 1840. 
Soffrutex 3-4*pedalis. Folia 2-.Vpoll. longa, 5-9 lin. Iata» 
pennivenia, venis subtus prominulis, supra viridta, subtos 
pallida. Corolla violacea. Pappus albescens. 
This species will range along with V. eremopkytta^ Mart., 

and its allies. The leaves on both sides are covered with a 

dense mass of small resinous glands. 

3791. V. ekretutfoUa ; caule suffruticoso sulcato ad apioem 
ramoso, ramis elongatis subflexuosis angulato-striatis sub- 
piloso-puberulis foliosis, foliis subsessilibus basi obtusis 
apice acutis mucronulatis subcrenato-denticulatis membra- 
naceis supra glabriusculis scabris subtus pubescentibas 
pallidis grosse reticulars, capitulis ad axillas folioram secus 
ramos subdistantibus sessilibus 1-4 folio florali multo 
brevioribus ovatis 20-floris9 involucri squamis exterioribus 
ovato-lanceolatb acutis ad apicem longe ciliatis, interiori- 
bus lanceolato-linearibus acuminatis obtusis S-nenibus, 
acheenio glaberrimo 10-striato, pappi serie externa brevis- 
sima paleacea apice erosa. 

Hab. Woods near Villa de Arrayas, Province of Goyas. 
April, 1840. 

Suffrutex 3-4*pedalis. Folia 2-4-poll. longa, 1-2-poIl. lata, 
supra nitida. Corolla violacea, glabra. Pappus sordidus. 
Near my V. Ararana (n. 4781), both of which will range 

along with V. vommia^oUa^ DC, in his 5th division of the 

sect. Lepidaploa. 

3258 et 3789. V. oUgocephala; suffruticosa, tota dnereo- 
toroentosa, apice ramosa, ramis teretibus striatis, fottis 
breve petiolatis oblongis utrinque obtusis vd ovatis bssi 
subcordatis apiculatis integerrimis utrinque viUoao-to- 
mentosis et resinoso-punctatis, capitulis axillaribns ses- 
silibus solitariis 40-floris, involucri hemisphesrici squamis 
imbricatis patulis acuminatissimis dorso villosLs, acbaenio 
sericeo-villoso, pappi serie externa paleaoea brevi. 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 421 

Hab. Dry Campos near Villa de Natividade (3258), and 
Villa de Arrayas (3789), Province of Goyaz. January and 
April, 1840. 

Suflhitex bipedalis. Folia 2-2^ poll, longa, 9*12-lin, lata. 
Corolla violacea, glabra. Pappus albidus. 
Near V. arenariay Mart, from which it differs in being less 

brHnched, more tomentose, with fewer and larger capitula, 

more acuminated involucral scales, and whiter pappus. 

Under n. 3789, 1 have two specimens one of which perfectly 

agrees with n. 3258, while the other has more sessile leaves^ 

which are besides broader and somewhat cordate at the base, 

bat in other respects is quite the same as the specimen with 

which it is associated. 

3799. VgramintfoHa; suffruticosa, caule erecto apice parce 
ramoso glabriusculo tereti valde striato, foliis longe li- 
nearibus apiculatis margine integerrimis valde revolutis 
glabris supra grosse reticulato-venosis, venis prominulis, 
subtus impresso-punctatis, ramis floriferis paucis subscor- 
pioideis, capitulis eztra-azillaribus solitariis sessilibus 
40-floris, involucri campanulati squamis dorso puberulis 
dliatis, extemis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis, intimis linea- 
ribus obtusis apice coloratis, achsenio striato piloso, pappi 
serie externa subpaleacea acuta brevi. 

Hab. Dry grassy Campos near Villa de Arrayas, Province 
of Goyaz. April, 1840. 

Suffrutex bipedalis. Folia 4-10 poll, longa, sesquilineam lata. 
Corolla violacea, glabra. Pappus sordidus. 
Near V. rubricauliSf H. et Bonpl., and V. chrtmoiqris, 

Gardn., but very distinct from both. 

3796. V. etegofuf; suffruticosa, erects, ramosa, ramis teretibus 
fltriatis parce araneoso-tomentosis,foliis subsessilibus lineari- 
lanceolatis utrinque acutis margine revolutis integerrimis 
supra glabriusculis nitidis subtus dnereo-tomentosis grosse 
reticulato-venosis, venis glabriusculis, ramis floridis gracili- 
bus subscorpioideis, capitulis ad axillas foliorum sessilibus 
solitariis foUo multo brevioribus l2-floris, involucri ovati 
squamis dorso puberulis, externis ovatoellipticis mucro- 



428 FLORA OF BAAZII*. 

natis ciliatU coloratb, intiinia Uneftribos obtusiB, achaenio 
sericeo-villoao, P^PP^ >^n® eztenia subpaleaoea lineari 
acuta achienio longiore. 

Hab. Dry upland Campoa near VilU de Arrayaa, Province 
of Goyaz. April, 1840. 

Suffrutex 2-2i-pedalis« Folia 2^3^ poll, longa, 4-6-lin, lata, 
supra yiridia. Corolla violacea, glabra. Pkippus sordidus. 
Allied to the preceding apecies, from which it ia diatin- 

guisbed by its more branched habit, dmrter, broader kaTes, 

and fewer flowered capitula. 

4182. V. Misaionia; frutkulosa^ erecta, ramoaa, dnereo-tomen- 
tosa, ramis teretibua yakle aCriatia, fbliia aeaailibas oblonpi 
obtusis calloso*apiculatis basi cuneatia maigine calloso- 
dentatia utrinque viUoso-lanatia supra demum gUbiatis 
acabris pennivenUs, venis utrinque pcominulia^ ramia flo- 
ridis viz scorpioideb, capitulis axillaribua aesaOibos aofi- 
tariia vel geminis folio longioribus vel eum sQbnquaatibaa 
12-flori89 involucri ovati squamia dorso yiUoso-tomentosb 
reainoao-glanduloso-punetalb subpungentibtta, eztemis kn- 
ceolatis ciliatis^ intimis lineari-Janceolatia, corollas eztos 
glanduloso-punctats lobis ad apicem pilosis, acbttnio 
oreberrime rubro-resinoao^landuloso, pappi serie externa 
anguste paleacea brevi. 

Hab. Graaay Campoa near the Mission of Duro, Provinoe 
of Goyaz. October, 18 39 

Suffrutex bipedalis. Folia 1^ poll, longft, 6-7 Un. lala. 
Corolla violacea. Pappus albidus. 
Apparently allied to V. aeneeionea. Mart. 

3795. V. davallkitfolia ; suffruticoaai ramis teretibtts afriads 
sublanuginoso-tomentosis, foliis sessilibus oUongia vel 
ovato-oblongis obtusis basi subcordatis viz crenato-aub- 
denticulatis membranaoeis supra glabris aubtus villoao- 
aubtomentosis penniveniia reticuktis, venis utrinque 
prominuUs, ramis floridaa aubscorpioideis, capitalia aeaai- 
ttbus solitariis extra- axillaribus folio floral! brevioribus 
40-floris, involucri campanulati squamis dorso puberalia, 
externis ovatis acutis, intimis lineuibus aouaainatia obfeosisy 



FLOAA OF BRAZII*. 423 

corolla glabra^ achienio 10-costato basi pUosiuscnlo caBteris 
sparse resinoso-punctatis, pappi serie externa paleacea 
acata achaBnio breviore. 
Hab. Upland Campos near YiUa de Airayas^ Province of 

Goyas. April, 1340. 
Saffirutex sabbipedalis. Folia 2^-3^ poll, longa, 12-15 lin. 
lata. Corolla purpurea. Pappus sordidus. 
Apparently near V. Ztieearigdanoj Mart. 
S792. v. JwvemfoUa; glaberrima, caule sufirutiooso erecto 
ramoso tereti, ramulis subangulatts, foliis breve petiolatis 
late linearibus utrinque obtusis vel acutis apice breviter 
apicolatis vel submuticis integris coriaceis penniveniis 
utrinque eleganter reticulatis, ramis subsoorptoideis, capi* 
tulis ad axillas foliorum secus ramos sessiltbus solitariis 
vel gemminis folio florali birevioribus 10-12-floris, tnvcducri 
ovali squamis squarrosisglabenimis eiliatis, extends ovato- 
lanoeolatis acuminatis, intimis ianoeolato-linearibus loage 
acuminatis, corolla glabra, acbanio lO-striato seciceo- 
villoso, pappi serie externa paleacea acuminata ach«nio 
breviore. 
Hab. Dry upland Campos near Villa de Arrayas, Province 

of Goyax. April, 1840. 
Suffrutex 3-4-pedali8. Folia 2^-3 poll, looga, 4-7-lin. lata, 
sttbtus impresso-punctata. Corolla purpurea. Pappus 
stamineus. 

Allied to V. Unigata^ Mart, from which it differs in its 
petiolate, not sessile leaves, which are besides shorter and 
broader» and its squarrose, not adpressed, involucral scales* 
It is a very variable plant, particularly in the length of the 
floriferoua branches, and the shape of the leaves. 

Stilpnopappus^ Mart. 

4189. 8. jfhmeraiMs; suffruticosus, erectus, versus apicem 
dichotomo-ramosus, ramis teretibus striatisaraneoso-tomen- 
tosis, folib sessihbus lineari*lanceolatis aoutis basi obtusis 
margine subrevolutis integris supra glabris nitidis subtus 
dense cinereo*tomentosis, capitidis 1-3 axillaribus vel ad 



424 FLORA OF BRAZIL. 

apices ramulorum sessilibus 10-floris, involacri floribus 
brevioris squamis 3-seriatis, eztemis oyato-oblong^ sab* 
foliaceis obtusis utrinque tomentosis, intiinis lineari- 
oblongis acutis 3-nembas glabris. 

Hab. Upland Campos near Nossa Senhora d'Abadia. 
Province of Goyaz. May, 1840. 

Sufifrutex bipedalis. Folia 3-3^ poll, longa, 6-9 lin. lata. 
Corolla glabra^ violacea. Achseniam tarbinatam, 10-cos- 
tatum, sulcis dense sericeo-pilosis. Pappus duplex^ per- 
sistens^ lucens^ albidiis, paleis extemis 20 circiter lineaiibas 
acuminatis sermlatis, intimis duplo longioribus oompU- 
natis acuminatis serrulatis. Receptaculum fimbrilliiieniiiL 

3259. S. emarffinatus; fruticosus, ramosus, ramulis angulatis 
cinereo-velutino-tomentosis foliosis floriferisy foliis pedo- 
latis coriaceis obovato-ellipticis vel oblongis apice profunde 
emarginatis basi obtusis vel acutis integerrimis junioiibus 
utrinque ferrugineo-velutinis demum glaberrimis et creber- 
rime minute resinoso-punctatis penniveniis, capitolis aecos 
ramos extra-axillaribus solitariis sessilibus 13-flori8, inTO- 
lucri floribus brevioris squamis 3-seriatis, externis ovatis 
obtusis, intimis late linearibus obtusis 3-Dervibus> utrinque 
ad apicem extus resinoso-subtomentosis, cieteris glabris. 

Hab. Dry hills near Villa de Natividade, Province of Goyas. 
January, 1840. 

Frutex magnus, valde ramosus. Folia 2-3- poll, longa, 
1-2-poll. lata, utrinque pulchre reticulata. Corolla glabrt, 
violacea. Achaenium turbinatum, 10 costatum sulcis dense 
sericeo-villosis. Pappus duplex, persistens, lucena, palas 
lineari-complanatis, externis obtusis enerviis ad apioem 
laceratis, intimis triple longioribus uninerviis margine 
serrulatis. Receptaculum fimbrilliferum. 

2894. S. BiedelianuSy Gardn. — ^Vernonia Riedeliana, Gartk* 
in Hook. Lond. Joum. of Bot. 5, p. 213. 
When this species was originally published, I remarked 

that I had dqubts as to whether it should not be referred to 

StUpnopappui rather than to Vemonia, from the decided 

paleaceous nature of both series of the pappus. A moire 



FLORA OP BRAZIL. 425 

attentive oonrideration of the subject, and a oomparison of 
it with the two new species aboTc described, has convinced 
me that, however different in habit from the herbaceous 
StUpnoptqtpij their characters otherwise are not different. 
Mr. Bentbam has suggested (Hook. Journ. 5, p. 214) that 
the genus Strqphopappus of De CandoUe, which, according to 
Martius, was founded on the same plant as Lessing's Vemonia 
ifeoMa^ now StUpnopappua patuluM of Martius, should be 
restored for that species and my present ones, but I have 
looked in vain for characters on which to re-establish that 
genus. 

Albbrtinia, Spreng. 

3804. A. (Anisotrichia) Goyazenris ; fruticosa, ramosa, ramis 
teretibus striatis cinereo-velutinis, foliis breve petiolatis 
late ovato-ellipticis obtusis basi acutiusculis integerrimis 
supra glabris subtus adpresse cinereo-velutinis, summis 
oblongis, capitulis 1 -floris dense in glomerulum confertis, 
involucri squamis liberis linearibus l-nerviis, externis 
obtusis extus densissime lanuginosis, intimis duplo fere 
longioribus acutis extus ad apicem resinoso-glanduloso- 
punctatis, achcenio pilosiusculo. 
Hab. Dry upland Campos near Villa de Arrayas, Province 

of Goyaz. April, 1840. 
Prutcx 6-pedaUs. Folia 3-3i-poll. longa, 2i-3-poll. lata, 
coriacea, pennivenia, venis subtus prominulis. Corolla 
glabra, violacea. Achanium turbinatum, obtuse 10-cos- 
tatiun. Pappus 3-serialis, stramineus, setis omnibus 
angustis acuminatis scabridis^ serie exteriore triplo fere 
breviore. 

Near A. pattidisetay DC, from which it is principally dis- 
tinguished by the nature of the involucral scales. 

Elephantopus, Cass. 

3806. E. riparnu ; caule erecto ramoso strigoso-villoso, foKis 
Kneari^lanceolatis acutis basi longe attenuatis margine 

VOL. VI. I I 



426 FLORA OF BRAZIL. 

revolutis obscure crenato-dentatis utrinqae adpresse piloosj 
radicalibus basi dilatatis amplexicaulibas, floralibus pairU 
ovatis obtusis reticulatis pilosis minute pellucido-puno- 
tatis. 

Hab. Shady banks of streams near Villa de Arrayas, Pro- 
vince of Goyaz. April, 1840. 

Herba 1^ pedalis. Folia preesertim radicalia membranaoea, 
pennivenia, S-4-poll. longa, 4^-71 lin. lata, floralia 14 hn. 
longa. Capitula 4 -flora, in glomerulum foliolis cinctom 
dense a^regata. Involucrum compressum, biseriale, 
squamis lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis apice pungentibus 
3-nerviis glabris. Corolla glabra, violacea. Acbaenium 
oblongum, compressum, pilosum. Pappus 1-serialis, paleis 
5 setaceis elongatis basi dilatatis serrulatis. 
Allied to E. CarolineaniMj Willd., from which, and its 

allies, it is distinguished at first sight by its small floral 

leaves. 

4200 E. voffinaius ; caule erecto ramoso angulato glabro, foliis 
caulinis longe lanceolato-linearibus acuminatis baai dila- 
tatis vaginatis obscure crenato-dentatis glaberrimis utrinque 
impresso-punctatis, floralibus late ovatis acuminatis glabra 
pellucido-punctatis reticulatis S-nerviis, nervis basi valde 
dilatatis in unicum latum membranaceum concretis. 

Hab. Near San Domingos, Province of Goyaz. May, 1840. 

Herba l4-2-pedalis. Folia radicalia ignota, caulinia 5-6-poIl. 
longa, 8-lin. lata. Capitula 4-flora, in glomerulum foliis 
cinctum dense aggregata. Involucrum compressum, bise- 
riale, squamis lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis multinerviis 
glabris. Corollee violace®, lobis extus resinoao-glanduloao* 
punctatis. Acheenium oblongum, compressum, inasqualiter 
10-costatum, inter costas resinoso-glanduloso-punctatom, 
cnterum glabrum. Pappus l-serialis, coroniformis, 5-den* 
tatus, dentibus parvis ovatis breviter aristatis. 
The sheathing leaves, and the remarkable nature of the 

pappus, at once distinguish this plant from all the others of 

the genus. In habit it agrees with my E. pabutris. 

S8O7. E. eUmgatus; caule erecto simplici tereli striato foUoao, 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 427 

foliis longe lineari-obloi^s obtasis acutisque basi longe 
attenuatis serrato-dentatis supra scabridis demum glabratis, 
floraliboa ovatis acutis serrato-dentatis S-nervHs reticulatis 
iatttt minute impresso-punctatis. 
Hab. Dry upland Campos, near Villa de Arrayas, Province 

of Ooyaz. April, 1840. 
Herba 2-3-pedalis. Folia 6-8-poll. longa, 12-15-lin. late, 
floralia 4i lin. longa, 3-lin. lata. Capitula 4-flora, in glo- 
roerulum foliolis cinctum dense aggregate. Glomeruli in 
spicam densam dispositi. Involucrum compressum, bise- 
riale, squamis lineari-Ianceolatis acutis pungentibus 3-ner- 
Tiisy extus ad apicem pilosiusculis. Corolla glabra, violacea. 
Achosnium oblongum, compressum, pilosum. Pappus 
l-serialis, paleis 10 circiter seteceis basi dilatetis serrulatis 
achasnio brevioribus. 

This and the following species are distinguished from all 
the others of the genus by their simple steads, and the 
raoemoso*spicate arrangement of^the glomeruli. From each 
other, they are distinguished by the cauline leaves of the 
present species being much attenuated at the base, not 
obtuse and amplezicaul, and the pappus consisting of 5, not 
10, aetSB. 

4199. £• racemosu9 ; caule erecto siroplici tereti striato villoso 
fblioso, foliis oblongis vei obovato-oblongis obtusis, radica- 
liboa basi attenuatis, caulinis amplezicaulibus crenato- 
aerratis supra scabridis villosis demum glabratis subtus 
Tilloso-tomentosis, floralibus ovatis obtusis S-nerviis reti- 
culatis villosis dense ciliatis. 
Hab, Dry sandy Campos near Capella da t'osse, Province 

of Goyaa. May, 1840. 
Herba 2-24-ped»lis. Folia 6-8-poll. longa, I8-24-lin late, 
floralia 4 lin« longa, 2^ lin. late. Capitula 4-flora, in 
glomerulum foliolis cinctum dense aggregate. Glomeruli 
in raoemum strictum elongatum dispositi. Involucrum 
oompressum, biseriale, squamis lineari-lanceolatis acutis 
pungentibus 5-5 nerviis extus ad apicem pilosis. Corolla 
glabra, violacea. Achsnium oblongum, compressum, pilo- 

I I 2 



428 FLORA OF BRAZIL. 

sum. Pappus 1-serialis, paleis 5 sotaoeis baa dilatalis 
aerrulatis acheenio brevioribus. 

LORBNTEA, Le9S, 

3264. Lorentea (Cryptopetaluin) brevipedunculata ; caolibos 
plurimis decumbentibus ramosissimis piloso-pabescentabus, 
foliis sessilibus linearibus apice piliferis margine revolatis 
infra medium longe ciliatis glabris subtus nigro-glanduloso- 
punctatis, pedunculis brevissimis terminalibus 1-bracteatis 
1-cephalis, capitulis 20-floris, involucri squamis obovato- 
oblongis obtusis mucronatis glabris ciliatis, acheeniis pilo- 
siusculis, pappo disci biseriali aristato serrato ineequali, 
radii 1-seriali setis 3 elongatis ceteris paulo brevioribus. 

Hab. Dry gravelly places near tbe Atrial de Chapada, 
Province of Ooyaz. December, 1839. 

Herba vix pedalis, basi suffruticulosa. Fotia 6-8-Un. longa, 
1-li lin. lata. Pedunculi 2-3-lin. longi. Involucrum Tix 
3 lin. longum. 
This species will range along with my L. congestOy from 

which it is distinguished by its much larger size, laxer habiti 

more numerous florets, and the nature of the pappus. 

The following is a list of the names of those species 

belonging to the VemoniaceiS, in my Goyaz collections, which 

I have ascertained were previously described. 

3786 et 8787. Vernonia tricholepiSy DC. 



4176. 


39 


apiculatat Mart. 


4184. 


99 


rotundifbliay Less. 


4180. 


99 


strictay Gardn. 


4191. 


99 


firmula. Mart. 


4186. 


99 


niienSy Ghtrdfi. 


4190. 


91 


argyrophyUOj Less. 


3251. 


9^ 


simplex. Less. 


4192. 


>J 


Radula, Mart. 


3248 et 3250 


» 


desertorum. Mart. 


4187. 


9y 


eriolepu, Gardn. 


3254. 


>f 


dense-villosay Mart. 


3794. 


99 


kevigata, Mart. 



FLORA OP BRAZIL. 



429 



S805. Elephantopus Mariii^ Graham. 

3263. Trichospira biaristatOy Less. 

EuPATORlACRiB, LcSS. 

If the characters of the genera which constitute the divi- 
aion Ahmie^ of the subtribe Eupatoriea of De CandoUe be 
compared with each other, they will be found, with the 
single exception of Isocarpha, which is a good genus, to 
differ in no essential respect. Such diflferences as a single 
or doable row of involucral scales, few or many florets in 
tbe capitola, and pilose or glabrous corollie, surely cannot 
be considered as sufficient generic distinctions. Were such 
principles to be acted on throughout the order, we should 
find that Eupatarium alone would resolve itself into at 
least half a dozen genera. I therefore propose that the 
genera alluded to should all be thrown into a single one 
under the original name of Pigueria, the naked recep- 
tacle and the absence of pappus constituting its essen- 
tial character. It may be divided into two sections, the 
first, EupigueriOt containing the few flowered, and the second, 
AtamiOf the many flowered species. 

It must have occurred to all those who have made the 
ComporiUB their study, that this is not the only instance in 
which De CandoUe has multiplied genera to a most unwar- 
rantable extent. Though very much is due to the learned 
Oenevese Botanist for his great labours on the order, more 
especially in bringing together the great mass of species, 
which previous to his investigation of them were scattered 
in an undigested form through many works, yet the laxity 
of his views with regard to genera, the want of a better 
principle than that of the nature of the style on which to 
found the great divisions, and the vast additions which have 
been made to it during the last ten years from all parts of 
tbe worid, render a revision of the whole tribe much called 
for by some one who has tbe time, the talents and the 
materials for such a task. 



430 FLORA OF BRAZIL. 

PiauBRiA, Ckxv. 

Alomia, H. B. et fT.— Orsinia, Bert. eL DC, — Phala- 
CRiBA^ DC. — Gymnocoronis. DC. 

Char. Gen. — CapUuIum 8- multi-florttm, homoganram. 
Involucrum nudum. Corolla tubulosa, faux pnescrtim 
di]atata, hirsuta vel glabra. AnihertB appendidbus aspe 
termiifttae. Styli rami longe exserti^ apice obtusi vel cU- 
vati. Acheenium 5-angulatum, calvum — . Hcrb« ad 
sf^ffruiices Am ericafUBy erectte, ramosa, glabra vel jwi- 
bescenteSf interdum gtanduhso-viscottB. Folia oppotUa ant 
altemay petiolataj varia, Mpbu 2-nervia. Capitula corjf»- 
bosa out panieulaia, parva. Florea sapMme alU. 

Sect. I. EupiQUBRiA, DC. 

CapUulum 3-7- florum. Involtunrum obhngum. 

All the seven species described by De Candolle under 
Piqueria belong to this section^ together with the two follow* 
ing: 

P. densifloraf Benth. Bot. Beech. Voy. p. 110. 
P. £»/Mi/orttim.-^Orsinia Eupatoria, DC. Prod. 5. p. 104. 

Sect. II. Alomia. — Alomia, H. B. et K. 

CapUubtm multiflarum, Involucrum campanulatum. 

P. afferatoides. — Alomia ageratoides, H. B. ei K.^DC 

Prodr. 
P. o//emia/.— Gymnocoronis attenuata, DC. Prodr. 
P. subcordata,. — Gymnocoronis subcordata, DC. Prodr. 
P. to^f/ofia.— Phalacrcea latifolia, DC. Prodr. 

To these I add the three species of Isocarpha^ which I 
formerly described in the 5th vol. of " Hooker's London 
Journal of Botany," a re-examination of them having ooo* 
vinced me that they were very erroneously placed in that 
genus, their receptacles being naked, not chaffy. The scales 
which formerly deceived me are the narrow inner ones of 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 431 

the involacrum. I will here give amended characters of 

them, together with those of two new ones from the Province 

of Goyas. 

4887. P. fastigiata; caule herbaceo erecto ramoso, ramis 
teretibus striatis pubescenti-tomentosis, foliis oppositis in 
petiolum basi longe attenuatis supeme oblongis obtusis 
paooe dentatis vel subintegris triplinerviis membranaceis 
glabris peUucido-punctatiSi capitalis paucis ad apices ra- . 
muloram corymbosis breviter pediceliatis 20-26-floris. 

Isocarpha fastigiata, Oardn. in Hook. Lond. Joum. 5. p. 
455. 

Hab. In moist open places in the Diamond District, Brazil. 
July, 1840. 

Herba bipedalis. Folia 2-24 poll. longa, 3-4-lin. lata. In- 
volocrum campanolatum, squamis biseriatis, oblongo-lan- 
oeolatis, acutis, S-nerviis, 1^ lin. longis. Receptaculum 
oonicam, nudum. Corollee tubulosae, ad faucem ampliatee, 
extus glanduloso-puberulie, lineam circiter longce, albee. 
Styli rami longe ezserti, cylindrici, obtusi. Acheenium 
oblongum, nigrum, acute pentagonum, glabrum, epap- 
posum. 

4839. P. eupaiorioides ; caule herbaceo erecto ramoso, ramis 
teretibus pubescentibus, foliis petiolatis ovato-oblongis vel 
oblongo-lanceolatis utrinque acutis vel rariter obtusiusculis 
supra glabriusculis subtus pubescentibus grosse serrato- 
dentatis, capitulia conferto-corymbosis circiter 40-fl6ris. 

Isocarpba eupatorioides, Gardn. in Hook. Lond. Joum. Bot. 
I c. 

Uab. In moist open places, near San Romao, Province of 
Minas Geraes, Brazil. July, 1840. 

Herba 1-2 pedalis. Folia 10-18 lin. longa, 4-5 lata, supra 
viridia, subtus pallida. Petioli 2 lin. circiter longi. Invo- 
lucrum campanulatum, squamis biseriatis, lineari-oblongis, 
obtusis, d-nerviis, extus villosis, apice barbatis, l^ lin. 
longis. Receptaculum conicum, nudum. Achssnium ob- 
longum, 5*angulatum, nigrum, epapposum. 



432 Fi»OKA C¥ BRAZIL. 

4838. P./oHata; tota Tilloso-subtomentoBa, caule herbaoco 
suberecto mnoso, ramis t^^tibus striatis foliosis, foliis 
sessilibus oblongo-lanceolatis utnDque obtosis supim nie- 
diam serrato-dentatis tiiplinervus, capitaUs paads ad 
apioem ramulorum corymbosis circiter 30*floris. 

Isocarpha foliosa, Gardn. in Hook. Lond, Joum. BoL L c. 

Uab. In inundated places on the banka of the Urocaja, 
near San Romao, Province of Miuas Greraes. Jane, 1840. 

Herba 1-14 pedalis. Folia 10 lin. longa, 3 lin. lata. InTO- 
lucrum campanalatuiB, squamia biseriatis, oblongis obtoais, 
S-nerviis, extus dense rillosis, 1^ lin. longis. Reoeptaca- 
lam conicum, nudum. CorolliB tubulostt, ad fauoem 
dilatats, glabne, 1^ lin. long®. Styli rami exserti, dayatL 
Actueniuni oblonguro, 5 angulatum, glabnim^ nigmii^ 
eleganter reticulatum, epapposum. 

3810. P. dnerea; caule basi suffraticoso erecto teieti striato 
glanduloso-piloso velutino apioe corymboso ramosOy foliis 
alternis late linearibus elongatis obtuais baai attenuatis 
crenulato-serratis utrinque cinereo-yelutinis pennireniis, 
pedunculis corymbosis glanduloso<pubeacentibu8y oapitiilis 
breviter pedicellatis SS-fioris. 

Hab. Dry upland campoa, near Villa de Arrayas, Proviaoe 
of Goyas. April, 1840. 

Caules plures ex eadem radice, 8-2^ pedales. Folia sessilia, 
84-3-poll. longa, 2-S-lin. lata. InTolucrum campanulatam, 
squamis biseriatis^ cequaUbus^ lanceolato-linearibusy obtosis, 
extus resinoso-glandulosis et versus apioem dense pilosis, 
S-nerviis, 2-lin. longis. Receptaculum planum, nudum. 
CorpUiB ad fiiucem ampliate, extus hirsutae, obtuse 5- 
dentatie. Antherae apice breviter appendieulataB. Styli 
rami elongati, apice davati. Achcenium oblongum, baa 
attenuatum, 5-angulatum, glabrum, nigrum, catvum. 

3809. P. anguMtata ; annua, caule erecto tereti striato nunoso 
yiscoso-villoso, foliis oppositis altemisque longe petiobtis 
ovatis alatis basi truncatis 3-nerviis plus minus angukto- 
lobatis, lobis grosse dentatis, dentibos obtosis minute 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 4S3 

oelluloso-mucroiiatis ntrinque pilosiusculis viscosis, pedun- 
coKs petiolisque yillosis dichotomo-corymbosis, capitulis 
paucis pedicellatis 12-flori8. 

Hab, On limestone rocks in shady woods^ near the Villa de 
Arrayas, Proyinoe of Goyaz. March, 1840. 

Herba annua, l^-pedalis. Folia S-H^ poll, longa, 2^-3 poll, 
lata: petioli 2^-d-poll. longi. InyolQcruni caropanulatum, 
glanduloso-pilosum, squamis subseriatis, eequalibas, Ian- 
ceolatis, acuroinatis, glandoloso-ciliatis, S-nerviis, 2^ lin. 
loogis. Reoeptacttlum conicum, nudum. Corolle tubus 
basi glanduloso-pilosus ; faux ampliata ; limbns 5 fidus. 
Anthers apice breviter appendiculatie. Styli rami exserti, 
apice clavati. Achaenium oblongum, basi attenuatum, vix 
angustatum, glabrum, nigrum, calvum. 
This species will range along with P. laitfolioy {Phalacraa 

fa/t/b/ta, DC), from which it is well distinguished by its 

larger lobed leaves, and very long petioles. 

AOBNOSTBMMA, FoTSt. 

4204. A. BuffruHcosa; caule basi suffruticoso subangulato 
simplici apice prcesertim glanduloso-puberulo seu scabrido, 
foliis petiolatis oblongo-ellipticis basi longe cuneato*atte- 
nuatis infira medium triplinerviis versus apicem vix cre- 
natis glaberrimisy panicula dichotomo-corymbosa laxa 
ramis glanduloso-pubescentibus, involucri squamis oblongis 
obtusis dorso puberulis glanduloso-ciliatis, achceniis glan* 
dttloso-muricatis. 

Hab. Moist bushy places, near Nossa Senhora d'Abadia, 
Province of Ooyaz. May, 1840. 

Su£Frutex S-6-pedalis. Folia opposita, 4-8-poU. longa, li-2i 
poll, lata, subcamosa. Capitulum multiflorum. Recepta- 
cttlum planumi nudum, foveolatum. Involucrum campa- 
nulatum, squamis 2^ lin. longis. Corolla tubulosa, 5« 
dentata, lobis extus glanduloso-tomentosis ; faux subam* 
pliata. Styli rami longi exserti, clavati. Achienium ob- 
longum, basi attenuatum, subtriangulatum. Pappus aristis 
3 patentibus obtusis. 



434 FLORA OF BRAJZlts. 

Stbyia, Cavan. 

4203. 8. (§ moltiaristatie) hypUfoUa ; caule basi sofiratiooso 
erecto apioe oorymboso-ramoso tereti striato rafo-yiUoso- 
tomentosoy foliis oppositis sessilibus caneato*oblongis ot>- 
tasis basi longe attenuatia crenato-dentatia triplinenrus 
Qtrinque tomentoaiay corymbo fiurtigiato yilloao, capitnlis 
pedicellatis, involucri aquamia Imeari-lanoeolatia acanii- 
natia piloao-pubesoentibaa cOiatia S-nerniay adiBmo 
fineari-oblongo S-angnlato pilonnaeiilfH pappi aiiatia 15 
squalibna acaberrimia aduBoio longioribaa. 

Hab. Upland campoa, near Noaaa Senhora d'Abadta* Pro- 
Tinoe of Goyaz. May, 1840. 

Snffrutex 2-2f>pedali8. Folia 12-18-Iin. longa, 2^-4 lin.lata. 
InTolucnim oblongum, 4-lin. longam. Corolln rosoe, 
cylindraoeaB, baai constricts, pilosee. Styli rami longe 
exaerti. 

Near 8. Veromcm^ DC. 

Trichooonia, Gardn. 

4226. Tr. fMnthmfoUa ; herbacea, caule erecto tereti striato 
ramoao dense glanduloso-pubescente, foliis petiolatb il- 
temis oblongo-lanceolatLs acutia basi cuneatia triplinerviis 
serrato-dentatis utrinque puberolis supra demum glabratis, 
capitulis pedicellatis corymbosis 50-circiter-floris, involiicri 
squamis biserialibus asqualibus obovato-oblongia obtusis 
dense piloso-tomentosis 3-nerviis. 

Hab. Campos near Capella da Passe, Province of Grojaa. 
May, 1840. 

Herba perennis, 1 J-2-pedalis. Folia 2|-3 poll, longa, 8-11 
lata: petioli 8 lin. longi. Inyolucrum campanulatam, 
squamis vix 2-lin. longis. Receptaculum planum, nudum, 
glabrum. CoroU® ad faucem dilatatsB, extus hirautas, \\r 
lin. longee, pallide purpurece. Styli rami elongad, semi- 
teretes, obtusi. Acheenium oblongum, basi attenuatom, 
acute 5-angulatum, ad angulos prscipue piloso-acabrum, 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 435 

detnum glahratum. Pappus corolla breyior^ eequalis, uni- 
•erialis ; paleis setosis, plumosis, sordidis. 

4225. Tr. lasa; suffruticosa glandaloso-piloso-pubescens, 
caiile erecto ramoso tereti striato, foliis alternis petiolatis 
oblongis obtaais basi attenuatis triplinerviis margine revo- 
latis crenatis supra pilosis subtus piloso-tomentosis^ capi- 
tolls longe pedicellatis paniculato-corymbosis circiter 30- 
floris, involucri squamis 2*8erialibu8 squalibus spathulato- 
oblongis obtuse dense piloso-tomentosis S-S-nerviis. 

Hab. Dry arid sandy campos^ near Capella da Passe, Pro- 
vince of Goyas. May, 1840. 

Suffrutez^ bipedalis. Folia 12-15 lin. longa, 4-6 lin. lata. 
InTolucrum campanulatum^ squamis 3-lin. longis, inte- 
rioribus angustioribus. Receptaculum planum, nudum. 
CSoroU» ad faucem ampliatae, extus hirsute, circiter 2-lin. 
loogn, pallide purpures. Styli rami elongati, compressi, 
apice subclavati. Achsnium oblongum, basi attenuatum, 
acute 5-angulatumy ad angulos pracipue piloso-scabrum. 
Piappus corolla vix breyior, asqualis, uniserialis, paleis se- 
tosis, pluroosis, stramineis. 

LiATRis^ Schreb. 

5831. L. (Leptodinium) trichotama; fruticosa trichotomo- 
ramosa, ramis teretibus striatis piloso-pubescentibus dense 
foliosis, foliis alternis sessilibus oblongo-lanceolatis utrin- 
que obtusis triplinerviis integerrimis pilosiusculis supra 
demum glabratis, corymbo ad apices ramulorum sub- 
aessili terminali polycephalo, capitulis confertis breviter 
pedicellatis 5-floris, involucri oblongi squamis 3-8eriatis 
ovato-oblongis acutis glabris ciliatis striatis^ exterioribus, 
brevioribusy achanio 5-aiigulato glaberrimo. 

Hab. Dry grassy hills^ near Villa de Arrayas, Province of 
Goyaz. April, 1840. 

Fmtez S*4-pedalis. Folia 8-12 lin. longa, 3-4 lin. lata, 
supra viridia, subtus pallida. Involucrum 4 lin. longum, 
subrubicundum. Receptaculum obtuse conicum, puno- 
tatum, nudum. CorolUe tubulos®, glabra, pallide lutea. 



4SS PLORA OF BRAZIL. 

S-dentatie^ dentibns oblongis, obtusis. Anthene inchuue, 

apice breviter et obtuse appendiculatfo. Styli basi belbosi, 

rami compresso-clavati, longe exserti. Pappus 2-8erialis, 

setis barbellatis stramineis, interioribaa coroUam aube- 

quantibus, ezterioribas paulo brevioribus. 

This is a trae congener of my lAatru BraziUensu (n. 

4864), agreeing with it in habit, but distinguished by its 

membranous, tripliuerved, entire, pilose leaves, and glabrous 

achaenia. 

CHROHOLiBNA, DC 

B828. C. epaleacea ; caule herbaceo erecto terett atriato bi»> 
pido apice ramoso, foliis oppositia aeasilibus late oTstis 
obtusis basi cordatis 5-nerviis crenatis supra scabridis 
subtus 5-nerviis valde reticulatis minute reainoao-punc- 
tatis, capitulis ad apices ramulorum paucis subcorymbosis 
60-floris, inyolucri campanulati squamis multiaerialibus 
laxe imbricatis oblongis obtusis concavia glabiia striatis, 
achssnio ad angulos scabriusculo. 
Hab. Upland campos, near Villa de Arrayas, Provinoe of 

Goyaz. March, 1840. 
Herba perennis, 2-3-pedaIis, basi lignosa. Folia 3^-4 poD. 
longa, 2-2^ poll. lata. Capitula 6 lin. longa, 4^ lin. lata, 
albida. Receptaculum conicum, nudum. CoroU« vio- 
lacece, inyolucro breviores. Achcenia acute 5-angnlata. 
Pappus uniserialis, setosus, setis scabridis, stramineis, 
coroliam subsquantibus. 

I have been much puzzled where to refer this plant, 
which in every thing but the naked receptacle^ is a ChroatO' 
bena. With CampuhcUnium it agrees in its conical recep- 
tacle, but its many ranked involuorum prevents its being pat 
into that genus ; and although there are some true species iA 
Eupatorium which have convex receptacles, yet I can find do 
described species of that genus with which the present pkat 
will associate. Guided by its natural affinities, I shall con- 
aider it, for the present, as a Chroimolmna. 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 437 

OOCLINIUM^ DC, 

3814. O. depresmm; herbaceum, caule erecto tereti striato 
ramoso pilis longis articulatis villoso, foliis oppositis petio- 
latis ovato-oblongis utrinque acutis apice mucronulatis 3- 
nerviis serrato-dentatis utrinque petioloque villosis, peduii- 
culis brevibus 1-cephalis, capitulis 35-40 floris^ involucri 
squamis 2-seriatis striatis glabris adpressis, exterioribus 
ovato-Ianceolatis acutis apiculatis, interioribus spathulato- 
oblongis margine subscariosis apice lacerato-ciliatis, recep* 
taculo ovato. 

Hab. In open sandy places common, near tbe Villa de Ar- 
rayas, Province of Goyaz. Aprils 1840. 

Annuum, subpedale, depressum, ramosum, ramis patulis elon- 
gatis foliosis. Folia 1-1^ poll, longa, 6-9 lin. lata : petioli 
2-4 lin. longi. Pedunculi 4-6 lin. longi, unibracteati, sparse 
pilosi. Involucrum 3-lin. longum. Receptaculum ovatum, 
nudam, foveolatum. Corollce tubulosee, ad faucem non 
ampliatsB, 5-dentatfie, dentibus ovatis obtusis puberulis, 
pallide purpureee. Styli rami cylindricii obtusi, exserti. 
Achaenium oblongumj compresso-tetragonum^ pilosiuscu- 
lomj nigrum. 
Near O. SideriiiSy DC. I once thought this might be O. 

viUosumy DC. {PraxelU villosa, Cass.), but that seems to be 

a much more villous plant. 

CONOCLINIUM, DC. 

4231 et 4231 (bis.) 0. seamkm} firuticosa ramosa acandens^ 
ramis teretibus striatia piloso-pubescentibus folioM, foliis 
oppositia petiolaCis late ovatis acutia vel subacuminatiB basi 
oordatis 5-7-nerviis margine minute calloso-denticolatis 
membranaceis rugosis utrinque pubesoentibus, panicula 
laxa foliosa, ramis oppositis Inrachiatia, capitulia ad q)ioe8 
ramolonun in glomarulo globoso aggregatia 7*10-floris, 
involucri squamis biserialibits oblongia acutia dorso pu- 
berolis at ad apioem resinoso-glanduloeo-puoctatia 3- 



438 FLORA OP BRAZfl.. 

nerviis, receptacalo oonico, achienio oblongo 5-angahto 
pilosiusculo. 

Has. Dry bushy places between Arrayas and San Domuigos, 
Province of Goyaz. May, 1840. 

FrutCK alte scandens, ramosissimus, ramis bnu^hiatis, elongir 
tis. Folia 2^-4 poll, longa, 1^-2^ poll, lata i petioli semi- 
teretes, 4-104in.longi. Involucrum IJ-lin. longam. Co- 
roll® tubulosce ad faucem non ampliatae, glabrae^ 5-dentate, 
dentibus oblongis obtusis extus resinoso-punctatis. Styli 
rami cylindrici, longe exserti, apice subclavati. Pftppna 
uniserialis, in^equalis, corolla brevior, seds scabriosculis 
sordidis. 

Campuloclikum, DC. 

3835. C. hirsutum; caule herbaceo erecto tereti striato 
ramoso hirsuto^ foliis oppositis petiolatis ovatia obtnats 
basi acutis triplinerviis aerrato-dentatis utrinqoe piloso- 
hispidisy panicula tenninali subcymosa hirsuta, capitulis 
pedicellatis circiter 40-florisy involucri squamis S-seriatis 
eequalibus^ exterioribus ovato-lanceolatia acutis hirsotis 
multinerviis, interioribus lineari-spathulatia acutis ciliatu 
l-S-nerviis extus ad apicem resinoso-punctatis, reoeptaciilo 
convexo alveolato, achssnio acute 5-angulato pilosiuaculo. 

Hab. Dry upland Campos near Arrayas, Province of Goyai. 
April, 1840. 

Herba perennia, 2^ pedalis. Folia pelluddo-punctita, 
li-2-poll. longa, 8-12-lin. lata. Petioli 3-4^ lin. longi. 
Involucrum campanulatum, 6 lin. longum* Receptacolom 
nudum. Corolke purpunusentea, tubulosn, S-dentatc^ 
dentibus extus glanduloso-resinoso-punctatia. Pappat 
uniserialisy setosus, aelis corolla paulo brevioribuay acabris, 
sordidis. 
Allied to C. paniculatum, DC. 

3816. C. aUemffolium ; caule herbaceo erecto tereti striate 
viUoso alteme ramoso, foliia altemis petiolatia ovatis acntb 
basi acutis cuneatisve trinerviia crenato-serratia dliatis 
utrinque sparse piloso-villoais subtus minute resinoso- 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 439 

glanduloso-punctatis, capitulis paucis subcorymboiis Umga 
pedicellatis late campanulatis 170-flori8y involucri sqoamis 
S-seriatis longit. subeequalibus, ezterioribas late ovatis 
acutis hirsutis, interioribna spathulato^oblongis obtusia ad 
apicem pilosis et rennoso-punctatis, achanio acute 5-anga- 
lato ad angalos piloso, pappo subpaleaceo, setis brevibus 
acmniiiatis scabris yalde insoqualibas. 

Has. Margins of woods near Villa de Arrayas, Province of 
Ooyaz. April, 1840. 

Annaa, bipedalis. Folia membranaoea, 2^ poll, longa, 15-lin. 
lata. Petioli 4-8 lin. longi, Tillosi. Involacrum late cam- 
panulatum, 3-lin. longum. Receptaculam conicum, nudum. 
CoroUflB pallide purpurea^ extus resinoso-punctats, pappo 
multo longiores. 
Well distinguished from all the other species of the genus 

by its alternate leaves, and short somewhat paleaceous 

pappus. 

Eupatorium, Toum. 
Ser. II. Imbbicata, DC. 

3827. E. Arrayanum; frntioosum, canle erecto tereti striato 
piloso-scabrido ramoso« foliis oppositis brevissime petio- 
latis lanceolatis utrinque acutis apice mucronatis tripli- 
nerviis integerrimis supra glaberrimis paroe resinoso- 
panctatis subtus reticulatis pubescentibus creberrime 
resinoso-punctatia, capitulis ad apices ramulorum intra duo 
ultima folia soUtariis sessilibus aut breviter pedicellatis 
ovato^cylindraceis 50*circiter-floris ; involucri squamis arete 
imbricatia obtusis ciliatis striatis, achssnio ad angulos vix 
acabrido. 

Has. Near Villa de Arrayas, Province of Goyas. Aprils 
1840. 

Fratex S-6-pedalis. Folia li-2-poU. longa, 4-6-lin. lata, 
supra viridia, subtus rufa. Capitula 6-lin longa. Pftppus 
Bordidus. 
Near E. muUiJh9euh$umy DC. 



440 FLORA OF BRAZIL. 

4210. E. 9ub9erratum; suflratieosQin, cattle erecto trreti 
atriato villoso-tomentoso ramoso, ramis ad apioem paoicu- 
latis, foliis oppositis brevi^petiolatta ovato-lanceolatis longe 
acuminatis baai rotundatis triplinerviis iotegriasculis vd 
ad medium subaerratia aupra piloao^scabridis sabtua tiIIobo- 
tomentosis, corymbia ramoa termiiiantibua aabaimplidbiis, 
capitulis longe pedicellatia ovatis circiter 80-4oris, inTolncri 
squamis arete imbrioada obtoaia ciliatia atriatia, achsnio 
ad angulos scabrido. 

Hab. Sandy baahy piaoea between Arrayaa and Saa Do- 
mingoa. Province of Goyaa. May, 1840* 

Suflrutez 5-6 pedalis, ramoaua. Folia 3-S^ poll, longa, 15 
lin. drciter lata, membranacea. Pletioli S-5 Kn. loogL 
Pedicelli angulati, 6-7 Hn. longi. Capitula 6-liii. loaga. 
Achenium acate 5-angalatum. Aippua aordidua. 
Allied to £. MaaimUianay Scbrad., but rery distinct. 

3825. E. mucronatum ; sufiruticosum, ramis teretibua striatis 
hispido-yillosis, foliis oppositis longe petiolatis ovato-lan- 
ceolatis longe acuminatis basi cuneato-attenuatis tripli- 
nerviis distanter grosse et obtuse mucronato-serratis 
utrinque sparse villosis, coryrabis terminalibus tnchotomist 
capitulis longe pedicellatis cylindricis40*55-floria, involacri 
squamis arete imbricatia obtuais ciliatiB atriatia^ achttoio 
ad anguloa aoabriuaculo* 

Hab, Bushy piaoea near Villa de Arrayaa, Province of 
Goyas. April, 1840. 

Sttffmtex, ramosus. Folia 4^^ poll. longa, 1^*2 poll. lata. 
Petioli 6-9 lin. longi. Pedicelli 4^-74 lin. longL CapitoU 
5 lin. longa, 1^2^ lin. lata. Pappus albidus. 
Near E. MascmUianOj Schr., and E. odor&iynh liun., bat 

sufficiently distinct from both. 

4214. K eaiensum; fruticosum, ramis teretibus atriatis Ms* 
pido-villosis, foliis oppositis petiolatis oblongo-lanoeolatis 
acuminatis basi cuneatis triplinerviis integris utrinqae 
villosis, corymbis terminalibus composHis, capitulis pedi- 
cellatis cylindricis 40-50-floris, involucri squamis arete 



FLORA OP BRAZIL. 441 

imbricatis obtusis ciliatis striatis, achienio ad angulos 
scabrido. * 

Hab. Bushy places between Capella da Posse and San 
Pedro, Province of Goyaz. May, 1840- 

Fratex vel suffrutex, diffuse ramosus. Folia 3-3^ poll, longa, 
10-15 lin. lata. Petioli 2-3 lin. longi. Pedicelli 4-6 lin. 
longi. Pappus stramineus. 
Near E. conyzoideSf Vahl. from which it differs in being 

villous, and in having entire leaves and more numerous 

florets. 

4206. E. ramoiusimum; fruticosum ramosissimum, ramis 
teretibus striatis pubescenti-hirtis fastigiatis, foliis oppositis 
petiolatis ovato-oblongis utrinque acutis triplinerviis ad 
medium dentato-serratis supra pilosiusculis demum gla- 
bratia subtus pubescentibus creberrime minute resinoso- 
punctatis, corymbis terminalibus compositis fastigiatis, 
capitulis pedioellatis 26-floris, involucri squamis arete im- 
bricatis obtusis ciliatis sub-3-nerviis, achsenio angulato, 
ad angulos scabriusculo. 

Hab. Margins of woods near Villa de Arrayas, Province of 
Goyaz. March 1840. 

Fratex 3-4-pedali8. Folia 1-1^ poll, longa, 5-8 lin. lata. 
Capitula 4| lin. longa. Pappus substramineus. 
AlUed to E. iectumf Gardn., from which it differs in its 

broader serrated leaves, and more numerous florets. 

3829. E. eremUum; fruticosum, ramis teretibus dense piloso- 
hispidis, foliis oppositis breviter petiolatis ovato-eUipticis 
utrinque obtusis triplinerviis inferioribus grosse crenatis 
auperioribtts integris supra piloso-scabridis subtus dense 
piloso-tomentosis, corymbis ad apices ramulorum confertis, 
capitulis brevi-pedicellatis 25-floris, involucri cylindrici 
squamis arete imbricatis obtusis ciliatis striatis, achaenio 
ad angulos scabriusculo. 

Hab. Near Villa de Arrayas, Province of Ooyaz. April, 
1840. 

Frutex 2-3 pedaUs. Folia 1-2 poll, longa, 9-15 lin. lata. 

VOL. VI. K K 



442 FLORA OF BRAZIL. 

Petioli lilin. longi. Pedieelli 1^-2 Kn. longi. Capitola 
4\ lin. longa. Pftppus sordidua. 

In habit and general appearance this species agrees widi 
my E. pungew, from which it is prindpallv distangnisbed by 
its nearly sessile leaves, and obtuse, not acuminated, ibto- 
lacral scales ; notwithstanding the pungent scales of E. ptm- 
ffensy it should perhaps be referred to the imbricated latber 
than the subimbricated series, and range along with the 
present species. 

4217- FM./errugineum; fruticosum erectum ramosura, ramii 
teretibus striatis pubescenti-scabridis, foliis oppositis petio* 
latis late ovatis utrinque obtusis apice mucronatis trinerviis 
integris vel vix subdenticulatis utrinque velutino-tomen- 
tosis et creberrime resinoso-punctatis, corymbis tormina* 
libus compositis, capitulis ovato-cylindraceis pedioellatis 
25-floris, involucri squamis arete imbricatis obtuaia ciliatis 
vix striatis, acheenio ad angulos hispido. 
Has. Dry bushy places between San Domingos and Capdh 

da Posse, Province of Ooyaz. May, 1840. 
Frutex 3-pedalis. Folia 1^-2 poll, longa, 10-18 lin. krta, 
membranacea, rufescentia. Petioli 2^ lin. longi. Psdi- 
celli l|-3 lin. longi. Capitula 5 lin. longa. I^ppus 
rufescens. 

Somewhat allied to the last species, but very distinct 
S824. E. myriocephalum ; sufiruticosum, ramis teretibui 
striatis pubescentibus, foliis oppositis petiolatis ovatis vel 
ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis basi acutis triplinervib ad 
medium grosse crenato-serratis supra glabrioscnlia subtus 
puberulis et minute resinoso-glandulosis, corymbis termi- 
nalibus compositis, capitulis pedicellatis cylindricis gra* 
cilibus 11-floris, involucri squamis arete imbricatis obtusis 
ciliatis striatis, achienio ad angulos scabrido. 
Has. Dry bushy places Arrayas, Province of Goyas. March, 
• 1840. 

Suffrutex 4-5 pedalis Folia 2-3^ poll, longa, 9-18 Kn* lata, 
membranacea, supra viridia, subtus pallida. I^icelli S-lin. 
circiter longi. Capitula A\ lin. longa. Pappus albidus. 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 443 

Allied to E. gradHfiormn^ DC. 

38:iS. E. picium; suffruticoauai, ramis teretibus striatis 
hispido-TiUosis, foliis oppositis petiolatis OFato-oblongis 
aoQtis basi cuneato-attenaatia trinerriia grosse dentato- 
aeiTBtta utrinqve sparse villosis, corymbis terminalibus 
oompoaitis trichotomis, capitulis subsessilibus cylindricis 
1 6*floriay inyolaeri squamis imbricatia basi adpressis glabris 
strntiB cUiatis apioe foliaceis subpatalis pilosis, achsenio ad 
angulos scabriuaculo. 

Uab. Margins of woods near Villa de Arrayas, Province of 
Goyas. May, 1B40. 

Sofiratex 3-4-pedaIis. Folia 2*3^ poll, longa, 1-1^ poll, lata, 
menibranaeea. Capitula 4i lin. longa. Pappus sordidus. 

S819* E. subinmeaium ; herbaceum, caule erecto tereti striato 
faispido-hirauto ad apicem ramoso, foliis oppositis petio- 
latis ovato«oblongis actttis basi subtruncatis tri-nrel sub- 
qiaintupli nerviis crenato-serratis supra piloso-scabridis 
sobtus yilloso-subtomentosis, corymbis terminalibus com- 
poeitis tricbotomis, capitulis breviter pedicellatis cylindricis 
16-floris, involucri squamis imbricatis arete adpressis 
•triatby externis obtusis ad apicem pilosis, intimis acutis 
ciliatis, achonio ad angulos scabriusculo. 

Uab. Near Villa de Arrayas, Province of Goyaz. April, 
1840. 

Herba perenma, l^^S-pedalis. Folia 3-4^ poll, longa, 15-24 
lin. lata. Capitula 4i-lin. longa. Pappus albidus. 
Near the last species, but well distinguished by its diflfe- 

rent leaves and involacral scales. 

Ser. II. SUBIMBRICATA, DC. 

5833. E. deniaivm; fruticosum, ramis ereetis teretibus striatis 
cinefeo-iiiloso-tomentosis, foliis altemis sessilibus cuneato- 
oUongia obtuais penniveniis inferioribus integris supertori- 
bos ad apioam 3-5 dentatis otrinque tomentoais, panicula 
temtnali diehotoma, capitulis aubsessilibus glomerulis 
8-4<«floris, involucri aquarois S-aeriatia imbricatis tomen- 

K K 2 



444 FLORA OF BRAZIL. 

tosis S-nerviis, externis pairis oratis obtusiB intiniis 
oblongo-lanoeolatis acutis, acheenio piloso. 

Has. Dry upland grassy Campos near Villa de Amyas, 
Proyince of Ooyaz. March, 1840. 

Frutex bipedalis. Folia 12-15 lin. longa, 3-4 lin. lata, 
coriacea. Capitula S4in. longa. Corolla albida, glabra. 
Styli rami apice valde davati. Pappus atramineos. 
This will range along with E. campestre, DC.^ but is Terj 

distinct from it and every other described species. 

4215 et 48S0. E. pulchrtm; caule herbaoeo erecto tereti 
striato piloso-tomentoso simplici, foliis alternis breri- 
petiolatis oblongis vel oblongo-elliptids obtusis basi acutis 
triplinerviis ad medium serrato-dentatiscoriaceis, corymbis 
terminalibus, capitulis ad apices ramulorum conferfas sessi- 
libus 4-floris, involucri oblongi squamis S-seriatis laxe 
imbricatis oblongis acutis striatis subciliatis, exterioribus 
brevioribtts obtusis ad apicem pilosis, achsnio pilouas- 
culo. 

Chromolsena alternifolia, Gardn. in Hook. Lond. Joum. of 
Bat. 5, p. 465. 

Has. Dry Campos near Nossa Senhora d'Abadia, Province 
of Goyaz (n. 4215), and on dry hills near Morro Velho, 
Province of Minas Geraes (n. 4860). May and Septem- 
ber, 1840. 

Herba perennis, basi sublignosa, 14-2-pedalia. Folia sl- 
terna, 15-18 lin. longa. Corolla violaoea. Pappus sor- 
didus. 
Near E. 9ubaltermfolium^ DC. In the Gk)yas specimens 

the leaves are narrower, and the corymb laxer than in those 

from Minas. 

3247* E. revolutum ; caule herbaceo erecto gracili tereti striato 
piloso-pubescente simplici, foliis altemis sessilibus oblongis 
utrinque attenuatis trinerviis coriaceis margine revolutis sd 
medium subdentatis pulchre reticulatis supra glaberrimb 
subtus pilosiusculis creberrime minute glanduloso-ponc- 
tatis, corymbo terminali conferto, capitulis ad apices ra- 
mulorum confertis sessilibus 12-floris, involucri squamis 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 445 

S-seriatis, intimis linearibus acutis ad apicem ciliatis 
externis ovato^oblongis calloso-acutis striatis, dorse glan- 
daloso-punctatisj achsnio basi piloso. 

Hab. Arid campos, near the Mission of Duro, Province of 
Goyas* Oct. 1639. 

Herba perennis, pedalis. Folia poUicem longa, S-4 lin. lata. 
Capitula 4^ lin. longa. Corolla yiolacea. Pappus albidus. 
Apparently allied to E. dictyophyllum^ DC, from which it 
differs in the corymb not being paniculate, and in having 
more than double the number of florets which that species 
is said to have. I possess specimens of a plant nearly 
related to the present from Claussen's Brazilian Collection, 
which may be characterized as follows :— 

(E. ClausMemi; caule herbaceo erecto gracili tereti basi 
striato ad apicem angulato pubescente subsimplici, foliis 
altemis petiolatis late linearibus utrinque attenuatis co- 
riaceis basi trinerviis reliculatis versus apicem subdentatis 
supra glabris subtus pubescentibus, corymbo terminali 
conferto, capitulis ad apices ramulorum sessilibus glome- 
ratia 5-floris, involucri squamis 2-seriatis imbricatis S- 
nerviis, externis apice callosis reflexis dorso puberulis 
intimis acutis, achsenio pilosiusculo. 

Hab. Province of Minas Geraes, Brazil. Claussen. 

Herba perennis, pedalis et ultra. Folia 12-15 lin. longa, 2 
lin, lata. Capitula S^-Un. longa. Corolla violacea. Pappus 
stramineus.) 

S8S4. E. albesceru ; fruticosum, ramis teretibus striatis pe- 
tiolis pedunculisque cinereo-tomentosis, foliis oppositis pe- 
tiolatis oblongo^lanceolatis utrinque acutis triplinerviis 
crenato-dentatis supra piloso-scabridis subtus tomentosis 
reticulatis, paniculis terminalibus ramosis, ramis corym- 
bosis, capitulis pedicellatis lO-U-floris, involucri campa- 
nnlati squamis 3-seriatis imbricatis oblongis obtusis dorso 
puberulis d-nerviis, acheenio glabro resinoso-punctato. 

Hab. Margins of woods, near Villa de Arrayas, Province of 
Goyaz. April, 1840. 

Fnitex ramosus, 6 pedalis. Folia 2^-31 poll, longa, 10*12 



446 FLORA OP BRAZIL. 

Un« lata. Capitala 3| lin. longi^ Corolla alba. Pappus 

albus. 

As a species, this will range along with E. coaefcair, VahL 
It does not, however, seem to be nearly allied to it or to any 
of the neighbouring species. 

Ser. III. ExiMBRiCATA, DC, 

3832. 'E. ffaUqpstfolium ; caule erecto tereti striato glandnloso- 
villoso, foliis oppositis petiolatis late ovatis acutis basi 
truncatis vel subcordatis trinerviis grosse crenato-dentatis 
utrinque sparse pilosis, corymbis ad apices ramorum 3-5- 
cephalis, capitulis pedicellatis 150-floris, coroUis glabria, 
involucri squamis S-seriatis subeequalibus acuminatis dorso 
puberulis, acbaenio ad apieem pilosiusculo. 

Has. Shady places, near Villa de Arrayas, Province of 
Goyaz. April, 1840. 

Annua 2i-pedalis. Folia 3 poll, longa, H poU« 1^^ mem- 
branacea: petioli 6-10 lin. longi. Capitula 4 lin. longs. 
Corolla purpurea. Pappus albidus. 
Near E. innumerosumi DC. 

3270. E. triffonum ; herbaceum, caule erecto versus apioem 
obtuse triangulato striato puberulo-velutino, fblus altemis 
sessilibus obovato-ellipticis utrinque obtusis penniveniis 
reticulatis serrato-dentatis supra glabriusculis subtus pu- 
berulo-velutinis, paniculis terminalibus corymbosis dicbo* 
tomo*ramosis, capitulis pedicellatis 5-floris, involucri 
squamis oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis puberulis 3-nerviis 
biseriatis, externis brevioribus, achsenio piloso. 

H AB. Upland campos, Mission of Duro, Province of Goyas. 
Oct, 1839. 

Herba perennis, 2-2|-pedalis. Folia 2-2^ poll, longa, l-U 
poD. lata, membranacea, supra viridia, subtus pallida. 
Capitula 5-Iin. longa. Corolla alba. Pappus sordidus. 
Judging from the description, apparently allied to E. or- 

ffyale, DC. 

Kanimia, Genus novum. 
Char. Gjbn. — CapUuhan 4-fiorum. Reeq^acMimm {danom 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 447 

nndum. Involucrum 4-phyllum, adjecta aut ad basin aut 
infra basin bracteola. Corolla tubulos®, ad faucem dila- 
tato. AchiBnbim angalatam. Pappus 2*seriali8, setis 
pilosis rigidis scabiidis nqualibus. — Herb» vel m^fruticea 
erectm. Folia opposUa^ sessiUa, mterdam veriicUlatay eUip^ 
Hca aui Knearia. Capitula tpicaia^ aut corymboaa. Co- 
rolla ulUda. 

The only essential character which distinguishes this genus 
from Mikania is the double pappus and the only two spedes 
which I know have the same erect habit as those of De 
Candolle*s first section of Mikania. There is, however, a 
pecuharity in their look which at first sight bespeaks a 
difference. The capitula are not only much larger, but the 
inyolucral scales are very nearly as long as the florets, and 
the pappus is much more rigid than in Mikania. I have 
carefully examined the nature of the pappus in seven erect 
species of Mikanioy which I possess in my Herbarium, and 
in all of them find it to be decidedly single. I expect, how- 
ever, that De CandoUe's two first species will be found to be 
congeners with the present. The name is an anagram of 
MUtania. 

8636. Kanimia/Mi/K^Mf; herbaceaerectaglaberriitta,caule aim- 
plici basi tereti striate folioso apice angulato subaphyllo, foliis 
oppositis sessiltbus linearibus obtusis coriaoeis integerrlmis 
5«nerviii, nervis parallelis utrinque prominulis, oorymbo 
terminali trichotomo, capitulis pedioellatis, bracteola ob- 
longo-lineari invoL breviore, involucri squamis oblongis 
acutis striatis apice subciliatis, achaenio glabro. 
Has. Marshy oampos between Villa de Natividade and 

Concei9So, Province of Goyaz. Feb. 1840. 
Herba perennis, 2*8-pedali8. Folia 3-4-poll. longa, 2-2jl lin. 
lata. Pedicelli compressi, J3*lin« longi. Capitula 6-lin, 
longa. Pappus rufesoens, setis apice clavatis. 
4866. Kanimia ttrobUtfera^ Gardn. — Mikania strotU^erOf 
Gardn. in Hook. Land. Jour. qfBoL 5. p. 479. 



448 FLORA OF BRAZIL. 



MiKANIA, WUld. 



4228. M. (Sptciformes) consanguinea ; fruticosa scandens ra- 
mis teretibus pube fermginea subvillosis, foliis petiolatis 
ovato-ellipticis acutis basi suboordatis mucronato-serrato- 
dentatis supra piloso-scabridis subtos tomentosis^ raoemis 
spicatis in paiiiculam dispositis, capitulis secus rachin 
sessilibas approximatis, bracteola oblonga acuta pilosa in- 
vol. multo breviore, involucri squamis oblongis obtuab 
striatis pilosis, achsenio glanduloso-piloso. 
Has. Bushy places, near Villa de Arrayas, Province of 

Ooyaz. March, 1840. 
Fnitex scandens. Folia 3-3^ poll, longa, 15-20 lin. lata, 
membranaoea ; petioli 4 lin. longi. Involacram 2 lin. 
longum. Pappus sordidus. 

Akin to M. scabra, DC, from which it differs in its sub- 
cordate leaves and sessile capitula. 

4230. M. (Cordiformes) thumberguBfolia ; suffiraticosa scan- 
dens, caule scabrido ramisque obtuse hezagonis junioribus 
cinereo-piloso-pubescentibtts, foliis petiolatis late coidatu 
acuminatis in sinu subcuneatis sinuato-dentatis aupn 
piloso-scabridis subtus piloso-pubescentibus^ pedoncolii 
axillaribus terminalibusque apice corymbosis, capitulis bre- 
viter pedioellatis, involucri squamis 4 oblongis dorso piloso- 
pubescentibus quorum 3 acutis, unica obtusa, bracteola 
lineari-acuminata, ach®nio glabro. 
Hab. Bushy places, near Villa de Arrayas, Province of 

Goyaz. April, 1840. 
Folia 3 poll, longa, 2 poll. lata. Involucrum Z\ lin. bngom. 
Pappus pallide rufescens. 

Apparently very near M. gonoclada^ DC, but the stem 
and branches are not acutely hexagonous, nor are the angles 
villous, and in that species the leaves are not said to be 
scabrous on the upper surface. In the present plant the 
pappus is, moreover, rather stramineous than rufous. 
3271- M. (Angulatae) gubcymosai auffrutioosa volubilis gla- 
berrima, caule striate, ramis angulatis, foliis petiolatis sub- 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 449 

hastato^vato-oblongis acuminatis basi cordatis d-nerviis 
denticnlatis, ramis axillaribus apice corymbum compositutn 
fastigiatum gerentibus, capitulis ad apices ramulorum pedi- 
oellatis subumbellatis, bracteola oblongo-lineari acuta parva, 
involacri squamis lineari-oblongis acutis 3-nervus ache&oiis- 
que glabris. 

Hab. Bashy places near Villa de Natividade, Province of 
Goyaz. February, 1840. 

Folia 3§ poll, longa, 15-18 lin. lata, membranacea. Petioli poUi- 
cares. Involucnira 2^ lin. longum. Pappus pallide rufescens. 
Near M. campanvlata^ Oardn. 
The following is a list of such species of EupatoriacecB, 

belonging to my Goyaz collections^ as I find to have been 

already published : 

3265, 3267, 3813 et 4201. Oodiximm pedunculare, DC. 

8812. ' „ Sideritis.DC. 

3S15. „ capiUare^ DC. 

3269. Bulbostylis micrantha^ Gardn. 

4209. Eupatorium obscuruniy DC. 

4205, 3826, 4211 et 4208. E. pungens, Gardn. 

4219, 4220 et 4218. E. psiadea^olium, DC. 

4212. E. conyzoidesy Vahl. 

3828. E. MaxwAliam, Schrad. 

3830. E. Piauhyense, Gardn. var. |3 aUerfd/blium, Gardn. 

4227* 99 n var. y angtutifbliumf Gardn. 

4224. E. pamculatumy Schrad. 

3272. Mikania scabray DC. 
Kandy, Geylon« May 1» 1847. 

CcniribuiioM towards a Flora of Brazil, being the Cha- 
racters of several new species qf CoMPOSiTiE, belonging to 
the tribes MuTisiACSiB aiu/ NASsAuviACfiiB; by George 
Gardner, Esq., F.L.S. 

(Continiuedfrom the preceding article,) 

Rbodaotinea, Genus novum. 

Char. Qz^.-^CapUulum multiflorum, homogamuni. Invo- 
htertmi ovato-cylindraceum, multiseriale, imbricatum, 

VOL. VI. L L 



450 FLORA OP BRAZIL. 

squamis obsolete moltiiienriia coriaceis, ezterioribus oTBtis 
pungentibasy intimis Unearibiis erectis adpressig. Reeep- 
iaemha m piloso-fimbrUlifemm, Flares omnes bilabiati, bibio 
exteriore amplo 4-dentato» interiore lineari-filifbrmi am- 
plici : peripheruB plurimi elongati radiati ; disci pauci dapio 
breyiores. FVamenia libera. AniAene basi bidentatas. 
Stiflus subexseitos, breviter et oblique bilobus. Acluenium 
tmbinatum, dense sericeo-villosum. Pappus l-serialis, in 
peripheria plamosus, in disco e setis rigidis glabris reflexis 
oonstans. — Frutex Brasiliensis, rarois tereiUmSj acnleis 
si^mlaribus gemims. Folia aliema, subsessilia, obavaio- 
obUmga^ mmcronaiay pennivetda. Capitula ad apices ramu- 
lanan soUiariOy sessilia, magna. CoroUee rosciB, 

4268. Rhodactinea rosea, Barnadesia rosea, Lindl. Bot 
Reg. 1843, t. 29. Walp. Rep. Bot. 2. p. 678. Hook. Bot 
Mag. t. 4232. 

Hab. Woods between Arrayas and San Domingos, ProTince 
of Goyaz. May, 1840. 

Dbscr. Fnitex ramosissimos, spinosas, 3-4-pedali8. Folia 
alterna, subsessilia, obovato-oblonga, acuta, mucronata, 
basi attenuata, membranacea, pennivenia, venis utrinque 
2, adpresse pilosiuscula, supra viridia, subtus pallida, 
2^-3) poll, longa, 1-1^ poll. lata. Spin® patentes, adcQ- 
lares, rigidse, basi distinctae, 7 lin. longse. Capitula 2 poll, 
longa. Involucrum ovato-cylindraceum, multiseriale, im- 
bricaturo, squamis obsolete multineryiis, coriaceis, pubes- 
centibus, fulvis ; exteiioribus ovatis pungentibus ; intimis 
linearibus acuminatis, erectis, adpressis. Receptaculnm 
paleis capillaceis fulvis dense obsitum. Flosculi omnes 
hermaphroditi bilabiati: labio exteriore ligulato, quadri- 
fido, extus fulvo-villoso ; interiore angustissimo, simplici, 
Icevi : peripheriee 9, elongati, radiati, 16 lin. long! ; disci 
3-8 lin. longi. Filamenta libera, complanata, glabra: 
antherae in tubum coalits, appendicula ligulata obtosa 

'. rigida coronatae, basi bidentatse, dentibus brevibus callosis. 
Stigma oblique bilobum, lobis obtusis. Achaenia ubique 
sericeo-villosissima. Pappus difformis : peripheric el^an« 
ter plumosus ; disci setosns, setis rigidis glabris reflezis. 



FLORA OF QBAZIL. <451 

Observ. — ^The plant, on which I have established this 
genus, was first described and figured by Professor Lindley, 
in 1843, under the name of Bamadesia rosea ; and it has 
again been figured by Sir William Hooker, with the same 
name, in 1846, in both cases from living specimens. 
Liindley has remarked that it differs from all the described 
species of Bamadesia, in having soft straight, not spirally 
twisted, hairs on the receptacle; that the stamens are 
not roonadelphous ; and that in his specimen there were 
no central tubular florets. All these points I find corro- 
borated in my dried specimens, except the last ; for though 
there are no central tabular florets, Uke those found in 
Bamadesia, yet in all the capitula which I have examined, 
there are three florets very different from those of the 
circumference. Like the others they are hermaphrodite 
and bilabiate, but the tubular part is very much shorter 
and wider, and the pappus is not plumose, for it consists 
of rigid, glabrous, reflexed setae, exactly similar to those of 
the central tubular florets of Bamadesia. One of these 
florets is represented by Sir W. Hooker: he considers it 
merely an undeveloped state of the others. In Lindley^s 
specimen they do not seem to have been produced ; but the 
part of the receptacle which he alludes to as pouring out 
honey, is no doubt the place where they should have been. 
Dr. Lindley has committed an oversight in representing the 
outer lip of the corolla as bifid in place of quadrifid. Bama- 
desia laxa, of Don, approaches the present plant in having 
free filaments, though he describes it as having a central 
tubular floret. Perhaps when better known it may be 
found to be a true congener, and if so, my generic name 
must give place to Penthea, the sectional one of Don. 

The plant, from which Professor Lindley's figure was made, 
was, I believe, brought from the Province of Minas Geraes 
by Claussen. The history of the Kew plant is not given : 
Sir W. Hooker remarks that he has ried specimens, both 
from Peru and Brazil. 

L L 2 



452 FLORA. OP BRAZIL. 

Flotovia, Spreng. 
Sect. Erinesa, DC. 

4944. F. Sprengeliana ; foliis breviter petiolatis oblongo- 
lanceolatis mucronatis utrinque acutis triplinerviis supra 
glabriusculis subtus adpresse subvillosis, capitolis ad 
apices ramulorum solitariis subsessilibus, circiter 60-floris, 
involucri campanulati squamis inermibus, exterioribos 
ovatis acutis dorso pubescentibus margine ciliatis, ia- 
titnis linearibus extus villosis apice demum reflexis, 
corollis palmatis, lobis extus villosis, tubo extus glabra 
intus dense villoso. 

Hab. Wooded hills near Tapinhacanga, Province of Minaa 
Geraes. August, 1840. 

Frutex 6-pedalis, ramosus, spinosus, ramis striatis glabris, 
ramulis pubescentibus. Spinas geminse, basi connats, 4|-8 
lin. longae. Folia 2^ poll, longa, 10^ lin. lata, supra viridia, 
subtus pallida. Capitulum 15 lin. longum, nitidum. 
From the same locality I have a specimen which agrees 

with the present plant in every respect, except in being 

entirely destitute of spines, and in the more elliptical leaves. 

It may be distinguished thus: — 

|3. inermis ; ramis inermibus, foliis elliptico-oblongis utrinque 
obtusiusculis. 

1749. F. Lesringiana ; spinis brevibus semiteretibos supra 
pubescentibus, foliis breviter petiolatis elliptico-oblongu 
apice setoso-spinosis utrinque obtusiusculis triplinerviis 
supra glabriusculis subtus adpresse pilosis, capitulis ad 
apices ramulorum solitariis subsessilibus 50<-circiter floria» 
involucri campanulati squamis mucronatis, exterioribus 
ovatis obtusis dorso pubescentibus, intimis linearibus 
villosis apice demum reflexis, corollis palmatis, lobis 
extus villosis, tubo extus glabro intus dense villoso. 

Hab. Serra de Araripe« Province of Ceara. Nov. 1838. 

Frutex ramosus, spinosus, S-4-pedalis. Spinie gemins, 
deflexcB, 2^ lin. long®. Folia 1^-2 poll« longa, 8-11 lio. 
lata. Capitulum 15-lin. longum. 
Very near the former species, though well distinguished 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 453 

from it, and from all others, by the short spines^ which are 
flattened and pabescent on their upper surface. 
4946* F. Doniana; foliis brevi-petiolatis apice spinosis ob- 
longis utrinque obtusiusculis trinerviis supra adpresse 
pilosis subtus glabris junioribus serioeo-yiUosis, capitulis 
ad apices ramulorum solitariis sessilibua 20-floris, inyo- 
locri oblongo-campanulati squamis pungentibus glabri- 
usculis ciliatis nitidis^ exterioribns oyatis acutis, intimis 
linearibus acuminatis erectis, corollis palmatis, lobis extus 
▼illosis, tubo extus glabro intus yilloso. 
Hab. Near Formigas, in the Sertao of the Proyince of 

Minas Geraes. July, 1840. 
Fmtex ramosus, spinosus, 5-pedaIis. Spinso geminie, 6 lin. 
longSB. Folia 1^ poll, longa, 7i lin. lata. Capitula 1^ 
poll, longa. 

This species has longer and narrower capitula than any 
other known to me, and is well distinguished from those 
to which it most nearly approaches by the inner inyolucral 
scales being erect, not reflexed. 

4945. F.fodinarum; foliis petiolatis apice spinosis elliptico- 
oblongis acutis basi obtusis trineryiis utrinque ramisque 
sparse yillosis, capitulis ad apices ramorum solitariis sessi- 
libus 25-floris, inyolucri campanulati squamis piloso- 
pubescentibus, exterioribus oyatis acutis spinosis, intimis 
linearibus pungentibus erectis, corollis palmatis ubique 
▼illosis. 
Hab. In a wood at the foot of the Serra de Piedade, 

Province of Minas Geraes. Sept. 1840. 
Frutex ramosus, spinosus, 4-pedalis. Spins gemina, 
deflexsB, 2 tin, longce. Folia 2-2^ poll, longa, 10^-14 
lin. lata. Capitula 1 5 lin, longa. 

Distinguished from the preceding species by the yillosity 
of the branches and leayes, the larger leayes, shorter capitula, 
and more ipinose inyolucral scales. 

2906. F. Candolleana; tota fulyo-yelutino-tomentosa, foliis 
breyi-petiolatis oblongis utrinque obtusis apice mucronatis 
basi triperviis margine reyolutis, capitulis ad apices ramu- 
lorum solitariis sessilibus 25-30-floris, inyolucri campa* 



454 FLORA OF BRAZIL. 

nulati squamis piloso-pubescentibus, exterioribas ovads 
obtusis viz mucronatis, intimis linearibus obtustuscnlia 
apiculatis villosis detnam reflexis, oorollis palmatis, lobis 
extus villosis, tubo extus glabro intus villoso. 

Hab. Serra da Batalha, District of the Rio Preto, ProTince 
of Pemambuco. Oct. 1839. 

Frutex ramosus, spinosus, 4-5-pedalis. Spinee geminfle, 6 
lin. longse. Folia 1} poll, longa, 7i lin. lata. Capitula 
15 lin. longa. 

4943. F. imbricata ; inermis, foliis apice spinosis aessilibvs 
oblongis utrinque obtusis trinerviis glaberrimis valde reti* 
culatis imbricatis, capitulis ad apices ramorum solitanis 
sessilibus 45-floris, involucri late campanulati squamis 
laxe imbricatis tomentosis pungentibus, exterioribus ovatis 
acutis, intimis linearibus acuminatis erectis, corollis pal- 
matis, lobis extus villosis, tubo extus glabro intos 
villoso. 

Hab. Arid mountain tops in the Diamond District. Aug. 
1840. 

Frutex ramosus, 2-pedalis. Folia 15-18 Un. longa, 7 Un- 
lata. Capitula 15 lin. longa. 

3869. F. (?) latifolia ; glaberrima, foliis inermibus petiolatis 
obovato-ellipticis obtusis basi subacutis tripli-vel subquin- 
tuplinerviis, capitulis ad apices ramulorum solitariis sessili- 
bus, involucri squamis mucronatis, exterioribus ovatis 
obtusis, intimis linearibus acuminatis erectis. 

Hab. In a wood near Arrayas, Province of Goyaz. April, 
1840. 

Frutex 4-5-pedalis, ramosus, spinosus. Spinie geminie, viz 
2 lin. longse. Folia 3^-4 poIL longa, 2-2^ poll. lata. 
Involucrum 20 lin. longum. 
As the whole of the florets have fallen from the only 

specimen I possess of this species, I have not been able to 

determine whether or not it is a true Flotovia. It agreei 

with the preceding species in habit, but differs from them 

all in the large size of its leaves. 

4949 et 4951. F. varians; subscandens, foliis spinosis breTi> 
petiolatis oblongis vel oblongo-lanceolatis acutis basi 



FLORA OP BRAZIL. 455 

obtusis triplinerviis utrinqae sparsis adpresse villosis, 
ramis pubescentibas, capitulis subpaniculatis pedicellatis 
15-20-floris, involucii oblongo-campanulati squamis spi- 
nosis glabriusculis ciliatis^ exterioribus ovatis obtusis^ 
intimis linearibus obtuse acuminatis subreflexis, coroUis 
palmatis extus glabris, tube intus villoso. 

Hab* Woods near Formigas, Province of Minas Geraes. 
Joly^ 1840. 

Frutex sabscandens, ramosus, spinosus. Spins geminae, 
2-7 i Un. longee. Folia 2^-4 poll, longa, 9-15 lin. lata. 
Capitala 6 lin. longa. 

4267 et 4950. F. vagan$; subscandens, foliia spinosis brevi- 
petiolatis oblongo-ellipticis utrinque obtusis 3-neryiis supra 
glaberrimis subtus tomentosis, ramis pubescenti-tomen« 
tosis, capitulis subpaniculatis pedicellatis 20-floris, invo- 
lucri ovato-campanulati squaoiis tomentosis, exterioribus 
ovatis obtusis spinosis^ intimis linearibus acutis reflexis, 
coroUis palmatis, lobis extus villosis, tubo extus glabro 
intus villoso. 

Hab. Woods near Capella da Passe, Province of Goyaz 
(4267)9 ctnd bushy places near Formigas, Province of 
Minas Geraes (4950). May and July, 1840. 

Frutex subscandens, ramosus, spinosus. Spins geminee, 
7-10 lin. longee. Folia 2^-3^ poll, longa, 12-18 lin. lata. 
Capitula 6 lin. longa. 
The Goyaz specimens are a little more tomentose than the 

Minaa ones, and the leaves and the spines somewhat 

smaller, otherwise they are alike. 

4952. F. Jhribunda; subscandens, glaberrima, foliis spinosis 
brevi-petiolatis oblongis utrinque acutiusculis triplinerviis 
margine revolutis, pedunculis axillaribus folio brevioribus 
2*5-cephaliS| capitulis sessilibus li-floris, involucri ovato- 
campanulati squamis spinosis ciliatis laxe imbricatis, exte- 
rioribus ovatis, intimis linearibus reflexis, coroUis palmatis 
extus villosis, tubo extus glabro intus villoso. 

Hab. Bushy places near Formigas, Province of Minas 
Geraes. July, 1840. 



456 FLORA OF BRAZIL. 

Frutez subscandens, ramosus, spinosus. Spins gemins, 
valid®, divaricate, 6-9 lin. longie. Eolia 16-18 liiu longa, 
6-7i lin. lata. Capitula 4^ lin. longa. 

Sbris, Less. 

4787- S. ampkajfolia ; sufiruticosa, canle erecto basi simplid 
folioso apice dicbotomo-corymboso-paniculato aphyllo 
cinereo-lanuginoso, foliis alternis amplexicaulibns ovatis 
obtusis minute calloso-denticulatis supra glaberrimis subtus 
tomentosis penniveniis, capitulis corymbosis SO-floria dis- 
coideis, involucri campanulati squamis laze imbricatis li* 
nearibus acuminatis dense villoso-lanuginosis. 

Has. Elevated grassy tracts in the Diamond District. 
July, 1840. 

Suffrutez bipedalis. Folia coriacea, valde reticulata, venis 
subtus prominulis, 8^-6 poll, longa, li-3 poll. lata. 
Capitula 7i lin longa. Corolla profunde 5-fida, glabra, 
laciniis revolutis. Anthers caudats, caudibus laoeratis. 
Acheenium oblongum, erostre, dense villosum. Pappus 
uniserialis, setaceus, scaber. 

4787* (bis) S. vaffinata; suffruticosa, caule erecto basi sim- 
plici folioso apice dichotome corymboso-paniculato sub- 
aphyllo cinereo-tomentoso, foliis alternis brevi-petiolatis, 
petiolis vaginatis, ovato-oblongis obtusis basi cordatis 
minute calloso-denticulatis supra glaberrimis subtus to- 
mentosis penniveniis, capitulis corymbosis 40-floris discoi- 
deis, involucri campanulati squamis laxe imbricatis line- 
aribus acuminatis dense villoso-lanuginosis. 

Has. Serra de Piedade, Province of Minas Geraes. Sept 
1840. 

Suffrutex li^-pedalis. Folia 3^ poll, longa, 15 lin. lata, 
coriacea, reticulata. Capitula 6 lin. longa. Corolla glabra, 
profunde 5-fida, laciniis revolutis. Anthers caudats, cau- 
dibus laceratis. Acheenium oblongum, erostre, dense 
villosum. Pappus l-serialis, setaceus, scaber. 
This species has quite the habit of the former, but is 



FLOBA OF BRAZIL. 457 

well distinguished from it by its different leaves, smaller 

capitnla, and more numerous florets. 

4955. S* angiut\folia; scapo subsimplici subaphyllo subto- 
mentosoy foliis radicalibus longe petiolatis anguste spathu- 
lato-lanoeolatis apice acutis calloso-apiculatis basi longe 
attenuatis calloso-marginatis integerrimis coriaceis reticu- 
latis glaberrimis, capitulis terminalibus solitariis 40-floris, 
involucri hemisphserici squamis laxe imbricatis linearibus 
acuminatis extus piloso-tomentosis. 

Hab. Elevated moist sandy campoa in the Diamond 
District. July, 1840. 

Herba perennis, peddis et ultra. Folia 6 poll, longa, 
6 lin. lata. Capitula basi bracteolata, 9 lin. longa. 
Corolla extus resinoso-punctata, profunde 5-fida, laciniis 
revolutis. Anthene caudatee, caudibus laceratis. Acbfle- 
nium lineari-oblongum, dense villosum. Pappus unise- 
rialis, setaceus, scaber. 

MOQUINIA, DC. 

Sect. Spadomisma, DC. 

2442. M. oUgocephala; foliis petiolatis ovato-oblongis aut ob- 
longo-lanceolatis utrinque acutis apice mucronatis integer- 
rimis supra glabris subtus tomento brevissimo pallide 
cinereo tectis, pedunculis axillaribus petiolo brevioribus 
subtricephalis, capitulis breviter pedicellatis 8-lQ-floris, 
involucri squamis 3-serialibus laxe imbricatis villosis, exte- 
rioribus ovatis acutis, intimis lanceolatis, acheenio lineari- 
oblongo piloso, pappi serie ext. interiore vix dimidio 
breviore. 

Hab. Serra de Araripe, at Brejo Grande, Province of Ceara, 
Feb., 1839. 

Frutex ramosus, 6-pedalis. Folia membranacea, reticulata, 
supra viridia, 3-4 poll, longa, 12-17 lin. lata : petioli 6 lin. 
longiy semiteretes, supra canaliculati, tomentosi. Capitula 
A\ lin. longa. Corolla glabra, profunde 5-fida, lobis revo- 
lutis. Anther® caudatie. Stigmata glabra, obtusa. Pappus 
sordidus. 



458 FLORA OF BRAZIL. 

2895. M. flavescem; foliis brevi-petdolatis OTato-ellipticis 
obtasis basi rotundatis Yel subcordatis integerrimis supra 
glabria nitidis snbtus ramuUsque dense dnereo-tonientosis 
coriaceis^ capitulis sabpanicolatis ad apices ramuloram con- 
gestis subsessilibos 6-floris, involucri cylindrici sqoamis 
pluriserialibus imbricatis tomentosis, exterioribus oratb 
obtusis intimis lanceolatis, achienio oblongo dense piloso, 
pappi serie ext. interiore paoIo breviore. 

Hab. Serra da Batalha, District of the Rio Preto, Proyinoe 
of Pernambaco. Oct. 18S9. 

Fnitex ramosas, 5-6-pedalis. Folia 2-2^ polL longa, 12-16 
lin. lata : petioli 3 lin. longi. Capitula 6 lin. longa. Ck>iolla 
glabra, profiinde 5-fida, lobis revolutis. Anthene longe 
caudatie. Stigmata glabra, obtusa. Pappus stramineus. 

1735 M. Craienris; foliis petiolatis oblongo-lanoeolatis utrin- 
que obtusis vel apice acutis integerrimis supra glabris 
nitidis subtus ramulisqne tomentosis coriaceis, pedunculis 
axillaribus folio brevioribus subtricephalis, capitulis sessili- 
bus 5-7-floris, involucri cylindrici squamis multiserialibns 
imbricatis tomentosis, exterioribus ovatis obtusis, intimis 
lanceolatis, achflenio oblongo piloso, pappi serie ext. in- 
teriore vix dimidio breviore. 

Hab. Serra de Araripe, near Crato, Province of Ceara. Nov. 
1838. 

Frutex 2-4-pedalis. Folia 2-2^ poll, longa, 8-11 lin. lata: 
petioli 2^ lin. longi. Capitula 5 lin. longa. Corolla ignola. 
Pappus stramineus. 

4809. M. polycephala; foliis petiolatis ovatis oUongisque 
apice acutis basi obtusis vel interdum acutiusculis subden- 
ticulatis supra rufo-piloso-tomentosis demum glabratis sob* 
tus ramulisque lanuginoso-tomentosis, paniculis axiUaribus 
terminalibusque, capitulis sessilibus vel pedicellatis 9*18* 
floris, involucri oblongi squamis muitiserialibus laxe im* 
bricatis villoso-tomentosis, exterioribus ovatis obtims, 
intimis oblongo-lanceolatis, achienio oblongo dense piloso, 
pappi serie ext. interiore duplo breviore. 

Hab. Serro do Frio, Diamond District. Aug, 1840. 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 459 

Fmtez 6-pedalis. Folia Si-5 poll, longa, 15-28 lin. lata: 
petioli 4-5 lin. longi. Capitula 6 lin. longa. Corolla glabra, 
profunde 5-fida, laciniis revolutis. Antheree caudate. Stig- 
mata obtusa glabra. Pappus stramineus. 
This may perhaps be the same as Bongard's M. tomen- 

iasGf but as I have only the brief diagnostic character quoted 

by Walpers to refer to, I cannot be certain of their identity. 

4810. M.canffesta; foUis petiolatis ovato-oblongis utrinque 
obtusis calloso-denticulatis coriaceis utrinque ramisque la- 
nuginoso-tomentosis, paniculis axillaribus terminalibusque 
lanuginosis, capitulis ad apices ramulorum congestis ses- 
silibus 10-12-flori8^ involucri oblongi squamis multiseria- 
libus laze irobricatis Tilloso-tomentosis, exterioribus ovatis 
obtusis, intimis lanceolatis acutis, acheenio oblongo dense 
▼iUoso, pappi serie ext. interiore duplo breviore. 

Hab. Elevated bushy tracts in the Diamond District. July, 
1840. 

Frutex ramosus, 4-5-pedalis. Folia 3il-4i poll, longa, 1 8-24 
lin. lata: petioli 4 lin. longi. Capitula 4^ lin. longa. 
Corolla glabra, profunde 5-fida, lobis revolutis. Antheras 
caudatiB. Stigmata obtusa, glabra. Pappus stramineus. 

4808. M.degeriarum; foliis petiolatis ovato-oblongis oblon- 
gtsque acutis acuminatisve apice mucronatis basi obtusis 
distanter mucronato-denticulatis supra pubescentibus sub- 
tu8 ramulisque cinereo-tomentosis, capitulis subracemoso- 
paniculatis plerumque pedicellatis 12-flori8, involucri ob- 
longi squamis multiserialibus laxe imbricatis villosis, 
exterioribus ovatis obtusis, intimis lanceolatis, acheenio 
oblongo piloso, pappi serie ext. interiore paulo breviore. 
Hab. In the Sertao, between the Rio de San Francisco and 

FormigaSi Province of Minas Geraes. July, 1840. 
Frutex ramosus, 6-8-pedalis. Folia 4-5 poll, longa, li-2i 
poll. lata. Capitula 6 lin. longa. Corolla glabra, profunde 
5«fida, lobis revolutis. Anther® caudatee. Pappus stra- 
mineus. 



460 flora op brazil. 

Nabsauviacea, Lu8. 

JuNOiA, lAnn, 

4263. J. (Martrasia) fxffims ; foliis ez stipulatis sapra spane 
piloso-pubescentibtts sabtus petiolia ramisque puberoEs, 
lobis crenatb obtusis, capitalis peduncalatis ez aalUs fotii 
imperfecti linearis ortia in panicolam divaricatam polyce- 
phalam ramosissimam dispositia, inyolacri squamis inte- 
rioribus acutis. 
Hab. Woods between Arrayas and San Domingos^ Pnnrboe 

of Ooyaz. May, 1840. 
Herba perennia, 4-6-pedalia. Corolla alba. 

Thia plant agreea exactly in habit with Jtungia floribimi^ 
Leaa., (my n. 5795 from the Organ Mountaina) and is, indeed, 
only distinguished from it by the want of atipulea to the leayes, 
and the leaa acuminated inner acalea of the inyoIucroiD. 

TRixia, R. Br. 

Sect PRIONANTHBiBy DC. 

3870 et 4264. T. Sprengeliana ; caule fruticoao acandente, 
ramia hirtia difiusia, foliia petiolatia oblongo-Ianoecdatis 
acuminatia basi acutis viz denticulatia aupra piloso-hiitis 
subtua albo-tomentoais, petiolia alatia basi in auricolas 
parvas dilatatis, panicula foliosa hirta dichotomo-diTaricata, 
capitulis pedicellatis circiter 10-floris, involacri squamis 
biseriatis piloso-hirtis, ezterioribus linearibus longe acwni- 
natis, achceniis rostratis puberulis* 

Hab. Bushy places, near Villa de Arrayas (3870), and near 
San Pedro (4264), Province of Goyaz. April and May, 
1840. 

Frutez scandens. Folia 3-5 poll, longa, 1-2 poll. lata. Capi- 
tula 7 lin. longa. Receptaculum breve, piloso*fimbr]lIi* 
ferum. Corolla lutea. Pappua atramineua. 
Near T. divaricata, Spreng., but at once diatinguiahed by 

ita hairiness and scarcely denticulate leaves. 

3871. T. cakarea ; caule fruticoso ramoso, ramia tomentosis 
demuro glabratis, foliis brevi-petiolatis oblongo-lanceoktis 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 461 

acaininatis basi acutis minute spinuloso-denticalatis supra 
▼illosiasculis subtus sericeo-villoso-tomentosis, panicula 
fbliosa totnentosa diyaricata, capitulis pedicellatis circiter 
lO-floriS| involucri squamis biseriatds pilosis resinoso-punc- 
tatis ciliatis, ezterioribus linearibus parvis, intimis lineari- 
bus acuminatisy acheeniis puberulis erostratis. 

Hab. Open places on limestone mountains, near the Villa de 
ArrayaSy Province of Goyaz. April 1840. 

Fratez 3-4-pedalis. Folia 4-5^ poll, longa, 15-18 lin. lata. 
Capitula 6-lin. longa. Receptaculum dense piloso-fimbril- 
liferom. Corolla lutea. Pappus sordide albidus. 

4266 et 4959. T. op/Uarhiza ; suffruticosa, caule erecto subsim- 
pUci hirsutissimo undique foUoso, foliis sessilibus longe 
oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis basi attenuatis mucronato- 
denticulatis utrinque fulvo-hirsuto-villosis, pedunculis axil- 
laribus foliosis subpaniculatis hirsutis folio brevioribus, 
capitulis sessilibus 25-floris, involucri squamis biseriatis 
puberulis, exterioribus linearibus acuminatis sub-foliaceis, 
intimis brevioribus acutis ciliatis, acheeniis longe rostratis 
puberulis, 

Hab. Between Capella da Passe and San Pedro, Province of 
Goyaz (4266)9 and between the Rio de San Francisco and 
Formigasy Province of Minas Geraes (4959.) May and July 
1840. 

Saffirutex 4*6-pedalis. Folia 6-9 poll, longa, 15-18 lin. lata. 
Ci4>itula 9 Un. longa. Receptaculum dense piloso-fimbril- 
Itferum. Corolla lutea. Pappus albus. 
This very distinct species of Trixis has a thick woody root, 

which has a disagreeable musty smell, and is used by the 

inhabitants of the districts in which it grows against snake 

bttea, under the name of *' Raiz da Cobra/' 

4964. T. odoraii$$ima i fruticosa subscandens, ramis pubes* 
eentibus, foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis basi acutis 
denticulatis aupra glabriusculis subtus cinereo-tomentosis, 
paniculis ad apices ramulorum confertis, capitulis brevi- 
pedicellatis 10-12-flori8, involucri squamis biseriatis pube- 
raUs, intimis oblongis acuminatis, exterioribus bracteifor- 
mibus parvis^ achieniis teretibus puberulis. 



1 

I 



462 FLORA OP BRAZIL. 

Had. Between the Rio de San Francesco and 
Province of Minas Geraes. July, 1840. 

Frutex subscandens, ramosus. Folia 4 poll. I< 
lin. lata. Capitula 6 lin. longa. Receptacul 
fimbrilliferum. Corolla alba, lobis ad apic 
Pappus stramineus. 
Near T. divaricata^ Spreng., from which it dii 

leaves being petiolate, the inflorescence more co 

in the different involucral scales. 

4957* T. spicata ; caule herbaceo folioso late a 
raniosOy ramis elongatis, foliis eliipticis obtubis 
rcntibus calloso-denticulatis supra glabriuscu 
subtus fulvo-villoso-tomentosis, floralibus obk 
capitulis secus ramos spicatis in axillis foli 
libus siepius glomeratis 5-floris, involucri s 
squamis dense adpressc villosis oblongis ac< 
exterioribus bractciformibus, achscniis puberuli 

Had. Grassy canipos near the Rio Claro, Provin 
Gcracs. 

Ilerba perennis, 2-3-pcdalis. Folia 2-4 poll, h 
lin. lata. Capitula 7 li"- lou?a. Roceptacu 
fiinbrillil'orurn. Corolla •;lai)ra. lutoa. I'a]>:^u- 

VJ'}S (1/is.) T. j/trruidiS ; caule crcrto tcrcti stri a 
basi sim|)lii'i apico coryiiiGoso-paiiicuIaro.ruliix i. 
ncari obloD^is ol)tusi.s inucrj)iiatis basi attei.iiii? 1 
loso-dcnticulalis, pt*ti«»lis dense MTico<»-viII.)^ »- 
caulinis arutis sessilibus loiiL:e ani;uNtj'f|:.ie i!c 
supremis vi\ (lecurnMitibus, invohuTi >c|uair.is 
llnearibus acuiniiiatis extus pil»>si)-pu!»o>re!ili"*) 
obscure ."i-custatis pilnsjo;. 

Hah. Si'rr;i til' C'urral del Key, Pro\iiicc . :" M: 
Sc|)t. \>^\iy 

Ilerba jiererniis, L'-'Jl pedalis. Kulia radi: ;;Ii.-. l-"i j 
lin. lata. (*apituluni niultitlorunu laxutn, \i^\ ! 
Reee])taenluni |)iloso-!iniSril!iferuin. AclKC'iia I 
onistrata. Pappus rnfesct ns. 
The follfiuiiiL^ is a !i^t of" tlio>e sp.c'us tii 



FLORA OF BRAZIL. 463 

in my Bnisilian Collections, which have already been de- 
scribed by other aothors. 
4947. Mulisia campamdataj Liess. 
4968. ,, speciasOf Hook. 
4188, 4805, 4806, 4807. Moquinia cinereOy DC. 
4804. „ racemosuy DC. 

5S07* 99 polymorpha, DC. var. j3. 

eieagnifblia^ Less. 
3302, 4953, 4954. Leria integrtfoHa^ Cass. 
3301. „ nutans J DC. 

5795. JxkxvfpaL fioribundaj Less. 
4963. Tnj\^flexuo$ay Spreng. 



1748. 


»i 


divaricata^ Spreng. 






2654, 4960, 4961. 


91 


Vauthieri, DC. 






4960. 


» 


gbUinosa, Don. 






4965. 


» 


„ „ var.p. 


alata. 


Oardn 


4958. 


99 


verba8c\formis^ Less. 






5796. 


99 


pumatijida, Less. 






Kandy, Ceylon, Maj 


r5, 


1847. 








{To be continued.) 







Botamcal Characters of a new plant, (Isonandra Outta,) 
yielding the Outta Pbrcha of Commerce ; byW.J. H^ 

WUh a Plate, Tab. XVII. 

At page 33 of the present volume is some accoant of 
the uses to which the gum yielded by the Gutta Percha 
plant has been applied ; and we trust ere long to offer 
further parUculars on that subject.* Our design now is to 
gire the plant itself a station and a name ; for Gutta Percha, 
like maity other valuable vegetable products that could be 

* Meura. WUkinson and Jewksbury, 136, Leadenhall Street, have 
employed it, among other purposes, most successfully for casts of coins 
and medals* 



464 ON ISOKTANDRA OUTTA. 

mentioned is afforded by a tree hitherto unknown to natu- 
ralists. At the time the former paper was written we had, 
as there stated^ only seen immature fruit, from which and 
the habit of the plant we were disposed to refer it, though 
not without a mark of doubt to ^'Bassiaf' We wrote, 
however, to Dr. Ozley at Singapore, a gentleman ardently 
devoted to Natural History pursuits, for some flowering 
specimens ; and by return of post he, in the most obliging 
manner, and for which we here tender him oar hearty 
thanks, sent well preserved specimens, protected by a thin 
box, of which the top and bottom were made of sheets of 
the gum itself (now deposited in the Museum of the Royal 
Grardens of Kew). These flowering specimens have given us 
a more accurate knowledge of the structure of the inflores- 
cence, and we feel little hesitation in referring this plant 
to Dr. Wight's new Oenns of Sapotacem^ which he has 
•called Isonatubra, and of which he has published two species 
(both in our herbarium) natives of the Madras Peninsula ; 
to which De Candollehas added the Sideroxylon Wightiawtm^ 
Wall. Cat. n. 4154. (non Hook.), and the S. Perrotteiia$ui from 
the Nielgherries. Our plant quite accords in habit with 
Isonandraj and seems to differ only in the nomber of 
divisions and parts of the flower : tetramerous in Dr. Wigiht's 
species, hexamerous in our plant. We propose to call the 
Gutta Percha Plant 

IsoNAND&A Gutta; 

Foliis longe petiolatis obovato-oblongis coriaceis integerrimb 
acuminuiatis subtus aureo-nitentibus parallelo-venosis basi 
attenuatis, floribus azillaribus &sciculatis, pedunculis ani- 
floris, calycis lobis imbricatis obtusis, coroUae subrotats 
lobis 6 ovatis patentibus, staminibus 12. 

Hab. Mountains of Singapore, Mr. Thomas LoM,^n« 390), 
Dr. Owley.^The same species is said to be found in 
Borneo (on the authority of James Brooke^ Esg.^) and in 
other Malay islands. 

Arbor 40-pedalis, lactiflua, ramis junioribus subruf>pubes- 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 4G5 

centibus^ teretibus. Folia alterna, aabcoriacea, obovata, 
integerrima, breyi-acuminata, basi in petiolum longum 
gracilem attenuata, pennivenia (venis arctis, parallelis, bori- 
BontaU-patentibus), supra viridia, subtus aureo-nitentia. 
Flores axillares, fasciculati, subnutantes^ pedonculati. Pe- 
dancttli perbreves, uniflori. Calyx subovato-campanulatus, 
profiinde 6-fidu8, lobis biserialibus ovatis^ obtusis^ sub- 
aureo-nitentibus. Corolla subrotata ; tubo brevi vix 
caljcem superante; limbo G-partito, lobis ovatis seu 
elliptids, obtusis, paten tibus. Stamina 12 ad faucem 
corolla inserta, uniserialia. Filamenta eequalia^ filiformia, 
lobis corolltt longiora. Anther® ovatee, acutse, extrorsce. 
Orarium globosum, subpubescens, 6-loculare, loculis om- 
nibus unioYulatis (?) : stylus longitudine staminum fili- 
formis. Stigma obtusum. Fructus calyce persistente suf- 
fiiltus ; bacca dura, ovato-subglobosa, 64ocularis, loculis 4 
abortientibos obsoletis, 2 fertilibus monospermis. Semina, 
viz matura, ad angulum interiorero loculi inserta. 
Fig. 1. Flower, scarcely expanded j /. 2. ditto, with the 
corolla expanded;/. 3. pistil; /. 4. transverse, /. 6. ver- 
tical section of the ovary ; /. 6. anther ; / 7- scarcely mature 
fruit, iMi. aize ; f. 8. transverse section of ditto, — all but/. 7- 
magnified. 



BOTANZOAI. INFORMATION. 



lUuitraiwM of South Amicrican Plants; by 
John Miers, Esq., F.L.S., &c. 4to. Bailli^re. 

Many pages of this Journal (Vols. 4 and 5) are occupied 
with the valuable " Contributions to South American Botany*' 
by Mr. Miers, chiefly relating to the Natural Order Solanea; 
—they have been followed up by the same author in a separate 
publication, under the above title, in iUu$iraiion of several of 
the new or little understood plants already noticed in the 

VOL. VI* M M 



466 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

pages of the Joarnal. The plates are of a very sup^or 
order, notwithstanding that the Author modestly daims 
*' much indulgence for the many imperfections attending bis 
first attempt at any work of the kind.'' This alludes, indeed, to 
the lithographs, which are executed by himself. Of Mr. Miers' 
skill as a designer of plants, we have ample proof in his beau- 
tiful figures of certain Burmanniacea and Iride^e in the 
Transactions of the Linneean Society ; and for many years, 
Mr. Miers was assiduously employed in South America 
making botanical drawings, and very full analyses of nume- 
rous rare plants, which his extensive travels and observant 
eye enabled him to detect : not a few of these, and others, 
done with equal skill from Herbarium specimens, oonstitute 
the figures of the present '* Illustrations." 

The two numbers now before us contain ; Part I. 
Tab. 1. Salpichroa (Perizoma) rhomboidea. Tab. 2. DunaBa 
lycundes. Tab. 3, Acnistus cauUflorus, Tab. 4. mmerttn- 
thus runcinaius and H. tridentatus. Tab. 5. Himermdhu 
erostiSf and Jabarosa irUegrifoUa. Tab. 6. Dory stigma caule$^ 
cens^ and D. dquarrostan. Tab. 7« Trechaneies lacimaia. 
Tab. 8. Pienandra (Ceratostemon) flaribunda. — Part. II. 
Tab. 9. Pionandra (Euthystemon) capricaides. Tab. 10. 
Sorema paradoxa. Tab. II. AUbrewia rupicola. Tab* 12. 
Dolia verticiUata. Tab. 13. Grabotvskia obiusa. Tab. 14. 
Mettemichia Princeps. Tab. 15. Sessea stipulaia. Tab. 16. 
Oestrum Organense. — Every figure is accompanied by ample 
and most accurate dissections ; and the whole is accompanied 
by a reprint, with a few alterations, of a portion of the text 
given in this Journal, (which will be continued here at 
different intervals), together with full descriptions of the 
plates. This will be a standard work on South American 
Botany, and ought to be placed on the shelves of every 
working botanist. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 467 



Pritzel; Ttiesaurus literaiurm Botanicm omnium gentium 
inde a terum botanicarum initUs ad nostra usque tempora^ 
gmndecim milUa opera recensens. — Brockhaus, Leipsic ; 
Williams & Norgate^ 4to. London, Fasc. I. A. — Endlicher. 

A valuable work to the Botanist, if carried through 
as it is begun in this, the first, Fasciculus, where, so 
far as we have had occasion to consult it, it is executed 
with much care and accuracy. We were surprized to find 
no name of Amoti in the catalogue, till we recollected that, 
on the continent, that gentleman goes under the title of 
fFalker-AmotL " II y a six ans,'* says Mr. Pritzel, in his 
Avant-Propos, " j'avais un entretien avec feu M. Dierbach, 
i^ la suite duquel je me d^cidai k consacrer mon loisir a la 
publication d'un grand ouvrage bibliographique. En voyant 
que Ton s'accoutumait a n^gliger le point de vue historique 
en traitant des questions scientifiques, et en me rendant 
compte qu'il devait r^sulter souvent une grande perte de 
temps pour les savants de ce qu'il devenait de plus en plus 
difficile de connaitre Pimmense quantity des ouvrages sur la 
botanique, je pris la resolution de faire cesser ce triste ^tat 
de choses. Pour atteindre ce but, je commengai par revoir 
et comparer entre eux avec le plus grand soin tous les 
oovrages de bibliographie botanique qui avaient dfjk paru. 
Avant tout, je m'attachai h verifier par autopsie, Texactitude 
de tout ce qu'ils avan9aient, et j'ose croire que jamais biblio- 
graphie n'a proc^de avec une attention plus scrupuleuse. 
Dans tous les pays I'auteur se voyait accueilli de la maniere 
la plus encourageante : les plus grandes bibliotheques de 
FAllemagne et de la France, celles de Link, de Schlechtendal, 
de De CandoUe, de Jussieu, de Delessert, de Barker- Webb, 
et de Camille Montague, la Biblioth^que Palatine de Yienne, 
les bibliotheques privies, rdunies, des Empereurs Fran9ois et 
Ferdinand, et la magnifique Biblioth^que du Mus^e Bota- 
nique de Vienne, celle du Jardin des Plantes a Paris, les 
Bibliotheques Royales a Berlin, Paris, Bruxelles et Dresde, 

M M 2 



468 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

les Biblioth^ques des Universites u Leipzig^ Giitti 
Li^gc, et autres, ont ^t^ successivement visitees pa 
en comparant partout son manuscrit avec les liv 
primes, plus de 40,000 volumes ont passe sous ses nii 

The arrangement is alphabetical. An asterisk ("^j 
before the title of a book indicates that it has been e: 
by the Author in Germany ; a cross (t) that he has r 
the book in France or Geneva. The few books whi 
no signs have not been seen by the author ; and gei 
letter explains where he has seen the title. For 1 
publications, the libraries in which they exist ai 
tioned. On the wrapper of the 2nd Fasciculus, 
is promised to appear soon, the explanation of the si 
abbreviatiinis will be given. The anonymous bo< 
periodical publications and a table are to follow, m 
a1phal)etical cnunicnition shall be terminated. Th 
be also a notice of printed Arabian books, prom 
M. Wiistcrfeld of Gottingen ; then will come the s 
part, without the bibliographic details. The ami 
further the intention of afterwards publishing a 
volume, containin:^ a repertory of the literitun* of s 
jouriiJils, in orilcr to rendor U!(»rv' usi'ful a work, w 
hopes, will loavc nothiiii; to dcsiro wlt!i rcsjjccl t-) ex 
and to tlic value of the matter it will eonlaiii. 

Siifh arc the intentions of the Autlior, whieli we 
glad to fnid fully carried throuiih. Tlie work wiii a: 
ci:;lit faseieuli, each often .sheets. Tlie first number i 
the notice of L*1>I).') works. Since writing llic abuve ^ 
received tlie Jnd Fasei(!ulus of t Lis really valuable pub) 
extcndini; to the article *' I-ink ;" and it iloes, s.i t\ 
gois, 1)1 ar out tiie author in all that he has jiri.ir.i^ 
the wrap|)ir, as announeeil, contains the '' explieati-.) >. 
pnceipuaruni." 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 469 

Extensive Herbarium of French Plants on Sale, 

We are requested^ by a valued correspondent in France, 
to insert the following annonce; in the hope that it may 
meet the eye of some one disposed to become the possessor 
of the botanical collection, belonging to a person highly 
esteemed by those who know him and strongly recommended 
to our correspondent's notice by the late Admiral d'Urville. 

*' Un ancien Professeur, forc^ par la perte de la vue, de se 
d^fure de ses Collections, desire vendre k Tamiable; 1. Un 
Ilerbier de plus de 9,000 esp^ces, fruit de trente annees 
d'herborisations : il contient presque la flore enti^re des 
environs de Paris, et m^me de la France : il serait tres facile 
de le completer par P^hange de ses doubles nombreux ; les 
plantes classics d'apr^s le Botanicon-Gallicum, portent presque 
toujours Vindication des lieuz et la date de leur r^colte. 
Ce serait une excellente acquisition pour une Acad^mie 
d^partementale ou ^trang^re, ainsi que pour un Professeur 
ou un Botaniste ^clair^ qui voudrait publier une flore soit 
partiellci soit g^n^rale de la France. 2. Une collection de 
coquilles marines, fluviatiles, terrestres et fossiles, d^environ 
1,200 esp^ces contenant presque toutes celles de la France. 
S. Deux grandes boltes d*insectes. 4. Des livres de sciences. 
Chez M, Delavaux, Rue du Four-Saint-Germain, No. 22, 
Paris." 



Catalogue of Malayan Plants, collected by Mr. Thos. 
Lobb, sets of which have been announced for sale by Mr. 
Heward, Young Street, Kensington, {see p. 198 of vol. 5) ; 
by M. J. E. Planchon. 

{Continued from Vol. V.p. 2i4.) ^/ 

The early numbers of this valuable collection were made 
by Mr Lobb in Java. The beauty and rarity of the speci- 
mens gave such satisfaction to the subscribers that Mr. Lobb 
has extended his researches : some of the present list are 



■ -» * 


















^ 







= 


-:-»=L :=. ^liS rxTJJ 




._ ^^- ^ r** 






— — ».-: ' — 







— 


-^ *, ^ -= - i^" 











-i- -- _ 


— .r- — ac X _ fc ; 


^ z j= r 


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— ..r-u '•-/='- » 


~- ~"~ ~ — 


« ILr 


u -n--r* ri^ * r ■- 


- . - :zr .-r- 




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- ^. ^- - 


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-^ J. -r-j-~-r fnr- 




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~ -77. - ~=? 5r^--i: 


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LT!? "" 


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5^7:A:r--:«r^ rz r ^^ 


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r.ww J--.*. "liii- r^.*-r3<3. 



r --^ sw £ igr^ ^= ediantiDon authenDqof > 
51. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 471 

239. Gynura^ Gyn. tomentos® mfiinis. 

240. Microglossa yolubilis, DC. 

241. Oynura. 

242. Gentiana quadrifaria, BJume. 

243. Buddleia acuminatissima, Blume.— B. Asiaiica ? Lour. 

244. Torenia Asiatica, Blnme.^Torenia scabraj Hassk. sed 

non Rob. Br. ! a stirpe Ceylanica forsan differt. 

245. Antidesma. 

246. Ficos.— Conf. F. rostraia, Bluxne. 

247. Eriosoleena montana, Bhane. 

248. Urtica angustata? Bbime. 

249. Gramen. 

250. Arissema laminatum, Blume. 
251—257. Orchidece. 

258. Aspleniam^* (n. 56. Gaming.) 

259. Aspidium angulatum ? 

260. Sitolobium Moluocanum, J. Sm. 

261. Polypodium ornatum. Wall. 

262. Aspidium (Polystichum) vestitum, Bl, 

263. Goniophlebium. 

264. Adiantum pulcheilumy BL (ex descr. 

265. Selliguea flavescens, /. Sm. 

266. Nephrodii, n. sp. ? 

266 {Ins,) Lomaria yulcanica^ BL (ex descr.) 

267. Prosaptia contigua, PresL 

268. Polypodium. 

269. Polypodium subfalcatum^ BL 

270. Polypodium obliquatum, BL 

271. Grammitis hirta, BL 

272. Asplenium, [sect, Athyrium.) 
272 {bis.) Diacalpe aspidioides^ BL 

278. Lastrea, sp. near L. propinqua, J. 8m. 
274. Lomaria elongata^ BL (ex descr.) 
276. Leucostegiee, n. sp. /. Sm. 
276. Nephrodium. 

* The Ferns, Noe. 258—276, are determined by Mr. J. Smith, whose 
nomencUtore is here adopted. 



.nuK. n 



TaI la: 



• -1 ^ --^--" 



% :? 









BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 473 

311. Didymocarpus crinitaj Jack, 

312. Rubiacea. . . . 

313. Ardisia, (sect. MarantoideSj DC. Labisia sp. Lindl.) 

A. pumila proxima. 

314. Menisciam salidfolium. Wall. Cat. 

315. Knema glaucescens, Jack, 

316. Ardisia odontophylla, Wall. 

317. Tetracera Assa, DC. 

318. Coffeea^ C. tetrandne, Roxb. proxima. 

319. Sideroxylon attenuatum, Alph. DC. 

320. Desmodium umbellatum, DC. yix Jacq. 

321. Ficus 

322. XJrophyllum villosum, W. Jack. 

323. Getonia^ sp. 

324. Meesa ramentacea, Wall. 

325. Sonerila Moluccana, Roab. 

326. WickstTGemia Indica, Endl. 

327. Loranthus erythrostachys^ Wall. herb. 

328. Cerasus (sect. Laurocerasus ) 

329. Wonnia excelsa, W. Jack. 

330. Herpestes Monnieri, H. B. K. 

331. Uncaria. 

332. Uncaria. 

338. Asclepiadea 

(7b be continued.) 



Notes on Plants qfthe British Flora. 
Calamagrostis etricta^ Nutt. 

The Rey* O. E. Smith has again sent us specimens, and 
in a fresh state^ of Calanufproitis etricta, from Oakmere, 
Cheshire. It is identical with the Forfarshire plant, found 
by the late Mr. O. Don ; and, as we stated in the British 
Flora, ed. 5. p. 385, quite distinct from C. Lapponica, of 
which the only British station is in the County Antrim, 
Ireland, detected by Mr. D. Moore. 





Phalarii utricidaia^ L, 

Tbis pretty grass (the Ahpecurus mifimtmim 
and Kunth) has been recently detected by J&aici 
Esq.j in a field near Swanage^ Dorset, extremely aboi 
one corner of that field. Mr. Uussey tbyiks it uol 
possible it should have come by ballftst* but lh«i ifl 
possible it may hare been imported with fcvreigii 
agricultural seed of some desGriptioii. It Is a i 
France and Germany; and it U nol m little ringi 
Kunth, in his ** Agrustographia,*' gives ** Angtia**! 
its localities. 



Thia rare plant, which had been <mly bitfaerto 
in the Channel Islands^ was disoorered this 
H. O. Stevens^ Esq.j of Bristol, on St- Vi 
though in small quantity. 



Smethk bkohry Kth. 



r»eetiA 



The old Phalangium bicolor {SimethU, of Kunth] 
been already mentioned in a recent number of the Gi 
Chronicle,* has been detected apparently wild near 
mouth by Miss Wilkins, to whom we are indebC 
specimen. It is too southern a plant to be expede 
native in such a locality; yet, on the other hand, i 
a com plant, it is the less likely to be impor 
seed. The writer in the Gardeners' Chronide is 
to attribute its introduction to ballast. 



TVifolhim strictum^ L. in ComwalL 

The Rev. C. A. Johns, of the Orammer Sdiool, 
has recently had the good fortune to disoonr \ 

* Where the name of Watkins is a miflpriat for WIU 



BOTANICAL INFORMATIOir. 475 

trefoil, hitherto, in the British possessions, confined to 
Jersey, in Cornwall, in two stations, and abundant in each. 
He also speaks of TV. MoHnerii, Balb., as really distinct 
from incamaium, and as truly wild in Cornwall. In reply to 
some queries on the subject, that gentleman has sent me the 
following remarks, which I am sure will be acceptable to 
every student of British plants. 

*^With regard to the question whether T. atrictum^ 
Boeconi and MolinerHy are aboriginal natives, I can see no 
more reason to doubt that they are so, than that T. striatum^ 
scabrum, and arvense^ are natives. They all grow together; 
so that in one of the stations I actually did cover growing 
specimens of all six with my hat. T. strictum and Bocconi 
could not have been introduced for agricultural purposes, 
being far inferior to many other species which grow freely in 
the neighbourhood : there is no garden for the cultivation of 
rare plants within many miles. The Lizard Head, near which 
they both grow, is at least two miles from any cove at which 
a vessel could effect a landing with safety ; and that cove is 
visited only by colliers, which of course discharge no ballast. 
The cliffs in the vicinity of the station are very precipi- 
tous, and no ballast thrown overboard or washed from a 
wreck could be carried thither : though, formerly, smugglers 
kept up a continual communication with France and the 
Channel Isles, it would be absurd to suppose that they were 
in any way accessory to the introduction of two such worth" 
leu tpeedSf as they would think them. I have seen foreign 
plants growing on baUast-heaps near Plymouth, and should 
never think of mentioning them as fair claimants for admis- 
sion into the British Flora ; but in the present case I have 
no hesitation in saying that any botanist who would accom- 
pany me round the Lizard Cliffs must arrive at the conclu- 
sion, that they are either aboriginal natives, or have been 
sown very extensively on remote points of the coast by a 
dishonest botanist for the sake of gaining a mite of ^clat : 
that is to say, T. Bocconi, by Borrer, and T. strictum, by your 



476 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

humble servant. By the same argument, T. MoKneru mast h&ye 
been sown by Mr. Hore and myself who found it together. 
All that I have said of the two first, applies equally to T, 
Molinern ; for though referred to T. incamatum^ it is entirely 
distinct from every specimen of that plant which I have seen 
in other places ; while even the true T. incarnaivm is unknown 
in the neighbourhood. The small farmers of the neighbour- 
hood do not trouble themselves about anything but com, 
hay, clover, potatoes, and turneps ; com and potatoes being 
almost the exclusive produce of the parish. T. Molinem 
grows in large patches along the verge of the cliff, from 
Cadquith to Kynance, a distance of six miles. Now T. tncor- 
natum has been so recently introduced, that its (so-called) 
variety cannot have crept all that distance from one field : it 
has not had time to do so : besides, between two of the 
stations there is an interval of more than two miles. It 
follows, that it must have escaped from several plots of 
cultivated ground. Now how comes it that at the Lizard, 
where no one knows anything about T. incamaiumy that 
plant in several instances escaped from cultivation and 
assumed a new form; whilst at the one thousand places 
where it has been cultivated for years no such eccentridty 
occurred ? My opinion is, that the district in question is 
peculiarly favourable to the growth of the Leffuaunout; 
and that the three rare Trtfolia have escaped notice because 
viHiors are very rare, the coast very beautiful, so that thetr 
eyes are naturally attracted elsewhere ; and it is very wearisome 
to travel over, so that many parts have not been explored at 
all. Under a headland, called the Bill, I found, ten years 
ago. Asparagus in flower. No one, I believe, has set eyes on 
it in that spot, until I went thither last week, though it 
grows there in beds some yards long. The Legutmnos^ 
which I have found are Ukx Europ<BUs and 17. wnms; 
Cytisus scoparius ; Genista pilosaj tincioria, Anglica ; Ononis 
arvensis; AnthyUis vulneraria: Medicago lupulina,maculaia: 
TVifolium pratense, medium, MolinerH, arvense, struUvm, sea- 
brum, Bocconi, subterraneum, siriciumy repens, procumbent 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION* 47/ 

filiforme : Lotus comiculaiuSj major , kispidua : Ervum hirstUum, 
ieiraspermum ; Vicia cracca, septum, lutea, satwa : Lathyrus 
praiensis ; — ^in all thirty-four species ; and most of them in 
profusion.'' 

C. A. Johns. 



Tttssack GrasSy {DactyUs caspitosa), Forst. 

This remarkable grass of the Falkland Islands, the most 
productive perhaps, and the most luxuriant of all agricultural 
grasses, if sown or planted in a suitable locality, has, we 
rejoice to say, succeeded perfectly in the Island of Lewis, 
one of the Hebrides. It has flowered, ripened seed, and 
sown itself; and Mr. Matheson, the spirited and philanthropic 
possessor of that large islajfid, has sent us leaves of it 5 feet 
long, nearly as long as any produced in its native country. 
The perennial tufts attain a very large size : hence the name 
given by our voyagers of Tussack Grass. See for an account 
of this grass, vol. 2, p. 280 and 298, Tab. 9 and 10, &c. of 
this Journal. 



Notes of a Continmtal Tour m the years 1846-7; extracted 
firom letters addressed to the Editor by a botanical friend. 

(^Continued from p. 54). 

Geneva, June 16, 1847* 
" Since we left Florence in the beginning of March, I have 
visited many Italian botanists, and botanical establishments ; 
and, in general, there has appeared to me a considerable 
impulse given to the science in a progressive direction. 
Botany is not now restricted to the nice distinction of 
local species and forms, and to their distribution among 
the twenty-four Linneean classes, as it had been for so 
long in Italy. There is a growing desire to form general 
herbaria, to arrange them as well as the botanical gardens 





$ 



'1 

'I 

rbere b c 

[KM <j| 

bed tod 



tbc prtnopk of NalaiBl Onkrm, and, as 
to stadf f^tfml afinttiet^ lli« 
to a nalo m tca l imicimQ and 
diitioetiotta, and to imiae tbe rtandard of tlie 
b«t think tiiat this change bai beeo^ 
r, the rvscdt of Ibe »acecH attmidiog 
actiYftr of IWlatpfv in atabJishing llie *^Cmlm 
Bif^mimmj^ at Florenre:, aided, as be haji 
IStiermktf of the rdgninf Gtand Duke. 

^ >in Flofcnce, oiti ' i bJt waa at Pto^ where b c 

p&ikn botanical ^, ens, stiU arrmnged 
,d"£iinna^fi clasie», it ra tmcv b^ tci which 
pns ji»t been made for the express purpose 
nalttiml cbssificntion. The herbariQiD attached 
and belonging In tlie Uoivenitf » b chiefly that 
Fmfeaior Gnetaim Smm^ and dues r»fit yet 
besides Ilalinn and garden plants* It U nowi 
daPBetan f»f the preset Profrasor I^tm Sart^ aon 
and bfiitl>cr of Pmal Savi^ the Profcitsor of 
b thawing great neai in the fonnaticm of tlie s 

animals which hare died at the menagerie. Under 1 
Pietro Sari is an active young man. Dr. Tassi, i 
tlii ec tui of the garden and herbarium : both are eag 
endeaToor at least to increase and determine accnr 
collection. It is kept with more than eren the ns 
plication of precautions, which have practically litl 
besides increasing the difficulty of consultation. Plan 
in doable sheets, are well done up in bundles, 
boards, each bundle enclosed in a wooden boi;, 
hoses ranged on shelTes. The library, though ret 
cient for a working botanist, contains many of i 
useful works for determining spedes. 

At Naples, the botanical garden is under the din 
Professor Tenore, assisted by Dr. Gasparrini, w 
lectures for him. Tenore's own herbarium is a gem 
and is estimated, I believe^ at some ten thousand spe< 




,7 



BOTANIOAL IXFORMATfON. 479 

bas aUo a very fair botanical library ; although neither the 
one nor the other may be sufficient for a working botanist in 
tbe present day, nor is there at Naples any public botanical 
library to supply the deficiency. Tenore's collection of 
N^eapolitan and Sicilian plants is of course very rich: the 
whole herbarium is in bundles, arranged tinder the Linnaean 
classes. Professor Gussone, who is now also resident at 
Naples, has a general herbarium, but chiefly of plants of 
the Mediterranean region, and especially of Neapolitan and 
Sicilian plants, very carefully labelled, constituting the chief 
materials of his very accurate works on the Sicilian Flora. 
M. Gussone has also a botanical library, formed with special 
reference to the Mediterranean Flora. Dr. Gasparrini, having 
turned his attention a good deal to questions of physiology 
and general affinities, bestowed much care on the determina- 
tion and arrangement of his small herbarium according to the 
Natural Orders ; but being disgusted, in a great measure, by the 
want of any available botanical library, and desiring to devote 
what leisure he has rather to questions of pure physiology, 
he wishes now, I believe, to dispose of his herbarium, which 
would form an excellent commencement for a young 
botanist. 

At Palermo, the liberal invitations offered to the votaries 
of botany both by nature and art, have, owing to various 
causes, been but poorly responded to by the botanists them- 
selves* The climate and soil are perhaps the very best I am 
acquainted with for a magnificent collection of living plants : 
a site, not perhaps the best that could have been selected, 
but still a very fair one, has been appropriated to the bota* 
nical garden : a building, architecturally handsome enough to 
raise the science in the opinion of the vulgar by showing the 
honour paid to it, has been erected as a lecture-room and 
museum; and funds have been appropriated to it,— small, it 
is true, but which might go a good way in that country ; yet, 
neither the plants in the garden nor yet the herbarium are 
what one would have expected. The necessity of a natural 
arrangement is admitted, and its adoption resolved on, but 



480 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

not yet commenced. The herbarium is a general or 
the grccit bulk consists of Sicilian plants in fine and 
rous specimens, neatly tied in bundles, and most 
housed in the great room devoted to it. Professor 
the director, has been very active in the investigatior 
flora of the island/ and published several short papc 
cribing the new forms he has found. But by far the 
of Sicilian plants in Palermo, for number and be 
specimens, is that of M. Todaro, a young advoca 
devotes his leisure hours to botany, and has publishc 
carefully executed papers on Sicilian Orf/iirfe<p, an 
other plants. The Professor of Zoology, Dr. Calcj 
also a small herbarium, chiefly collected during his 
gical excursions. 

The Professor of Botany, at the University of Cat 
a Benedictine monk, the Padre Tornabene, who has 
gated well the botany of the neighbouring Mount Eti 
is forming a botanical garden and herbarium for the ^ 
sity. I had not time to go on to Syracuse, where I 
stand a medical man, M. Cassia, is zealous in the pu 
botany. 

Rome 5sincc the tlcatli of Mauri, affords l)uf very 
the way of botany. Tlic accounts irivoii mc i«f iho 
gardiMi were so very had, tliat I wtiuld n»t uu^jo i 
finding; it out; and I could not liear of a sini;le liotnii 
a lady, tlie Countess Fiorini-Mazzanti, wlio lias inic 
tinguishcd iierself by a very careful search t»f tlic 
ruins, from wlience she has collected and dv^terininel . 
riurn of ahout three liundred sj)ecieN, and by her i:-.^ 
tion of the nijsses of tlie country, which slu* has j»u 
in a Latin panii)lilet under the title nf "Bry •!.•.. 
niana." 

Lucca boasts of a botanical i^arden and jirofc- 
botany : hut tlieir tame did n(»t reach nie till I hrul 
place fj.r hehinl me. (lenrahas made consiJerahle |» 
since I last saw it twelve years since. M. de Notari 
fisstir r)f hntanv, and director of th.e L:ar<U n, ai.th.. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 481 

detailed work on Italian Muscology, of a Flora of Capraia, 
&c., has very much enlarged and improved the collection in 
the botanical garden : he is forming a general herbarium and 
actively investigating the Flora of Liguria, where there is 
probably much to correct or to verify, and something to add. 
Besides him, Dr^ Casaretto is at present a resident at Genoa. 
His herbarium contains, in addition to Italian plants and collec- 
tions made by him during a visit to the Crimea^ a considerable 
number of Brazilian plants from the provinces of Rio 
Janeiro and Minas Geraes, with a few from S. Paul, the 
result of his voyage to Brazil eight years since, at the 
time Guillemin was there. His own specimens are very 
good, and botanically selected ; there being a much greater 
proportion in fruit than we usually see ; and he also procured 
many specimens from Riedel and Claussen. Dr. Casaretto 
has also a botanical library, chiefly in reference to Brazilian 
botany, and has published a Century of his plants of that 
country, under the title of *' Novarum Stirpium Brasilien- 
sium Decades." Unfortunately there is no good general 
botanical library at Genoa; and many of his species are 
repetitions of some, previously published in English or 
German periodicals, or in other works not specially relating to 
Brazil. Thus, among the few I had time to look over,v 
Stemodia crucifiora, Casar. is S. trtfoKata^ Reichb. : Sckwenkia 
Inreviseia and & longiseta, having been here published before 
the tenth volunoe of the Prodromus, have the priority over 
the names there adopted ; unless the S. hngUeia prove to be 
the S. BrariHensU. Clelia omaia, Casar,, published as a new 
geiius of Mimo$ea^ is Calliandra q/Undrocarpa^ Benth. Syn. 
Mim.: Chry$oxylon VinhaiicOf Casar., of which the speci- 
mens ara in fruit only, also considered a new genus, must 
remain doubtful till its flowers are known: the pod is 
exactly that oi Plaihymenia^ Benth.; but the foliage appeared 
to me somewhat different; and I had no means of comparison. 
lAtpmuB chrysomelas appeared to be one of those described in 
the Annals of Natural History in the enumeration of Schom- 
burgk's plants, but not taken up by Walpers; so that I 

VOL. VI. N N 



48i BOTAMieAL WKWm\ 



w 



n 



i 



Ae pofait OmBmit 
periiaps, as agnu, ml ■ufliaiHitly iiMmdt AiMi I 
Dr. GtMretfeo't hobuion is u ltiwst ilj to be iDM 
widi dial of the Unrnrntj ofTVirm. 
Thb TVmn beAuiam, depodted at Ibe hnlawnJ 
• tbe eaie of Pirofc aa or Merit, aaaiafead bf Dr. I 
al present diiefly of tfie late 
eollectioilBy partlj nnade by faunadf m Italy, 
and pardy dbtuned firom variona Evrapi 
with Ae Tahiahk addition of Bertno^s Weat Indbn 
rieo and Santa MarAa hcibaria. Many of Aeae pi 
Ae original apedmena deacribed by De CandoBi 
Pkodromoii, and by Sprengol in hia Syatema, and m 
tant for aiding the too abort Aagnotea of tlie link m 
the IVodromas, and ezpboning the riddlea beqwi 
botanists by Sprsngel in bis Systems. Tim Tmn h 
has also obtained a few ooUections htily by purabi 
when it shall farther have reeeired Caaaiettai'a hs 
and Moris' rich Sardinian and Italian odlleetioiM 
assame a respectable rank. There is no libfarj at 
attached to it ; bat Moris has a Tery fair priTate 1 
library, especially in works connected with the ] 
ranean Flora. 



Botanical Excursion to Mount Oltmpus, ta Van 1 
Land ; by R. Ounn, Esq. 

Mr. Gunn's name is familiar to our readers as 
active and intelligent botanist of Van Diemen's Lai 
the extent of his discoveries in that interesting countr 
be fully appreciated till the caUlogue of new sped 
appear in this Journal, to be followed by the " Flora 
nica, of the Voyage of tlie Erebus and Terror.*' We j 
following extract of a letter, addressed to Dr. Joseph I 
and dated 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 483 

Launceston. V.D.L., January 21, 1847. 
*• When I last did myself the pleasure of writing to you, 
I was about to start for Lake St. Clair, and to ascend ' Mount 
Olympus.' — Accordingly, Mr. John Jaroieson, who was with 
you at Marlborough, and myself, drove ' tandem' to Hobart 
T*o wn in a day and a half from Pinquite. I devoted an hour 
to Brown's River, for the purpose of gathering Alga; whilst 
Jamieson had some business to transact in Hobart Town ; 
And I was fortunate enough to detect some new species : — 
one, especially curious, a green one, transparent, like strings 
of green glass beads (Conferva clavaia) ; but whether, when 
you see them, you will think they are worth the expense of 
hiring a cab for five hours, at four shillings per hour, in .order 
to reach Brown's River, is very questionable. 1 gathered a 
specimen of Fucus potatorum on the rocks ; but I was com- 
pelled to limit my collection of the larger sorts, as I had to 
send the whole over per coach to Mrs. Gunn to dry, which, 
having done, we drove up to Glen Leith. By the by, I found 
on the rocks at Brown's River, animals very much like living 
Eficrinite$ ! except that the upper portion did not expand. 

I may pass over my ride from Glen Leith to Marlborough, 
for I saw no novelties. On the 4th of January I started from 
Marlborough for Lake St. Clair. On the way I collected a 
few specimens of a Prasophyllum, and many of Botrychium 
Lunaria ! which was in vast abundance, but rather past its 
season. I had not met with it in the low country ; yet at 
that elevation it occurs in some places at every yard. 
Having arrived at the Lake about half-past two, 1 imme- 
diately commenced melting some pitch to pay the seams of 
the boaty which was very leaky, the bottom having been inju- 
diciously exposed to the sun and wind. A very short time 
sufficed to enable us to make the boat water-tight, launch 
ber, get all my various goods on board and pull off. I may 
mention that I sent two men with my pack-horses over the 
mountains from Launceston, (by the same route as I had 
followed in 1845), to meet me at Marlborough, and to carry 
my portable tent, Opossum-skin rugs, paper, &c. &c. On 

N N 2 




F.1 



I 



the e^emng qC the 4 th we encamped ctoaa tc 
the foot of *' Mount Olympuj^/' All the we»t 
lake 13 a Tery steep fiaiik, densely covered U 
Fb^mm Cummffhami, Cttrpodontui iuekia^ IVrku 
Imfif, Ph^U&cladu» asplenii/aHa^ and & few Em 
spersed, the F&ffu$ preponderating. The U*ees ca 
revf water s edge* and overhang the Jake i so tint j 
mutter to find a clear spaee* even 8 feet sqaai^ ; 
sundy beach was discoveredj which offered us a I 
Jannmry 5, 18l7'^'I'e"ipeniture of tlie wm 
St Clair, at f» A.M*^* indicated by a thermoq^ 
nightj was u% high as 5S°* My patty atarted la^ 
Dlympua about half-past seven* W© carried 
a couple of Opossum rugi^ and proTbiona^ far t 
Mr. Jamieaon, Mr* B. Brooks (hU cotisin), my I 
myself* We had not ascended many hundred t 
foand ourselves opposed by a preripitoas aar 
down which innumerable streams of n-ater poi 
oase^det. It took us sotne time to find m pl« J 
could climb: and we were then met by two ofl 
sandstone pret^ipices^, whieh we evetituallj 
Under one of tliese I found a new fern, and ma 
tenera^ Br., abundant. Over the sandstone 
basaltic rocks, which continued to the top, 
basalt : a great number of the columns, ho were] 
down. We passed through a thicket of dwarf 
ninghamiy and other alpine shrubs, and then arri' 
heap of rocks wildly thrown together, with hi: 
and chasms among them. Almost at the top o: 
at the base of the perpendicular basaltic cliffs, 
the summit of Olympus, I found a new Fagu9 
dense, almost impenetrable thickets from 4 to 
The leaves somewhat resemble Fagus fusca of P 
There were large patches of it, to the exclusion 
shrubs. I gathered empty seed-vessels, but 

* I propose naming this roost interesting additk>n to 
Flora F. G imt, after its indefatigable discovener.— J. D. 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 485 

female flowers. Associated with it in one spot grew 
Athrotaxis selaginoides^ which is one of the rarest species. 
A few hundred feet took us to the summit, where a large 
patch of snow greeted our eyes ; but we could obtain no water. 
The whole of the rocks and stones were covered by prostrate 
plants, principally Podocarptu alpina^ Microcachrys tetragona? 
and some few other plants which I had before seen. I 
found, however, one entirely new Cruciferoiis plant of very 
peculiar appearance and habit, (my n. 326*), an Umbellifera 
which I do not think is a Caldasia : it had precisely 
the smell of Carrots, a circumstance observed by me in 
1833, when I first discovered it. I also saw my GauUheria 
(516), called by Backhouse G. antipoda^ but neither in flower 
nor fruit. Grammitis (my n. 1546) is a distinct species, and 
not a var. of G. australis.f EpilobiumX (1066) was abundant. 
A dense mass of clouds, with rain, came on : it was bitterly 
cold ; and before I had spent a fourth part of the time I 
intended in examining this very high point, which must be at 
least 5000 to 5500 feet above the sea, I was compelled, by 
prudence, to commence my descent. As previously observed^ 
the rocks were entirely columnar basalt, certain parts with all 
the columns overturned, and the outer edges of those cliffs, 
where the columns were erect, have deep chasms between 
every prism, which it was unsafe to leap over; as a fall 
would have been certain death. It was an extraordinary 
mountain and a geological puzzle, from the circumstance of 
all this basalt seeming to overlay the sandstone rock in hori- 
zontal strata of vast thickness. At least, I can hardly believe 
that the sandstone is of more recent formation, from the fact 
that all the water from the top of the mountain, and the 
ridge connected with it, runs out where the sandstone and 
basalt unite, forming innumerable rills and cascades over the 
sandstone cliffs. Having used the precaution of marking all 
the trees in going up, we made our way down more rapidly 
and safely. Richea pandanifolia is abundant, from the edge 
of the lake at an elevation of from 1500 to 2000 feet up : in 

* OrMMyrrAu (Caldasia, Lag,) »$9iUftora, H. f. 

t O. deprma, U. f. vid, p. 367. I E. glabelium^ Font. ? var. 



A>G BOTANICAL INF.iRM ArtON. 

some cases the old leaves and flowers sheathed the 
12 to 15 feet ! the growth, I should presume, of at 
years ! The ends were all worn off, and the whole I 
complete a covering to the stems, in that windy r 
was the lee side of the mountain we ascended), th 
wind nor rain could have any effect upon them. O 
at the sandstone formation wc found water rum 
under the hasaltic rocks. Its temperature, by car 
was 39" of Fahr. I omit our adventures until 
reached our boat, all safe. 

January 6th. — Went to the north end of the lak 
the whole western shore, Athrotaais cuf/ressoides at 
cachrys tetragona skirted the edge of the lake ; bu 
nut find a single plant 5 yards inland, except of 1 
in a ])rostrate form, (if it be the same) at the vc 
the mountains. The Narcissus Uiver offered noth 
and the vcgotation of the eastern shore was com 
Eucalyptus only, as a tree, and shrubs of Lept^j 
Coprosma nifiday Bunksla^ dwarf Casuarina strk 
other rather cummoii plants ; but the two sides of 
Avere as diflcrent as ])ossible. No FaguSy Carpodont 
s/mn/iia, Ctnurrhvms^ Conifini\ lUvluu^ur tin* ir;nur 
jiliints winch rcndori'vl tlir western sitli' mi iiitcn 
wl.icli I tlicrefore ivturmci. 

January '^th. — Wc rowvd aloni: l!ic western s:..«t 
Cuviei* River, and tlience U\ tlie suutluTii end. 

January ^//i. — At;ain i^ot t(» t!:e sciuree uf tl.e 
where it discliari^es itself irDni tiie lake. 1 I*»»u:.i 
I urious var. nf the eonirnun StylUiinin, i)ein^ aii aj*, 
i». nnthi'llatunu of Lahillanhere, from the le: ^theii;. 
jjtduncles; ;.nd tlie llowers were more rei:uiar. I pu 
dtizcn or two otiier things, hut wry little neu. enri 
wl.at 1 txpeeted; and there was no use load.n^ r? v 
well-known jdants. Si) that the new /-'^/^//.v, e.ue;rer« 
:ind fern luust hatisfy yon as the result ot'tle tri;». I 
souse ol the resin '-r thi* Mn rt rii.hrn^ t'-r v«»'i. a 
ni< re u'oi.i/s. 

Lake St. Clan has i.o tisli or lixini: cri.»li;!is ii.ha' 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. '487 

waters ; so far as I could detect. Thousands of Omithurynchi, 
however, people the source of the Derwent. Ducks were 
scarce: we shot a specimen of the musk duck {Malacor* 
hjfnehus membranaceus)^ and some black ducks/' 

R. GUNN. 



Boissibb: Spanish Botany. From Estepona to Gibraltari 
through Ronda. 

I was on the point of proceeding straight from Estepona 
tu Gibraltar, along the sea-shore, previously to visiting the 
Serranio, where the country is cold, and vegetation backward, 
when I was informed that the fair at Ronda would commence 
on the 21 st of May, and that I had not more than time 
enough to go there. Much had been told me about this fair, 
which is the great annual solemnity of all the inhabitants of 
Andalusia, residing within a circuit of 100 miles; and I felt 
curious to see its celebrated bull-fights, and to enjoy the 
animated spectacle which the town and its environs pre- 
sent at this season. Consequently I modified my first plan, 
and set off early next morning for Ronda, along with an 
inhabitant of the Serrania, who promised to guide me 
through the difficult and little known paths which cross 
the mountains. We pursued awhile the road which leads to 
Marbella, and then turned aside and followed the channel of 
a stream, among arid plains, and reached the valleys at the 
foot of the Sierra. The sun was rising, and it brought out, 
by its fine masses of light and shade, the forms of the 
Barbary Mountains behind us. ''Alii esti^ la Moreria,*' 
{there lies the land of the Moors :) so said my guide, while 
carelessly and scornfully pointing to that strange and little 
known region, which stirred all my feelings of curiosity and 
wonder. Nature was redolent of sweets in the cool morning 
hour : lovely Oleanders and fringe-petaled Cistus expanded 
their charming blossoms, one of the most elegant being the 
Helianthemum atripliqfoliumj with long velvety panicles; 



488 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

its flowers are so ephemeral, that the early passeng 
beholils them in perfection. Whole slopes were 
with bushes of Sideritis arborescenSy mingling \ 
delicate blue-flowered Campanula moUUt, This pat 
used by the arneros^ or carriers, who convey fish t 
and the Serrania: it generally pursues the ravin 
which the hills are furrowed. At the height of 1 
we saw a spot where mines of lead are worked; 
journey before us was already too long to pcnni 
exploring them. Hereabouts we entered a zone 
thickly sprinkled over a rocky and melancholy tr 
steepness of the way, compelling our poor In 
stride across huge masses of stone, rendered our 
very slow. From time to time wc noticed, fixed tc 
or overshadowed by a clifl^, the little wooden cro' 
commemorates tragic events, too common in Sp 
which adds desolation and mourning to the funereal < 
of the landscape. " Este cnmina esta sembrado de n 
{fhh path is strevm wffh murders,) said, in energeti 
a AV(mian Avhom 1 questioned rcspocting one of ti 
recent memorials. Slic told me that it was dodicatc 
niern.»ry of a j»easaijt tVoni Kstopniia, win), rcturiii 
Ku!i(!:i with a sum of nuincy, was killed i)y his cor 
who shot at liim from hchiiid, and then fled t > Ci 
and I. ad been never seen n.nre. Mo(»ris!j fatah^in aj 
dictate tlie t'nrniiila <»t tiicse i:'verij>ti'»iis. The n;*. 
na:::e is n(»t mentioned, it wonl.I >eeiii that he i> • 
instrurnont of* an iMevita!)K' and j)rcdeNtined crinu-. 'I 
instance, '• Aijui mat n*ini al Pedro (iaina," ;',r/*i 
(utinn ints shiin : then tnlhiw the date of ihc «!w'i.i 
final j)rayer tor his stml's repose, ** Iviiei^ad a L); 
sn alma."' (iener.diy speakin:^. ass;i.>siiiatinn> arc cr 
reverii,^e or (jnarrelN, an«l most not i)e impc.tcd tu t'^e 
(»f whom there arc j)lenty in tiie Si'rrai.ia. T .• >c f. '. 
content with plnndtriiiii the travchcrs wlio I'.ill w-. 
hands, a;id when disapjn»ni!cil m their hopes i»i boo; 
ill-i.mnour is v reaked v\ a heartv <'udmlini^ 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 489 

The Tegetation of these mountains resembled that of the 
Sierra Bermeja, of which they are a prolongation. I saw the 
same plants, and Cistus populifolius was in high beauty. It was 
noon before we attained the summit of the mountain pass ; 
for the slopes are long ; and the crest is more distant from 
the sea in this part of the chain than it is at Estepona. The 
highest point has an elevation of 3600 feet, and the only 
trees are stunted firs, which find their limit there : ofPtn- 
Mjpof I observed none. The sky was chill, and rain fell on the 
sammit, while I saw the whole coast glowing under the rays 
of the sun. On the northern side, spring prevailed^ and 
some few Oaks, which I passed, were hardly yet in flower. 
Presently I came upon thick blooming copses of Genista 
eaudicans and triacanihas : the Erica Ausiralis^ a charming 
heath, which had not previously fallen under my notice, 
fringed the slopes, and along with Saxifraga granulata^ 
adorned the brink of a little stream, which afforded spe- 
cimens o{ Montia foniana and Stellaria uliginosa. We were 
in a perfect labyrinth of mountains and valleys. Before us 
lay the village of Igualeja, situated in a deep ravine ; while, 
on the left, the valley of the Rio Gu^nal was dotted with 
numerous hamlets. So many hills and deep ravines intersect 
this country, that the communication is frequently very cir- 
cuitous, even between points which are almost close together ; 
and the mere aspect of the district suffices to explain how it 
came to pass that the French could never maintain them- 
selves in possession of it, and why it is the chosen haunt of 
contrabandists and of robbers. 

Through a forest of Chestnuts and Cark-oaks we descended 
to the village of Igualeja. The fruit of the former tree, which 
abounds in the Serrania, constitutes, as in Corsica and Sicily, 
the chief food of the people. The hedges of Bramble, 
Whitethorn, and other shrubs of central Europe, unknown 
on the plains of Spain, attest a cold and damp climate, 
though I observed some Olive-trees in the sheltered parts 
of the valley, and even Oranges in the gardens. The village 
is large : its narrow streets and ancient dilapidated mansions. 



I&0 BOT.*NICAL INFOBllATfOV. 

often graced wlt'r. h^ze coats-ot-arms and heraldic h 
above ihe d>or*, hii a whoiiy dinerent air from tl 
coast t«^wr.s. ar.i indicated much dissimilarity in then 
ar.d r.a'/its of its p. 'p elation. Wc made but a bri 
at Iz-ialej-., :\t my guide was suspicious of the inua 
of t:.e Sierra, and the approacljinz fair cau«eJ a grea 
i^f travellers ; >d. rtrminding me often that we had sti 
leagues to go. he pressed onwards, with the plea t 
should t'r.us avoid any anibuscade which thieves mid 
forward!»; to waylay us on the journey. I yielded 
reujonstrai.ce. and we scaled, with fresh courage, tl 
niountain which separated us from Konda, 

By the road-bide, grew many interesting plant 
particularly a new species of Rt^tda : but every bri 
elicited the lamentations of my guide, who watchc 
pairiiiuly the closing of the day, and repeatedly assu 
that he would not be answerable fur the consequences 
delay. Presently we encountered, in the middle 

' 

detile, a mounted party returning from the town : m] 
exchanged a few^ words with the leading horseman, a 
and fresh-looking fellow, wearing the garb of a 

and hii cuuiilLLai.ce n.^tartly h«»>u:!.cd u n.»rf c.-: 
as|icct : iic a's^UFsd nic ti.cTo ua»» rn.ii.i .: in tii.r. 1 
gather plai.t-i l:li n.iti:.i^ht il" 1 wouiih for the r:;V? /,:« 
\vc had met bore >.'M\ a ciuiriictti i "r onira^e, :' 
i.a\ih4 traversed the road uas Mitho.ci.t lu clear i 
anv suspicimis characters. Nnw, the pvrsniia^o \\} 
had seen was the riciiest ini.abitant <»r liic viJIai^e i»f I. 
and prohuhiv a'.Si heackd a j'arty of sniiiL:;;lerN. \\^ wcll- 
reputatiuu for ]iers«'ijal bravery liavin;j; ^aiiieil fir 1 
this senii-ci\ilized hiUih all the i.otoriely and c>teeni a 
to a rijiithttti't It (>f liiJ Mhidle Au'es. 

The nn>unta;n> we were ii(»\i travtrs'nu' prcsentcvi. I t: 
many p<»inls in eomnmn \\\\\\ tbe Jura. In the j.h 
whieli occupied the hii^l.e-^t pt»rtion. 1 noticul tliat t;. 
^untal and lii i.ialed layers were often similarly ele!t int. 
crevices, a'.' u' t'.v«. t". 1 1 derp. 'riie?*e tin* ifil.aiiita'ts 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 491 

neighbouring huts, in their destitation of available soil^ bad 
sown rye in the vegetable soil which lay at the bottom of the 
depressions. Farther off, were arid plains, decked with 
dense tufts of Pceania lobaiu, and presenting hardly any 
plants but HeUanihenwm rubeUum and piltferunh and Hip^ 
pocrqna eomosa. This country was most thinly peopled, 
except by flocks of sheep, and here and there a shepherd, 
who, wrapped in his mantle, might be descried in profile 
against the rays of the setting sun, as he lay outstretched on 
an eminence in the distance. Night was approaching when 
we began to descend upon Ronda ; and my guide, who was a 
smuggler, like all his brethren of the Serra, and whom every 
rock served but to remind of former exploits^ beguiled 
his own fatigue and mine, by long stories of his expeditions 
during the dark winter nights, and details of the risks which 
be had encountered while the country lay buried under its 
ukantle of snow. I began to fear that we should surely lose 
our way; for not a track, nor a building of any kind could be 
descried, which might indicate the road to Ronda. But 
presently I saw the lights of the town and some old walls 
which encircle it ; and what a contrast was presented between 
the rugged and uninhabited district we had quitted, and the 
illumined streets, thronged with a populace eager for the 
morrow's festivities ! I began to ask myself where I should 
lodge, in this town thronged with strangers : the posadaa 
were of course more than full ; and I had been unable to 
bespeak an apartment, according to the usual custom. By 
a lucky chance, I met with some Malaga acquaintances, who- 
quickly directed me to the house of a worthy scrivener^ 
who, like all the people of this town, was glad to let any 
spare rooms in his house during the time of the fair. 

Ronda is situated about 2,500 feet above the level of the 
aea* It consequently enjoys a clear and fresh air : the heat 
is never extreme ; and the plants of the warm regions, as the 
Orange, the Indian Fig and the Agave do not succeed there. 
On the 22nd of May, the Lilacs were still in flower in the 
gardens. The situation of this town, in itself striking, is 



492 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

doubly so, when it breaks suddenly on the view. I had 
come at night and was unprepared for it. South and east 
the horizon is bounded by the mountains and slopes which 
we had passed to enter the town. In that direction^ the 
scenery is rough and wild : the absence of trees and of culti* 
yation convey the idea of solitude and space ; but on looking 
south-west, you find yourself placed on the very brink of a 
steep rock, 700 feet high. On its abrupt platform the town 
is built; and this shelf is cleft in twain by a narrow and 
deep precipice which divides the town of Ronda into two 
portions; while at the bottom rolls a brawling stream, which 
hurries downward into the valley. A bridge is thrown 
across the gulf, and through its iron balustrades you look 
down into the chasm. The Moors erected this striking and 
useful mode of communication. The edge of the escarp- 
ment, or Tajo^ as it is called in the tx)untry, is occupied by 
houses, and by the Alameda, a charming promenade planted 
with trees, from which the eye follows the windings of the 
river and finally rests upon the delightful valley. Groves of 
evergreen oak, gardens and mills perched picturesquely 
among the rocks^ and among which the water flows in many 
broken streams, and in the distance many ranges of moun- 
tains, overtopped by the Peak of San Christobal, all these 
combine to form a landscape which is like nothing else, and 
of which the peculiarities are indelibly graven un the be- 
holder's memory. 

All was life and activity at Ronda. The wide plain, north 
of the town, was dotted with animals of all kinds, resem- 
bling the encampment of some nomade population. I 
remarked several fine Andalusian horses — a breed which 
produces noble chargers. The crowd in the streets was 
immense. All the men, from the Contrabandistas and the 
Serranos to the citizens of Cadiz and Seville^ wore the Ma^ 
dress : apparently they would have been ashamed to assume 
the French garb on the occasion of such a solemnity as the 
fair of Ronda. These good Spaniards vied with each other 
in the elegance of their national garments, the brilliancy of 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 493 

the colours and the rich embroidery of their jaquetas. Even 
some Englishmen had adopted this costume, though their 
walk and countenance soon revealed their origin. In the 
long rows of stalls and tents were sold alike the sweetmeats 
and playthings seen at our fairs and valuable articles of gold- 
smith's work. Here a guitar-player attracted the crowd by 
his performance, and there a conjuror executed his feats of 
legerdemain ; while everywhere you heard the cries of the 
Aguadores, or water-selkrs, and the constant tinkling of the 
little bells with which the lampsellers announce their 
approach. 

The throng pressed towards the Plaza de ToroSy and 
wrangled with one another for tickets to see the sport 
(Jiinzion) of the afternoon. Dear as was the price, half a 
piastre for the higlier row, and twice as much for the seats 
which are on a level with the circus, nobody hesitated to 
give the money. The poorest mountaineer would have sold 
his last garment, rather than forego this exhibition. The 
fight was to begin at four o'clock ; and before three every 
place on the shady side was full. This Plaza is considered 
one of the largest and handsomest in all Spain : it belongs 
to the MaestranzQi that is, to the nobility of Ronda, who 
keep it in repair, and let it out annually to the manager of 
the bull-fights. An open building, two stories high, sup- 
ported by a range of columns, encircles the arena ; and each 
contains an amphitheatre of seats, separated by a strong 
wooden partition 5 feet high from the lists. From five to 
six thousand persons were assembled, all in the highest 
Btate of joy and impatience. The young people were col- 
lected in pueblos^ that is, according to the town or village 
whence they came : those from Malaga were the most 
numerous and noisy. They shouted, yelled, abused each 
other, and above all greeted the ladies with the coarse com- 
pliments peculiar to the Andalusians: they sang their popular 
airs, iftith the burden and accompanying cadence of their 
xara8f long white staves stripped of the bark, which are part 



494 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

of the necessary costume of the Majo. In an instant, silence 
prevailed ; for a body of soldiers came and took their stations 
at the opening of the arena, to prevent any of the spectators 
from getting in. 

The scene which followed reminded me of the former days 
of chivalry, the usages of which are still scrupuloasly pre- 
served in this ceremony. The Toreadors made their appear- 
ance to the sound of martial music^ clad in brilliant costume, 
the little scarlet cloak over the shouUler, and the hair twisted 
at the back of the head in a kind of knot, called a mono. 
They presented themselves in order under the balcony 
allotted to the Maestranaa to whom they made obeisance 
and then dispersed themselves over the arena. Three Pica* 
dors followed, lance in hand, their heads covered with 
enormous broad-brimmed hats. A moment of throbbing 
interest followed^ when the bull darted from a small opening 
and presented himself on the stage. But I had neither plea- 
sure in seeing nor now in describing the butchery of horses and 
bulls which followed ; and I soon withdrew from the spectacle, 
convinced that while there are numbers of high*roinded 
Spaniards who blush at the delight taken in these batcher 
sports, and who are sorrowfully convinced that their effbot 
is to demoralize and brutalize the populace^ yet that the 
time is still far off^ ere the people of diis country can be 
weaned from an amusement which appeals to their inherent 
natural taste for what is cruel and sanguinary. Indeed it is 
much to be regretted that government lends its aid to aoleoK 
nize these spectacles. *' By order of the Queen," are words 
attached to all the bills which announce a bull-fight, and 
the highest authorities of the place are always present. The 
sport is considered in the light of a real science ; it is subject 
to fixed and numerous laws ; and the late King Ferdinand, 
who was passionately fond of these exhibitioas, founded an 
Academy at Seville for the instruction of the Toreadors. 
Many works are written on the subject : at this very tiine, 
a new one has just been published called TauramackiOj edited 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 495 

by Mont^ who is the pride of Spain and the hero of .a 
hundred ball-fights. At Ronda. this man's name was 
printed in large red letters, like that of a Lablache or Rubini. 
His book is full of technical terms and strange details, and 
the preface contains a justification of the science, which is 
highly amusing to a foreigner by its naavetK 

The following day I went to see the Capea, a kind of 
burlesque which winds up the spectacle, much as a farce or 
after-piece follows a tragedy. The arena was filled with the 
crowd, when a number of very young bulls were let loose, who 
were more inclined to play than mischief. The people teazed 
the animals and often got themselves rolled in the dust; and 
the diversion was ended by two gipsy-women, who were 
intended to parody a real bull-fight. The poor creatures, 
ready to die of fright, were clad like Amazons and reluctantly 
hoisted on horses, which were presently attacked by a bull, 
whose horns were sheathed in large wooden balls. Every 
time the beast pushed against the horses, the women tumbled 
off; while the Tor^dors, who attended as amateurs, did 
nothing but laugh at their terror, give them draughts of cold 
water, and persuade them by coaxing and entreaties to be 
reseated in the saddles. A third Gitana, whom I verily 
believe to have been intoxicated with aguardiente and who 
was to have feigned to slay the bull after the fashion of a 
Matador, was obliged to give up, after being repeatedly and 
awkwardly unhorsed. 

The three Fair»days being over, Ronda was soon quit of 
its throng of strangers. More to my taste were the solitude 
and peace of the country, than the bustle which had prevailed. 
I enjoyed strolling along the Tqjo and exploring the fissures 
of the rocks to the north of the town ; where the shade and 
moisture favoured the growth of many plants I had not seen 
before, as Hyaeris lucida, Lactuca tenerrima and several 
species of lAnaria. The JoiminumfiruticaM, O^fris alba and 
Rhmfinus lycioidei graced the inaccessible shelves; while 
Ferula plauca reared every where its gigantic stems, which 



19^ 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION^. 



resemble an immense candelabra. I also discovered here the 
Brassica moricandioides, a fine cruciferous plant, recognizable 
from afar by its large violet flowers ; and the vineyards afforded 
me several rare species, among them Arabis parvuJa. The 
Valley, full of trees and traversed by innumerable streamlets, 
was delightfully cool and fresh. Nothing can be more curious 
than the bridge seen from l>elow» and the goi^e whence 
issues the river. The chinks of the rock, and the masses 
of Ivy which festoon its sides, give shelter to flocks of 
doves, which mingle their mournful notes with the sounds 
of the town and rushing of the waters. I was surprized to 
observe here many of the plants which inhabit the warm 
rocks of the coast, as Campanula veluHna, lAnaria villosa and 
Sedum glanduliferum. It is a remarkable feature in Spanish 
Botany that the vegetation of the warm region prevails also 
nt considerable elevations } whenever shelter from the wind 
und exposure to the sun are found. Many striking instances 
tnay be seen on the Sierra Nevada. 

I had intended, during my sojourn at Ronda, to climb the 
Sierra de la Nieve, which is the loftiest mountain in the 
country, and only two leagues distant in the direction of 
Malaga ; but a slight illness made me lose some days ; and 
I was compelled to set off for Gibraltar. The morning was 
rainy, and the moisture, which hung like pearls on every 
ispray, had refreshed the face of the ground. Wc re^^ascended 
the gentle hills which surround the town, and found ourselves, 
after an hour and half of walking, at the top ; from which 
we took a last look of Ronda, clinging to the edge of its 
Tqfo and all its buildings gilt with the early son, I bad 
started in company with a large party of arrikroe^ who were 
returning to the coast; but I soon quitted them, being 
unwilling to travel at their rapid rate* Among \be rocks 
which divide Ronda from the southern valleys of the Serratm^ 
1 gathered Pieonia lobata^ the sweet-scented Thymus fliMi#/»- 
chinay Genista byhra, which forms low and dense basbes, 
Nepeta Apvlei and the handsome Echkm albicans^ Fioaa 



^ 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 



time to time^ I observed fields of rye, ill enough cultivated 
and sarrounded with walls of dry stones; in short, this 
district has so little picturesque beauty, that it rather resem- 
bles a mountainous part of central France, than Andalusia. 
We came to Atayate, a wretched village, much like the gene- 
rality in this neighbourhood ; and as soon as we descended 
the southern face of the hills, the plants of the warm region 
instantly re appeared. The Chamarqps, Teucrium/ruticans, 
and several conspicuous Umbelltfene and thorny Genistm 
abounded. 

The route we now followed was that by which Gomez, 
the Carlist chief, had made his incursion into Andalusia the 
previous year. He so unexpectedly entered Ronda that the 
other party had only a few hours in which to flee to Tarifa. 
During the two days he spent in the town, he committed no 
excesses : his motive, however, was less generosity than 
prudence, for apprehending that his retreat might be cut off, 
he shunned giving cause for vengeance, if he were captured. 
To discomfit the plans of his pursuers, he took the track by 
which I was now travelling, marched boldly past Tariff and 
after a skirmish with General Narvaez, made his escape in 
the direction of Arcos. We passed in succession three or 
four villages, situated in barren and rocky spots, where cul- 
tivation is hardly attempted, because the smuggling trade 
has absorbed all the energies of the inhabitants. We over- 
took a peasant and accompanied him some way : he travelled 
alone and drove before him an ass, laden with a small chest. 
lie came from the frontiers of Murcia and had been selling, 
all along, his stock of saffron, of which very little was now 
left ; and he was going to Gibraltar, there to invest his casli 
in articles of merchandize, which he would then smuggle 
back into his own country. We arrived together at Gancin, 
the common halting place between Ronda and Gibraltar, a 
large village, commanded by a castle, now picturesque in 
ruins, but which was of note during the wars between the 
Christians and the Arabs. Hence there is a fine view of the 
level country and the course of the River Guadiaro. The 

VOL. VI. o o 



4SS BOTANICAL INFORMATION* 

following morning, on the slopes leading to the river, I 
collected Hedysarum FonianeM and Cleome lAmiameay tlM 
latter covering lai^e tracts with its bright bine flower. The 
road was monotonous ; and the day passed chiefly in crossing 
the numeroas windings of the Guadiaro, which sometimes 
divides into several branches and again spreads in broad snd 
shallow ponds. There was hardly any vegetation on the 
sandy soil, exeept Genista spherocarpa and the Reiamo with 
its slender .and drooping branches. Towards evening we 
left the river, and entered upon a fine district, dothed with 
woods, chiefly composed of three noble species of OaL 
Flocks of sheep enlivened the landscape; and the setting son 
lent a bright glow to the scene. Under the shade of Aese 
forests grew HetiafUhemum hatamtfoBum and H. lAbam&^ 
Anthyllis hamata^ several species of Ono/fm and CenioMrea 
polyacantha. The Hedysarum coronarium formed level bedi 
of scarlet flowers; and CerirUhe major showed its drooping 
purple spikes. Night finally drove me from this place of 
delight, to the high satisfaction of my people, who had eaten 
almost nothing all day ; forliavtfig made some miscalculation 
about the distance, we had failed to halt at the only Yeati 
on the road. Mending our pace, we soon reached San 
Rocque, a small town, with narrow and poor streets, bat 
which possesses a degree of importance, firom its vicinity to 
Gibraltar. 

(To be continued.) 



Mtosurus aristatus, Benth. 

Mr. Bentham Jus kindly pointed out to me an error 
into which I have fallen, in the omission of a second species 
of Myosurue in Mr. Oeyer*s list of plants^ given at p, 67 of 
this volume. Among my eight q>eGimenB of Myontnu firom 
Mr. Oey^r, (his n, 382), one is certainly a distinct species: 
and, as it proves, identical with that recently desoribed by 
Mr. Gkiy, firom Chili, (and which I also possess kom 



BOTANICAL INFORMATION. '4dp9 

BridgM; hiB last Chilian collection), under the name of 
M. apeUlm. My Chilian specimen, as well as that from 
Nordi America, does bear petals : the name is therefore 
inadmissible. That of Mr. Bentham is unexceptionable, and 
at onoe indieates the most important specific distinction. 
Myosurus misiaiua, (Benth.), spica oblongo^acuminata sub- 
20-25-gynai carpellis stylo persistente divergente (carpello 
ipso longitudine asqaante) aristatis laxe imbiicatis. 
M. arislatuA, BmUh. fn$t. 
M. apeCalns, Gay, HuL ChU. BoL 1, p. 31. Ailai, Tab. I, 

Hab. Moist places in the Cordillera of Chili at Los Patos, 
Ptovinoe of Coquimbo, elev. 1 1,200 feet above the level of 
the sea, Gay. Similar situations, east side of the Andes, 
n. 1346. Bridge$. Borders of pools in the Gamass Prairie 
of the CcBur d^Aleine, Rocky Mountains. Gayer, (n. 322, 
in part.) 
(The following character may now be given to 

M.iMJnimtM; spica lineari-elongata, pistillis numerosissimis, 
carpellis stylo persistente perbrevi arete imbricatis. 

M. fmrnmuM; L. et AucL—M. Europmsy Gray, Br. PL M. 
Shortii, Eafin. 

Hab. ^* General distribution, lat 80-60 Europe ; Asia ; Ame- 
rica;^ {Wat9on)f whence it extends to the Oregon. Extra- 
tropical Sooth America ; at Port Desire, Darwin.) 



PBPBBOMiiB Species dua$ novae indicai F. A. G« Miqvkl. 

1. Peperomia ciUolata; camoso-succulenta, pneter foliorun^ 
margines glabra, foUis oppositis quatemisque modice pe- 
tiolatis obovato-vel elliptico-orbicularibus obtusis emargi- 
natis vel brevissime acutis, subtus pallidis uninerviis, supra 
saturate viridibns nitidis totoque margine dense pubes- 
centi*ciliatis, amentis 

Hab ? Colitur in Horto Kewene., ex Horto Dude 

Bedford communicata. Num e Mexico Australiore ? 

o o 2 



6i* 

460 BOTANICAL INFORMATION. 

Species distincte, sed ob flores deficientes qaoad sectionein 
adhac inaeita, habita ad P. lai^o&am^ Syst. Pip. aocedens. 
Cauleg crassi, camosi, pallidi. PetioU aliquot lineas longi, 
semiteretes^ antice canaliculati, marginibasqae sobciliolati, 
pallidi. FoHa in eodem vertidllo, ai plus quam 2 adsuot, 
diyersiformia, ^-1 poUicaria, prorsus avenia, nervo medio 
subtus colore tantum profandiore distinguendo. 

2. Peperomia paUucens; suflfrutiooso-carnosa, ramis crassis 
obtuso^angulatis, foliis altemis vel verticillato-coiifertis, 
petiolis antice piofiinde canaliculatis, laminis elliptioo- 
ovatis acuminatis, basi leviter et conniventi-cordatis, car- 
noso-membranaceis utiinque 3-4-costatis, margine denti- 
culato^undatis, supra saturate viridibus maiginibusqae 
puberulis^ subtus pallidis glandulosis inque oostis parcis- 
sime pilosulis, pedunculis plerumque terminalibus gemino- 
sisque angulato-sulcatis, amentis elongatis densifloris, 
bracteis pedicellato-peltatis orbiculatis glandulosis, OTsrio 
immerso yertice piano. 

Hab. Guatemala; m. v. in Horto SocieL HarticuU. LotuB- 
nensis. 

Rami griseo- vel fuscescenti-pallidi, petiolorum cicatricibas 
elevatis subreniformibus notati. PetioH 2-1 poll. FbUa 
4-S poll, longa, costis baud longe a basi ortis 7-^pii* 
nervia, parce reticulata. Peduncuh petiolis crassiores 
eosque yulgo superantes. Amenta elongata, cyliiidrica, 
sursum attenuata, densiflora, glanduloso-punctata, foveo- 
lata. Stigma in medio ovario anticum puberulum demum 
fuscum et prominulum. FUamenta complanata, immerss. 
Antheris fuscis. 

Kew, m. Julii, 1 847. 



FLORJB TA8MAN1JB 8PICILBGIUM. 461 



Fi«ORiB Tasmania Spicileoiuh : or. Contributions towards 
a Flora of Van Dish en's Land ; by J. D. Hooker, 
M.D., F.R., L., and Q.S. 

{Continued from p. 286)« 

RuBIACEiE. 

1. CMitim vaffonSf n. sp.; totum ciliis patentibus subrecur- 
Tisve bispido-pilosum, caule elongate gracili diffuse vage 
ramoso, yerticiilis remotis, foliis parvis quaternis ellipticis 
subacutis utrinque hispidulis, pedunculis axillaribus folio 
breyioribus bi- rarius* trifloris, floribus minimis, fructibus 
glaberrirois. 

Has. Grassy places ; Gunn. 

Cauks pedales et ultra. Folia pro planta minima, 2-3 lin. 
longa. Flores valde inconspicui. 

2. Galium ciliare^ n. sp. ; pusillum, erectum, laxe hispido- 
pilosum, intemodiis folio paulo longioribus, foliis elliptdco- 
ovatis subacutis utrinque laxe ciliatis, pedunculis folio 
subaequilongis plerisque tri- Boris, floribus flavis, ovario 
glaberrimo. 

H AB. Dry pastures, &c. abundant ; Gunn. : — t;. t;. n. 

CauKs erectus, subsimpiex, S-5-uncialis, pilis patentibus laxe 
densiusve hispidus v. molliter pilosus. Folia 2-4 lin. longa, 
bis longiora quam lata, plus minusve ciliata et pilosa. 
Peduneuli axillares, plerumque versus apicem caulis sub- 
paniculati. 

3* Galium densum, n. sp.; scaberulum, caulibus elongatis 
diffusis intricatim ramosis, angulis scaberulis, yerticiilis 
remotis, foliis quaternis obovato*ellipticis lineari-oblongisve 
planis marginibus recunris super punctis sparsis aspens 
•abter glaberrimis, pedunculis floriferis gracilibus fructi- 
feris folio multoties longioribus plerisque bifloris, fructibus 
■etis patentibus uncinatis hispidis. 

Hab. In subalpine situations ; Gunn. 

Caules tenues, 2-Spedales, angulis setis sparsis, breyibus, 



462 FLORiB TASMANIA 8PICILBOIUM. 

subrecurvis hispiduli. Intemodia 2-iincialia. FoKa sicca 
viridia, 3-4 lin. longa, latitudine vaiia, obovata, elliptica ▼. 
lanceolata. 
Statura variabilb. 6. australi accedit, sed tota pUnta minus 
scabrida, nuUibi pilosa, peduncalisqae elongatda et bifloris 
oonspicoe differt. 

4. GUimn wqualidum^ n. sp. ; totum hispido-pilosum, canli- 
bus ascendentibos e basi ramoais pilis patentibus hbpidis, 
internodiis folio bis tenre longioiibus, foUis qvatomis lan- 
oeoktis acutis utrinqufi bispidis mai^ibos reconrisy 
pedonculis floiiferis folio loogioribua bi^lTi-flona, ovariis 
bispidis. 

Hab. Dry places ; Gtmn ;-^. v. n. 

G. auatraU affine sed hispidius ; differt caulibus longiori- 

bus, foliis angustioribus, peduaculisque elongatia et gnci- 

libus. 

5. Galium albescens^ n. sp. ; totum pilis naollibtts patentibus 
canesoens, caule valido suberecto parce ramoso, inter- 
nodiis ramorum folio aequilongis brevioribusve, foliis qoa- 
temis elliptioO'Ovatis acutis marginibus recurvis utrinqoe 
molliter bispido-pilosis sordidis, pedunculis axillaribus 
solitariis unifloris floriferis brevibus fructiferis validis de- 
curvis, fructu setis uncinatis bispido. 

Hab. Mount Wellington^ in rocky places ; Gwm* 
Spithameum et ultra. Folia 3 lin. ad ^ unc. longa, dneres 

V. sordide albida. PediceUi fructiferi validi^ folio longiorest 

horizontales, apice decurvi* 

6. Galium curtwn^ n. sp. ; pusillum, caule brevioaeulo Yilido 
erecto diviso pilis retrorsis scaberulo^ folii3 brevibos quir 
temis aenisve oborato-oblongis obtusis coriaed9 ulnnqoe 
glabratis marginibus tenuitar recurvis cartilagineis ciiiatis, 
6oribus axillaribus solitariis bonis ternisTe, oyario gUber* 
rimo. 

Hab. Hampshire bills; Gunn. 

Cattlis 3-uncialiS| robustus, erectus. FoUa parva, 3 lin. 

longa, valde coriacea. Fhres perpusilU ; pedunculis folio 

brevioribus. 



FLOBiB TASMANIiB 8PICILE01UM. 463 

1. ABp«rula suMmplex, n. sp. ; glaberrimai caule gracili sube* 
recto simplici v. diviso, foliis quatemis anguBte linearibus 
obtuais anbactftisve marginibus recurvis rarissime punctis 
remotis scaberulis^ peduncuUa in azillia supremis solitariis 
binis ternisve, l-S-floris. 

Hab» Circular Head and Lake St. Clair ; Gunn, 
Cavhs laxe cflBspitosii graciles, spithamaei, leves et glaberrimi 
▼• supeme angulis obscure scaberuli^ internodiis longitu- 
dine variis. Folia parya, 2-3 lin. longa, sub \ lin. lata, 
utrinque angustata. PedufunUi foliis eequilongi v. elon- 
gati. Corolla campanulatte, glaberrimad) lobis brevibus 
obtusis. 

2. Asperula Gtinmi, n. sp* ; glabriuscula, oaule decutnbente 
raiDOBO, ramb erectis angulis biapido-scaberulis, foliis qua- 
temis senisque iniequalibus obovatis lineari-oblongisye 
utrinque Issvibus maiginibus recurvis obscure soaberuUs, 
pedunculis ex azillts sup^rioribus solitAriis ▼• eonfertis 1-8 
floris* 

H AB. Alpine places, common ; Ounn : — t^. v • »• 

Cm»li$ plerumque decumbens, exemplaiibus montanis brerisi 

erectusj validus; ramis diyaricatis. VerticUla remota v. 

oontigua. Folia 3-5 lin. longa, coriacea, sicca nigrescentia, 

utrinque glaberrima. Corolla glaberrima, tubo subdon- 

gato. 

3. Asperula scoparia, n. sp.; caule decumbente e basi 
ramoso, ramis ascendentibus pilis brevibus hispidis, foliis 
senis anguste linearibus patenti-recurvis in apioetn pili« 
ferum angustatis marginibus recurvis parce setoso-ciliatis, 
pedunculis axillis supremis eonfertis folio brevioribus, 
oorollss tubo gracili fauce nuda. 

Has. Lawrenny, in dry gravelly places i-^v* v. n, 
Caule$ e radice plurimii decumbentes, ratnosi ; ramis ascen- 
dentibus, rigidis, hispidulis, 3*6 uno. longis* VerticUla 
mmia junioribus conferta, senioribus remota. FoUa uni- 
formia, sub 4 lin. longa, vix \ lin. lata, pleraque recurve, 
in apicem diaphanum subpiliferum gradatim acuminata. 



464 FLORA TABMANIiB 8PICILBG1UM. 

Fhrea majusoulii 2| lin. longi. Corolla infandilnilifbmusy 
tubo gracilis fauce glaberrima. 

4. Asperula co^ferta, n. sp.; dioica^ glabrhucak, caaBbns 
pluribus confertis ascendentibns glaberrimis y. obscare 
acaberulis, foliis senis patenti-recurvis anguste linearibos 
acutis acuminatisve marginibus recunris ciliato-^cabenilisy 
pedunculis brevissirois in axillis supremis fiudcolatis, 
corolla mascula infundibuliforroi, foeminea abbreviata 4- 
dentata. 

Var. a. intemodiis folio longioribus, caule elongate. 
Hab. Dry places^ abundant ; Lawrence^ Gunn : — v. v. it. 
Van /3, intemodiis folio breTioribus, caule abbreviato. 
Hab. Woolnorth ; Gunn. 
Caules 4-6unciales ad pedalem^ ngidi, ascendentes v. sub- 

erecti, pluries divisi, parce scaberuli v. glaberrimi et politi. 

Folia 3-5 lin. longa^ rigida, mar^nibus recurvis scabrido- 

ciliatis. Pedicelli folio breviores. Corolla florum fcem. 

breviores quam masc. 

5. Asperula pusilla, n. sp. ; dioica, hispidula, caulibus de- 
cumbentibus^ ramis robustis asceudentibus erectisve con- 
fertis foliisque utrinque scaberulis^ intemodiis plerisque 
folio brevioribus, foliis senis lineari-obovatis oblongisve 
obtusis marginibus recurvis scabrido-ciliatis^ floribua axilGs 
supremis confertis, pedunculis folio brevioribus, corolla 
infundibuliformi bispidula, masc. elongata, fructibus bre- 
vissime pedicellatis glaberrimis. 

Hab. Alpine situations ; Lawrence, Gunn : — v. v. n. 
Caules conferti v. subccespitosi, ramis 4-uncialibus. Ft^ 
parva, hispidula. 

6. Asperula minima, n. sp. j ccespitosa^ caulibus gracilibus 
confertis erectis ascendentibusve basi ramosis glaberrimis 
▼. parce scaberulis, foliis parvis anguste lineari-obovatis 
acuminatis apice diaphano, pagina superiore marginibusque 
recurvis scaberulis, pedunculis terminalibus folio longiori- 
bus^ floribus migusculis, coroUis glaberrimis. 

Hab. George Town 5 Gtmn. 



FLORA TASMANIA 8PICILBGIUM. 465 

Omniam specierum mihi notarum minima. CaviM vix 3- 
poUicaris, gracilis. Folia 1^-2 lin. longa^ angusta. 

1. Coprosma hirtella, Lab. 

Yar. a. foliis oblongis glabratis v. glaberrimis nunc politis. — 

C. hirtelki Lab, DC. C. venosa, A. Ounn. mas. (in herb. 

Hook.) 
Var. |3« foliis majoribus late ovato-rotundatis cuspidatis as- 

perrimis. — C. caspidifolia, DC. C. aspera^ A. Cunn. ms. (in 

herb. Hook.) 
Hab. Common :— t;. v. n. 

2. Coprosma Billardieri^ ms.— C. microphylla, Cunn. ms. 
(in herb. Hook.) Marquisia Billardieri, DC. Prodr. Can- 
thium qnadrifidum, Lab. Fl. Nov. HolL 

Hab. Damp woods, common :-— v. t;. n. 

S. Coprosma nitida, n. sp. ; erecta robusta ramosa, ramis 
ramalisque puberulis, foliis parvis glaberrimis brevissime 
petiolatis coriaceis elliptico-oblongis obtusis subacutisye 
Bveniis marginibus recurvis, floribus'sparsis, calyce 4-fido 
aegmentis oblongis obtusis, corolla profunde 4-partita 
laciniis linearibus reflexis obtusis. 

Hab. On the high mountains, abundant : — v. v. n, 

Frutex erectus, 4-6-pedali8, ramosus, ramis robustis, ramulis 
breyibus foliosis. Folia parra, ^-^ unc. longa, yalde 
coriacea. Flores parvi. Anthera lineari-oblongie, utrin- 
que rotundatee. Bacca ^ foL longitudine. 

4. Coprosma pumUa^ Hook. fil. in Flor. Ant. SuppL p. 
543| et in PL 1» p, 22. /. 16, B. sub nam. C. repentis. 

Hab. On the lofty mountains and in alpine plains^ Gunn. 
Omnia C. repenHa^ (Fl. Ant. 1. c.)> sed foliis junioribus 
pilosis ciliatis, baccisque dicoccis. 

1. Opercularia ovaia, n. sp. ; glabriuscula, caule basi lignoso, 
ramis gracilibus prostratis ascendentibusve subflaccidis 
glabris, foliis petiolatis ovatis obtusis subacutisve ciliatis 
tttrinque glabratis parce pilosisye submembranaceis, capi- 
talis axillaribus breviter pedunculatis, floribus dioicis 
(Gwm) triandris, corolla infundibuliformi, filameutis longe 
exsertis. 

VOL. VI. p P 



6is 

466 FLORAS TASMANTJE 8PICILEG1UM. 

Had. Launceston; Gunn, 

Caulis basi subrepens, ramis gracilibos 3-6-pQ 
obtuse angulat'us, glaberriinis glabratisve. Foik 
longSL, in petiolum 2-3 lin. longum abnipte i 
siccis margiiiibus tenuiter recurvis, pilis spars 
vaginis 1 lin. longis. CapUnla axillaria, ^-^ unc. 
6-8-flora, matura pilosa, calycis laciniis subula 
Carollte sub 1^ lin. longK^ ore quadrifido, g 
exsertis. 

2. Opcrcularia varia, n. sp. ; pusilla, hispido-pilo 
brata, caulibus e radicc lignosa pcqilurimis ere 
tratisvc c^racilibus angulatis, foliis brcvissime 
rigide coriaccis ovatis lineari-oblongis liiiearibus^ 
acutisve utrinquc hispido- pilosis scabridis s;] 
vaginis brcvissiinis, capitulis axillaribus l)reviter 
latis, corolla late infundibuliformi calycis laciniis 
cequilonga, stnminihus 2. 

Var. a. hiifjndula; foliis majoribus lincari-oblongL 
ramis diilusis. 

Var. /8. scabnda ; hispido-pilosa, foliis oblongis 
obtusis, raniis difFusis v. subcrectis. 

YiiT, y./'/i/ur/fiis : i;labi\il:i v. L:lji!KTri:n;i nltida, t\i 
ril)us acuti.v, rainJN rriM-tis v. .'.sciiidv iitihiis. 

Had. Dry places abuiulaiit : — v, c. n. 

AnALiACK.i:. 

1. Panax (iffftftii, n. sp. ; fruliculosa, rnulo rirni 
j)cdunculis(nu* stri^^Jso-Lirtis. tulioii.s ."}-:» r.iiii> 
juiiiorilnis siuiiat(»-j);m.aliiiilis s* ninriDus jr 'N>t 
costa stiij(;sa v. L:la!>rala, pc(!'.ni':uli»> |!i'!ii»l«i a- 
iiml)i-lla n.ui'.irailiata, stvlis -J. 
Hah. Di'iisf luiinid hursts near McCi'iarr;*.- l.arh<.i 
Fnitinilns irrctus, -J-.i-pi'dalis : cauK^ basi sii.i;.l:, ; 
^lal>rat(», crassitlc ptMiiiir aiiatina', siipir or.;!r..>. 
strii^oso, sftis riitis appriss;s. J\,'iiJi ^rai-iUs. 
loiiiii. Fnlihlu 1-L» UMc-ialia, lim\iria, liiicari I, 
obovato-laiicoolata v. varius ov;.:.i, laUraiia 
niinura, sciiiora ^n >r si rrat.i, juiiiora prDf'uis.iiu: 



FLOBJS TASMANIiE SPIOILEGIUM. 4^7 

eosUm in lobulos rotundatos secta, siccitate luride yiridia. 
PtdmcM solitarii. PedicelU graciles, 3 lin. longi, Acres- 
que glaberrimi. 

UMBBLLlFBRiB. 

1. Hydroootyle pedunculari9, Br. in DC. Prodr. 
Var. a. foliis inciso-dentatis super glabratis. 

Var. 0f foliis obtuse 5-lobis, lobis 3-crenatis glabriuscuHs^ 

petiolis hirsutis, caule crassiusculo. 
Var. Yj foliis obtuse 5-lobis, lobis 3-crenatis dentatisve hirtis, 

petiolis pedunculisque hirsutis, caule gracili. 
Var. if foliis profundius S-S-lobis, lobis obtuse 3-fidis 

crenatisve utrinque petiolis pedunculisque glabratis v. parce 

pilosis, caule crasso. 
Has. In alpine and subalpine districts abundant :^r. t;. n« 
H. pedutusularis, Sieb., a pianta Brunoniana differt glabritie 

fiructibusque minimis. 

2. Hydrocotyle Tasmamca^ n. sp. ; caule graciliusculoy petiolis 
pedunculisque gracilibus pubescentibus^ foliis reniformi- 
rotundatis obtuse 5-7-lobis utrinque hirtis lobis 3-5- 
crenatis, pedunculis petiolo aquilongis sub 6-floris, car- 
peQis utrinque 1-costatis. 

Has. Arthur's Lakes i Gunn. 

Caulei 3-5 unc. longi. Petioli ^ unc. ad poUicares, graciles. 
FoUa latiora quam longa, i unc. lata^ submembranacea. 
PeduneuK graciles, petiolis cequilongi. Capitula parva, sub 
6-flora. 

8. Hydrocotyle ^acti^nto, n. sp. ; caule sublignoso prostrate 
radicante, ramis herbaceis, petiolis pedunculisque snbaoqui- 
li>ngi8 hirtisy foliis membranaceis cordato-rotundatis 3-lobis 
lobis lateralibus bifidis majoribus obtuse 3*crenatis utrin- 
que sparse hirtis glabrattsve, capitulis parvis 6-floris, car-, 
pellis utrinque l-oostatis. 

H AB. St. Patrick^s River ; Ounn, 

Cauki repentesy sublignosi, apices versus graciliores, her- 
baoei, ad basin foliorum nodoso-incrassati. Petioli 1-li- 
uncialest graciles. Folia membranacea, \ unc. lata, utrin- 

pp2 



4GS FLOR.e TASMANI.S 8PICILBGIUM. 

que pilis sparsis hirta, subprofunde d-loba v. 5-l( 
lateralibus parvis, siiiubus subacutis. Capiinla ni 

4. Ilydrucotyle vayans^ n. sp. ; caule gracili eloiigaU 
gracili glabro> fuliis urbiculari-renitbrmibus menil 
5-7-I^>bis utrinque sparse pilosis glabratisve lobi 
crenatisy pedunculis glabratis ])ctiolo multoties bit 
capitulis parvis sub (Mloris, car|)eUis utrinque 1-c 

Hab. S. Esk Uiver, in flooded places ; Gtrnii. 

Nov. Gkn. Hydrocotykarum {?) Microsciadium, 

Calycis tubus breviter obconicus; limbus 5-fidi 
ovatis, acutis, subcoloratis. Petala breviter 
ovaUi, obtusa. Stamina petalis ocquilonga. Siyh 
crassa, glaberrima. Siyli 2, validi, subulati, 
Frucius ininiaturus elongato-obcunicus ; mericarp 
teretibusy obscure S-jugis^ ad commissuraiu subct 
vittis nuUis ? — Ilerba acaulisy ylaberrima. Folia ^ 
lobatay coriacea, Scapus erectus^ flifurmis, aphyi 
tariuSjOpice biflorus, Fiores basi I'bracteolaiiypar 

1. Microsciadium Sax\fraya. 

Hah. Loddon ])lains9 in wet heaths; Gumt. 

Plant a jmsilla, facio S(u}fraya\ t;labcrriiiui, rij^iilub 
crassa, lusit\)nnis, dosrcMulcns, simplex v. !)i 
Folia pauca, omnia radicaiia, petiulata ; pctiulv) 
\ unc. lt)ngt>, gracili, ri^ido; himiiia [-J uiic. 1 
ovalo-oordata, Iriloha v. Uto tripartita, lohis sul 
trifulis, semnoiitis ai'iitis. Scapus i;rarilis, tilit'ori; 
(lus, erect us, ai)hylluN, l-uiHialis, lavis, apieo 
3-lli)rus. Pi'dicvUi \-\ unc. I(>ni;i, basi braeleula 
tcoli.N lineari-ohhm^is, ohtusis, cuiicavis, pedicelU» 
orilius. Flui'vs parvi, sed j)ri) planta e*»nspicui. 
albiila, \\ lin. luni;a, o])lusa. StijUiftndlti n. 
Fnirtas \ maturus his loiii;ior quani Ltus, lii 
sul)-attciiu;.tu.s. 

Nfiv. (iKN. Maihaartnn. 1)ii»lasim.s, llonk. tU, 

Cahjris mar^o iiitei;erriii.us, coiitr.ielus. Pttala ovatJ 
iiite:;ra. Stylt hievissiini. Fractim parallels hi* 
inciicarpiis late ovaiis, (hir.Mi concavis eviltalis; 



FLORiB TA8MANTJB 8PIGILE0IUM. 469 

filiformibus; 1 dorsali; 2 mediis angulos acutos roericarpii 
marginantibus ; 2 intimis commissuralibus, commissura 
angustissima. — Herba acauRs, glaberrima v» parcissime 
pih$a, eamosula, Jructu Bolaci convenienie, sed habUu 
Hydrocotylis. Folia omnia radicalia, late eordata* Scapi 
9oUiarH, aphylli, apice umbeUam rimplicem involucratam 
sub lO^adiaiam geretUes. Involacriyb/iofa Unearia. 
1. Diplaspis Hydrocotyle. 

Has. Arthur's Lake, and Lake St. Clair ; Ounn» 
Rhizoma repens, elongatum, teres, nodosam, crassitie pennae 
anatinie, fibras validas simplices emittens, apice foliosum. 
Folia petiolata ; petioli superne pilosiusculi, ^ ad 2 unc. 
longi, crassi, recurvi^ basi vaginantes, vagina membra- 
nacea, lamina ^ ad 1 unc. lata, carnosula, late rotundato- 
cordata, basi biloba, obscure et obtusissime cordata. 
Scaput foliis longior, camosus, erectus, validus, superne 
laze patentim pilosus. UmbeUa simplex, sub 10-radiata. 
Involueri foliola S-74 membranaceo-herbacea, linearia v. 
oblonga, obtusa, medio uninervia. Pedicelli insequilongi, 
fnictiferi involucrum superantes. Mores minimi. Ovarium 
late ovatum, superne contractum. Calycis mar go incon- 
spicuus, paulo incrassatus. Petala curvata, ovata, obtusa. 
Stamina petalis eequilonga. Styli breves, suberecti, infeme 
in stylopodia conica gradatim dilatata. Fructus fere 2 lin. 
longus, glaberrimus. Mericarpia dorso valde compressa, 
late ovata, basi emarginata, lateribus acutis, costis fili- 
formibus, ad commissuram angustam valde contracta. 
Nov. Gbn. Saniculearum. Hemiphues, Hook.fiL 
Calycis margo obsoletus, v. incequaliter S-5-lobus; lobis 
lineari-oblongisi obtusis. Petala nulla, v. brevia, linearia. 
Stamina 5, filamentis incequalibus. Stylopodia crassa, con- 
nata, elongata, in stylos 2 validos incequilongos attenuata. 
Ovarium compressum, ovatum, unio-loculare, uniovula- 
turn. Fructus oblique turgidus, breviter ovatus, stylopo- 
diis persistentibus coronatus, costis inconspicuis, valle- 
cutis nuUis ; endocarpio firmo coriaceo v. crustaceo. Semen 
solitariumi pendulum, compressum, stylopodiis parallelum. 



470 FLORiB TASMANIA SPICILBGIVU. 

Albumen inter carnoaum et comeum. — Herbe aJ^olm^ otti^ 
pit084Bi acaules, $capiger4B^ plus minuive piHa nrnptidbus to- 
mentosa. Scapus validuSf erectua. InydacrifoliolaplKrtna, 
inter seaquaUafeti^fra medium in cypulam lobaiam cotmaia. 
Umbella simplex^ sub ^-S-flora, floribus parvie seuiUlmB r. 
bremenme pediceUatie. — Genus Actinoto indoiej fntdu 
defectuque petalorum accedens. 

1. Hemiphues bellidioides ; pilis patulis fulvis tomentosa, 
foliis petiolatis obovatcF-oblongis grosse crenato-dentatis^ 
scapo elongato, lobis calycinia ciliatis. 

Hab. Recherche Bay ; Gunn. 

Radix crassa, fibrosa. Folia stellata, | unc. longa, pe» 
tiolo lamineo SBquilongOj lamina subspathulata, obtuse 
crenata, marginibus tenuiter recurvis, coriaceo-camosay 
siccitate pallide viridia, utrinque pilis fulvis laxe to- 
mentosa. Scapus 2-unciaris, gracilis, erectns, nudus, 
supeme fulvo-pilosus. Capiitdum (seu umbella) de» 
presso-hemisphericum. Invobicrum cyathiforme, | one. 
diametr. ; foliolis sub 8, coriaceis, ad medium oonnatis, 
apicibus obtusiuscuUs^ glaberrimis v. subciliatis. Flares 
unisexuales? sub 5, brevissime pedicellati, foliolis invo- 
lucri superati, pedicellis validis pilis fulvis immersis. 
Ovarium floribus staminiferis sterile ? late ovato-oblongom; 
valde compressum, obscure costatum. Calycia lobi basi 
remoti^ lineari-subulati, obtusi, dorso marginibusqae aeds 
patentibus elongatis ciliati. Petala nulla, v. rarius 1-2 
inter lobos calycinos adjecta, nunc cum staminibus adnata; 
dum libera lanceolata, obtusa, erecta, plana, enervia, rubra? 
Stamina lobis calycinis opposita, iis bis longiora; fila- 
mentis incurvis; antheris didymis. Stylopodia magna, 
crassa, omnino coalita ; stylis 2, liberis, brevibus, subin- 
curvis, stamina superantibus. Fructus oblique turgidus, 
compressus, hinc obscure 1-, illinc 3-costatus, costb ob- 
tusis; endocarpium subcrustaceum pallidum, tegumento 
brunneo kevi undulato indutum. Semen endocarpio con* 
forme; testa membranacea, ab albumine facile soluta; 
embryo minimus, hilo proximus. 



FLORA TASMANliK 8PICILBOIUM. 471 

2. Hemiphoes a^ffinis ; csespitosa, foliis oblongo^spathula- 
tis obtuse crenato-dentatis albido-pilosis junioribus pe- 
tioUsque fulvo-tomentosis, scapo nudo v. 1-2-foliatOj lobis 
calycinis glabenimis. 

Hab. Mount Fatigue, altitude 4000 feet ; Gunn, 
Omnia prions, cui valde affinis, sed humilior et partibus om- 
nibus minor ; pilis lamins folii albidis calycibusque glaber- 
rimis differt. 

3. Hemiphues trideniata; dense csspitosai pilis albidis 
birsuta, foliis petiolatis spathulatis obtuse S-dentatis, 
scapis folio brevioribus, involucri foliolis subacutis, calycis 
lobis 2-4 incequalibus glaberrimis. 

Hab. Mount Fatigue, with the former ; Gnnn. 

Folia i una longa, coriacea, siccitate atro-brunnea, angustioi^ 

quam precedentibus, obtuse tridentata v. apice subtriloba. 

Calycis lobi valde ineequales. 

4. Hemiphues M{2f^ca^a; densissime ceespitosa, foliis parvis 
ovato-spathulatis petiolatis integerrimia glabratis juniori- 
bus pilis albidis sericeis lanatis, scapo brevissimo, capitulo 
parvo, calycis margine obsoleto integerrimo. 

Hab. Mount Fatigue ; Gunn. 

FoUa coriacea, | unc. longa, juniora petioli scapique pilis 

elongatis albidis sericeis tecta. Fructus castaneus, ad basin 

stylopodii contractus. 

1. Oreomyrrhis sesMifloraj n. sp. ; laxe pilosa, foliis pinnatis, 
pinnis ovato-oblongis pinnatifidis pilosis glabratisve seg- 
mentis linearibus lanceolatisve acuminatis integris loba- 
tisre, scapis simplicibus monocephalis v. subcomposito- 
umbellatis, involucri foliolis lineari-oblongis basi coalitis, 
floribus sessilibus, fructibus brevissime pedicellatis lineari- 
elongatis glabris, 

Hab. Summit of Ben Lomond and Western Mountains; 

Gunn. 
Ob fructum elongatum sessilem facile ab congeneribus distin- 

guenda. 

2. Oreomyrrhis cUiata^ n. sp. ; glabriuscula, foliis linearibus 
pinnatis, pinnis cequalibus multijugis ovatis lineari-ova- 



472 FLORiE TASMANIA 8PICILEG1U1I. 

tisve inciso-pinnatiiidisy segmentis acutis utrii 
bris marginibus ciliatis, scapo superne piloso pilis 
umbella simplici, involucri foliulis brevibus ovatis 
ciliatis, pedicellis elongatis pilosis, fructibus ovat 
glaberrimis. 
Hab. Arthur's Lakes and St. Patrick's River ; Gm 
Ab congeneribus Tasmanicis differt foliis linearibi 
multijagis, marginibus pinnularum involucrique 
cartilagineis ciliatis. 

Crassulagba. 

1. Tilleea /TtiT^tira^a, n. sp.; caulibus suberectis c 
trichotome ramosis, foliis anguste lanceolatia « 
floribus breviter pedicellatis solitariis axillaribus 
busque tetrameris pentamerisque, sepalis basi 
petalis brevioribus obtusiusculis marginibus gL 
iructibus pedicellatis. 

Hau. Formosa, abundant in marshes ; Gunn. 

T. macrantha simiUima sed laxius ramosa, foliis a 
bus, acuminatis, floribus minoribus, sepalis petali: 
bus ghiberriiiiisquc differt. 

1 . Bulliarda rtcurva. Tilhea verticillaris. Hook, i 
t. i>J>5. 

Hah. Inundated places, common ; GuNn.. — v. t\ n 

PourrLACE-K. 

XOV. (iFN. LirAKOPHYLU'M, IfO(/k\ fil. .^ij'il/a 

que 5, lanceolato-suhulata, hasi cuiiiiata. l*ttuL 
a»qualia, hasi connata, lineari-oblon^a, n eui 
alata triiiervia, su])ra medium a(i nervos incrasi>. 
Niiiia r>, petalis inserta, iis aiterna. Ovarmtn 
eeum-1-loeulare ; stylo brevi; sti^mate l»iti;I( 
jiluriinis ])l:i(Tiitis 2 ])arietalibus atlixi^i. Fntrfff^ 
subcariiDsus. j)(ily.s])ernius. Stmifia nrbiculala. c 
fulva, te.sta 'subcrustacea minutissime punrlulat;i 



VLORiB TASMANIiB 8PICILBOIUM. 475 

vaRdoB^ tlongaia» emittente. Folia camoiOy Uneari^Um- 
gaiOj obiusaf interdum mqifeme panlo dilataia. Scapus 
aoUiarUUj unifionu^ foltis brevior, nudw. Flores proplmta 
rnqfuBcuU. 

1. LipaTophyllum Gunniu 

Hab. Arthur's Jjakes, Lake St. Clair, in wet sand ; 

RJnxoma crassitie penns anatinOi S-5-unciaIe. Folia omnia 
radicalia, patentia, 1-2-ancialiaj sub 1^ lin. lata, basi albida 
dilatata vaginantia, crassa et camosa, yiridia. Pedunculus 
(aea scapus) validusi erectus, teres. Sepala camosa, acu- 
minata, uninerria. Petala nunc ad mediam fere coalita, 
subaequalia, albida, versus apices obtusos camosa, nervis- 
que camosis supeme incrassatis instructa, supra mediam 
utrinque alata, alis angustis membranaceis subplicatis, 
Siamimim JUamenta brevia; anthers breves, oblongie. 
DUcua camosus, inconspicuus. Placenta e basi ad apicem 
latriculi fere continues, oppositSB, sub lO-ovulates. 

^ ^^ CuOUBBITAOBiB. 

1. Sicyon Fmmmsy n. sp.; caule sparse piloso v. glabrato, 
cirrhis trifidis basi petiolisque pilosis, foliis membranaceis 
reniformi-rotundatis profunde oordatis (sinu latelunato) 7- 
lobatis lobis triangulatis acutis irregulariter serratis latera- 
lium apidbus oonniventibus super punctis sparsis pube- 
rulis subter precipue ad nodos pubescenti-pilosis, pedun- 
culss petiolo brevioribus pubescentibus supeme glandulosis, 
masculis racemoso-capitatis longe pedunculatis, ovario 
setis retrorsum hispidulo. 

Hab. Sisters' Island, E. Coast of Flinders Island (Bass' 
Straits); Gunn. 

Cautea 2-9-pedales, crassitie pennas anatinie et ultra, ad 
nodos precipue pilosi. PetioU unciales. Folia sub 2 unc. 
lata, lobo intermedio nunc producto longe acuminato, pre- 
cipue versus petiolum et ad basin nervorum pilosa, pilis 
membranaceis subscariosis. Capitula mascula 6-8-flora; 
floribtts pedicellatis, i unc. diametr. ; pedicellis 2-3 lin. 



474 FLOBJfi TA8MAN1JB BPICILBOIUM. 

longis, pubetoendbtta, pilisqae apice ghodttloao-eBpita* 
tellatis. CapUulafoBrnmea breriter pedttnculata^ aetis | qdc. 
longis. 
S. australi (Nots Zelandis) proxima : an vera dmNnaa? 

HAItORAOBA. 

1. Myriophylhim pedunculatutn, n. sp. ; parvuluniy dioiciim 
▼• (rarius) monoiouDiy fbliis oppositis t. teniis lineari- 
bu8 aubacotis integemmis, fl. maac longe pedoncala- 
tis, pednnculo baai bibracteato, aepalia ovatis apioe irre- 
gulariter dentatia, petalis lineari-elongatis cymbifarmi- 
boa, staminibus 8, fl. foam. carpelUs aabaeaailibiia in at^os 
recurvoa longe plnmoao-atigmatiferos deainentiboa matmis 
tuberculatia. 

Hab. Maigins of rivera and pools, abundant. 

Cauks 2-3-unciales, baai ramosi. FoUa aub ^ tine, longa, 
i lin. lata. Fl. nuue. primnm aeaailea, demum elongato- 
pedicellati, rufi ; foeminei minimi. CarpeUa parva, b r e vlt e r 
pedunculata. 

MTBIOPHTI«LBiB. 

Nov. Gen. Pblonastbsi Hook. fit. — -FYore* monoid, bibrac- 
teolati, maaeuli terminales, solitarii ▼• pauci, aggregati. 
Sepala 4, concava. Peiala nulla. Stamina 2 r. 4, 
antheris breviter oblongia. FL fean. axillares. Cafydt 
tubus ovario accretus, limbus nulias. CarpeUa 4, a[Moe 
glanduloso-stigmatifera, ad medium coadunata, deinde 
libera; c»tera ut in MyriophyUo. — Herbae Austratarittt^ 
pusilliSf subcamosiBj aquatica, fflaberrima. Folia wuUque 
altema, Unearia. Flores minim ; foeminei plurinAy saUiarii^ 
inserta, axillares; masculi pauci, terminaleSf omnes brevUer 
pedieeUati. 

* A Bimilar* but very diBttnct, spaciM it contaiDadinMr. Dnmuaood't 
Swan Biver collections, which may be thue characterised. 
3. Peionastes tubtradaia ; foliis integerrimia marglnibiUTe lobu]ati«» ctr* 

pellifl vemiculatis, aepalia apice eroao-dentatia, ataminibua 4 
Hab» Swan River; Drnmmond{n, 18). 



6^s 

FLOBi& TA8MANIJC iPlClLBQIUM. 475 

*!• Peloiiftstes inieffri/olia ; foliis integerrimici inferioribas 

elongatis acuminatis, sepalis integerrimis, carpelUs kevibus, 

staminibiis 2. 
Hab« Muddy places in McQuarrie River; Qntm. 
Herba pusilla^ 1-2-uncialis, parce ramosa, caole baai eras- 

siQsculo. Folia inferiora ^-1 unc. longa^ anguste linearia, 

snperiora breviora. 

1 . Haioragis eUUa^ n. sp* ; erecta, ramosa, hispido-scaberala, 
foliis brevissime petiolatis ovatis acutis grosse argute ser- 
ratis utrinque scabridis, racemis foliosis, calycis segtnentiB 
OTatis acatis petalis linearibus quadruple brevioribus, 
fructibus subglobosis pallidis 8-costatis undulato-tubercu- 
latis punctulatis, 

Hab. Abundant in dry and shaded places :— ^. v. n. 

Cmdia bi-tri-pedalis, erectus, rigidus, scabridus, supeme 
ramisqoe pilia patuUs hispidus. Folia i-| unc. longa^ 
civata, subsessUia v. brevissime petiolata. Florei ad apices 
ramulorum in raoemos foliosos dispositi, dioici? petalis 
I unc. longis. Frudus parvus, pallidns, vix vemicosus, 
rugosus. 

2. Halomgis moniaiia, n. sp. ; caule basi suffiruticoso diva- 
ricatim di*trichotome ramoso, raniis suberectis parce 
strigoso-subhispidis, foliis coriaceis sessilibus ovatis sub- 
acutit serratis utrinque glaberrimisy floribus subelongato- 
•incatis sessilibus, petalis breviusculis, fructibas globosis 
8-striatis verrucosis. 

H AB. Summit of Western Mountains, and at Arthur's Lakes > 

Caute» basi nudi, superne ramique foliosi. Folia uniformia, 
patula V. recurva, late ovata, coriacea sed non rigida nee 
aspera, ^ unc. longa, pallide viridia, subsessilia. Spicm 
florifers denss, foliosas ; fructifer® elongat®, 1-2-unciales, 
validflB, erect® ; foliis floralibus fructu parum longioribua 
V. sequilongis. Fntctua sub- \ lin. longus. 

Onaorariba. 

1. QBnothera ToMmamca^ n. sp. ; caule procumbente vage 



476 FLOBiB TASMANIiB SPICILEGIUH. 

ramoso puberulo, ramulis prostratis ascendentibas, ibiiis 
oppositis alternisque sessilibus lineari-oblongis obtusis 
margine crispato-dentatis glaberiimis, floribus aziilaribas 
solitariis^ antheris breviter oblongis, stigmate eUvato, 
capsola cylindraceo-tetragona yalvis linearibas^ seminibus 
alatis. 

Hab. Marlborougb; Gunn. 

Species humilis, exemplaribus chilensibos (E. deniai^B habita 
simiUima. Rami S-S-unciales, graciles. FoBa 4*1 poll 
longa. CtgmUa puberulae^ subvalidee, Iineari-obIong», foliis 
longiores^ sessiles. Florea purpurei. 

RoSACBiE. 

1. Acsna (Ancistram) numiana, n. sp.; pumihi glabnts, 
caule aacendente breviusculo, ramis breyibos, fbliolis 
parvis 5-7-jugis oblique oboyato-v. oblongo-rotnndrntis 
ooriaceis^ super reticulato-venosis glaberrimis subter 
ad costam maiginibusque grosse serratis aericeo-ciliatis, 
pedunculo superne subsericeo, capituUs globons, floribus 
parvis, calyce glaberrimo tetragono rhombiformi, aristis 
brevibus apice glochidiatis medio calycis insertis, petalis 
distinctis apice conico calyds sitis, staminibns 2, stigmate 
depresso patelliformi marginibus fimbriatis. 

Hab. Summit of Mount Wellington ; Gunn: — v. v. «. 

Folia 1-1^ unc. longa, patula, subcoriacea, petiolis sparse 
appresse sericeis, foliolis sessilibus, i unc longis, fiere 
lequilatis, apice subtruncatis, superioribus basi lata ad- 
natis. 

MTRTAOBiE. 

1. Melaleuca pustulataf n. sp.; ramis glabris albo-striatis, 
ramulis puberulis, foliis glaucis alternis sub-approximatis 
erecto-patentibus subrecurvis crassis glaberrimis lineari- 
obovatis anguste linearibusve obtusis supra planis subter 
concavis punctato-tuberculatis, capitulis flavis terniinalibai 
sessilibus plurifloris sphcericis, hypanthio breviter villosOy 
calycibus glaberrimis lobis subherbaceis, phalangiis stami- 
num 5. 



FLORA TASMANIiB SPICILBOIUM. 477 

Hab. Campbell Town and Oyster Bay ; Gvnn. 

Rami gradles, lineis e basi petiolorum continuis albidis 
striati, ramulis puberulis. FoBa i-^ unc. longa, sub 1 lin. 
lata, in petiolum brevem angustata. Capiiula viz i unc. 
diametr. Fhrea parvi. 

1. Eucalyptus Risdonif n. sp.; foliis oppositis ovato-cor- 
datis acuminatis sessilibus v. basi lata connatis juniori- 
bns ramulis alabastrisque pulvereo-glaucescentibusy pedi- 
oellis axillaribus G-lO-floris, alabastris breviter clavatis, 
operculo depresso hemispheiioo umbone nullo, capsula 
breriter pedioellata obconica rotundata, ore paulo contracto 
margine piano latiusculo yalvis inclusis. 

Hab. Riadon, on the Derwent ; Gunn. : v. v. n. 

Arbor 20-pedalis, e basi ramosus, aspectu glaucescente, 
ramis patentibus diyaricatb, ramulis gracilibus, cortice 
kevi. FoUa 1^-2 uncialia, rigida, acuminata, latiora quam 
longa, obtusa cum mucrone. Pedunculi 11 unciales. 
AkAadra i-i unc. longa. Capsula i unc longae, extus 
Iflsvea V. paulo rugosae, nitidue. 

2* Eucalyptus umigera, n. sp. ; foliis ovatis v. lineari-ovatis 
rectia ▼. curvatis utrinque angustatis plerisque in petiolum 
aublongum attenuatis, pedunculis subelongatis trifloris, 
alabastris cylindraceo-urceolatis pedicellatis cupula de» 
presso hemispherica latiuscula umbonata v. mamillata, 
fructu lignoso urceolato laevi infra orem crassum yalde 
constricto. 

Hab. Mount Wellington and Lake Echo ; Gunn. :— v. v. n. 

Ariar statura variabilis, ad cacumina montium arbuscula, 
in conyallibus montosis arbor 20-pedalis v. procerior evadit. 
Bamuli exeropl. alpestribus rugosi, nudi, rufescentes, 
procerioribus keves, glauci. Folia 1^-4 unc. longa, bis 
ad quater longiora quam lata, coriacea, plerumque nitida. 
Alaboitra ^ ad } unc. longa, plerumque plus minusve 
urceolata. FructuM \A unc. longus, elongatus v. rarius 
globosus, semper infra orem dilatatum contractus. 

S. Eucalyptus coectfera, n. sp. ; ramis ramulisque teretibus 



478 FLORAS TASMANIA SPICILBGIUM. 

IfBvibus pleromqne glaucia, folns altenus parvis unifanDt- 
bas Uneari-elliptids lanceolatis v. angoste ormtis aonu- 
natis utrinqoe attenuatit apicibus janioram luunnato- 
hamatis, pedunculis brevibos S-floris rarisnme 4*8-iom, 
alabastris andpiti-compresais oboTato-obconiciSy q)er- 
etilo depresso apice concavo oapsala latiore mgoao, cap* 
aula obccmioo-bemiapheiica latiore quam longa basin Tsnui 
bicarinata breyiasime pedioellata^ pedioetto compreaao, ore 
piano dilatato raiiua oonTeziaaoulo r. ooncaTO^ ▼alvis axi 
eapaolas parvia. 

Hab. Topa of mountaina : Lawrence^ Otmn. : — v. v. n. 

Arbor parva, lO-pedalis, e basi ramosa. FbUa ccNrboea, 
aublonge petiolata^ pettolo | tine. longo, lamina 1^*2^ tmc 
loiig*^ i*l unc. lata, eUiptico-ovata v. lanoeolata, t. liaeari- 
lanoeolata, omnia 1 ^enria. Pedimeuh brevea, fere omnes 3- 
flcHi. Alabastra longitudine et diametro varia, longioni \ an- 
cialia, obovato-obconica, pedicdlata, breviora \ unc. kmga, 
aeasilia, breviter oboonioa, omnia oompreaaa. Caf9Mltt 
^-i unc. late^ utrinque carinataB» carinad cum aagolis 
pedicelli continuae, nunc ad orem oapanke prodoctae, nuoc 
anpra basin evanidae. 

4. Eucalyptua vemieosa^ n. ap. ; ramia validia, ramnlis acnte 
angulatia, foliis alternia parvia uniformibua breriter petio- 
latis craaae coriaceia late elliptico-oblongia utrinque ob- 
tnaia mucronolatia nitidis yemicosis, pedunculis biens- 
aimis 1-3-floris, alabastria sesailibus late obconicis, oper* 
culia cupularo subaeqaantibas conico-hemispbericis anb- 
roatellatisy capsulis hemispherids ore non contracto piano 
▼• depresso. 

Hab. Mount Fatigue, altitude 4000 feet ; Gwm. 

Arbor parva, 4-pedalisyin convallibus 15-pedalb. Rand erecti, 
robusti, rugulosi, cicatricati ; ramuHs plerumque tetragonis 
angulis acntis. FoHa breviter petiolata, petiolo \ one. 
longo, lamina uncialis, |-| unc. lata, valde rigida, coriacea, 
apice rotundata apiculata, sicca fiavido-virescentia nitida, 
obscure nervosa. PeduncuK brevissimi, erasst, vix -i anc. 



DBOADES OF VUNGI. 479 

longii ▼• sob-noUi* Alaba$ira i unc* longa, sicca ragosa. 
Capmda \ unc* longa, ad orem Aquilata, obconico-hemis- 
pherica. 

6. Eacalyptua giganttOj n. sp.; ramis ramolisque Isevibus 
dongalia gradUbus, foliis alternis sublonge petiolatis 
amplia oblique curvatis ovato-Ianceolatis longe acuminatia 
baaivaldo inieqiialibas costa distincta^ nenris lateralibns 
divergentibus, pedicellia elongatia multiflorisy alabastris 
luicari-clavatis obtusis^ cupulis (florentibus) obconicis pedi^ 
oellatis, operculo breviter hemiapberioo obtnao ▼• subacute 
maturo cupula eequilata breviore, capsula miyuscula pedi- 
oellata obconico-hemispherica v. turbinata ore paulo con- 
tracto ▼. sabglobosa ore valde contracto. — ^^ Stringy-bark^^ 
oolonorum* 

Hab. Throughout Tasmania, very abundant : — v. v. n. 

Ardor excelsa, 150-250-pedalisy trunco basi num 20-26*ped. 
diametr. Rami ramulique graciles, elongati. Folia 4-6 
unclonga^ 1-2^ unc. lata« Alabastra angusta^ elongata^ 
cupula bis-terve longiora. 

{To be continued)* 



Dbcadbs of Fungi ; by the Rev. M. J. Bbrkeubt, 

(Tabs. XVII.— XX.) 

{Continued from Page 326.) 

Dec. XV.— XIX. Ceylon Fungi. 

The following Fungi were kindly sent from Ceylon by 
Mr. G. Gardner, the greater part of the fleshy species and 
some of a firmer texture being accompanied with charac- 
teristic drawings, which haye been most serviceable in 
describing the new forms. A few species, not including the 
cosmopolites, are common to Ceylon, with Java and the 
Philippines, and a few other identical with, or very near to 
■ome Cuba species; but the number of new species is 



^ 



^ 









%. 




BMAIMM Of V03fOt 



imwi**ffM*i woA M die Mitetioii cant&ifui s»» 
Kdnig's spaoioSy who .wu priiictp%lly id a dU 
of the iilaiid from what Mr. Garduer has vixiie^ 
eipeet a rich hmeifc of edifitbnal forms, wben 
iabmd ihall bo.eqkmd. Ihough the ooUeebon 
■peeiei^ then ia oidy one new genus in the colk 
that fldoat intemtiiv and eoMut. The fleshy Fi 
/an ofteo identieal iriA SUiropean fonita, bii 
f, eapeeially of Iheea h f e am Lepli4a, whteh a 
• *AgariciiaiProe8nif, Soop. €3&m. 418. Gardner^ 

On die gfomd in ehedy phe^* PeimdeQia» Ce; 

1844. 

141. A. (Lepiola) emdimmh n. spv ; pileo tneml 
iwmpannlito eonten^ obtaao cindido ; epidcra 
glabim} mafgine omiato aakato ; s6pile deonaoi 
pnlnralentOy laneDia nmotia poatice subrecieiilil 
n. S». ' M 

On die groond m ahady plaeea* Peradenia, Cl| 
1844. 

FUena neariy 4 inbhee eeraea at first canspanuM 
apex flat, then ooutox and nmbomm vIUi Uie lU 
branaceous crenate and sulcate. Cuticle smooth^ 
at all cracked. 

Stem 5 inches high, ^ of an inch thick^ pallid, i 
downwards, pulverulent; ring, if present, extrei 
cious gills, white remote rather distant reticulaU 

Distinguished from its allies by its perfectly sn 
tinuous cuticle, and the gills which are reticulated 

142. A. (Lepiota) Zeylanicua^ n. sp. $ pileo subcai 
panulato umbonato: epidermide ad medium 
maigine striato; stipite eequali farcto glabro 
annulo angusto patulo ; lamellis latis ventrioosia i 
Gkutln. n. 15. 

In shady places on the ground. Peraden 
1844. 
Pileus above 3 inches broad, subcamoae can 



DECADES OF FUNGI. 481 

obtase nrabonate; epidermis below the umbo brownish 
cracked ; margin white^ smooth, deeply striate. 

Stem above 3 inches high, nearly \ thick sank into the 
sabstance of the pileus, equal, smooth, nearly white, stuffed, 
rooting below; root sometimes forked. Ring narrow 
spreading. 

Gills broad^ white, ventricose, terminating at some distance 
from the true apex of the stem. 

This is distinguished from Affaricta coniinuuSf by its 
cracked cuticle, even, and not crenate margin, and broad 
ventricose gills. 

There is another new species (n. 78) from Peradenia, 
growing on old wood ; but it is impossible to characterise 
it from a single dried specimen which shows nothing of the 
gills, as is also the case with the drawing. It is far smaller 
than Ajf. coniinuuSy has the margin of the pileus even, and a 
narrow reflexed ring with an equal stem. 

Pileus campanulate | of an inch broad, white, umbonate. 
Stem 1 inch high, 1^ line thick. 

•A. criaiatus, Bolt. Gardner, n. 49. 

On the ground. Peradenia. 

Of this I have seen no specimen. 

*A. capasHpe9y Sow. Gardner, n. 47* 

On the ground. Peradenia. 

No specimen was preserved of this species. 

143. A. (Lepiota) aspraiw, n. sp.; pileo hemispherico demum 
depresso pallido verrucis e iloccis fasciculatis exasperate; 
stipite subaequali floccoso-squamuloso ; lamellis albis adnexis. 
Gardner, n. 50. 

On the ground in shady places. Hautane Range, Ceylon. 
June, 1844. 

Pileus 1-1 i inch broad, hemispherical at length, expanded 
and depressed, pale yellow, rough with acute warts con- 
sisting of fascicles of flocci. 

Stem li inch high, 2 lines thick, near equal flexuous 
clothed with floccose scales, which are frequently con- 
fluent. 

VOL. vt. Q Q 



9 



482 DECADES OF FUNGI. 

Ring indistinct. 

Gills moderately broad, white, adnexed. 

A most exquisite species allied to Agarirm y 
but at once distinguished by the warts, which are in 
exactly those of some Lycoperdons. 

144. A. (Lepiota) albuminoHH,% n. sp. ; e campani 
susnodulosus veloglutinoso obducto, marginc Chtrii 
diculato, stipite sursum attcnuatoe velo ditfracto ti 
squamoso radicante; laniellis albis. (Tad. X 
Gardner, n. 51. 

On the ground. Peradenia, Ceylon. June, IS* 

Pilcus campanulate obtuse 14 inch broad, white 
squamosc clothed with a glutinous veil, portions 
remain attached to the margin, while others form 
scales on the stem exactly as in Cortinaria coilm'iia 
r Stem 3 inches high, 2 lines thick in the centre, \ 

upwards, almost bulbous below. 

Gills white. 

Nearly allicil to Ag, iUinitus^ Fr., and differing j 
in the scaly stem. 

T.xn. XX. ////. .3. A. aibffmifiosfis, nnt, shr, 

1 ir>. A. (Arinillaria) f///^7//;r////^^\ d. sp. : r:v>p"? > 
coiivcxo ixpnnso (Kiiiuin doprossii si:;iial«'{j.u' T 
s{|uanuiK)S() tulvo ; stipiti* siih.i'cpiali aiiuuli'«|!i»' i^^ i 
tosi» nitu ; laiiu'lli.N iiicarnalis j)iirpurascLiilibus po-s 
atis diMiti' anixis. (ianluor, n. (».>. 

On old wood. Hautaiic, Ceylon. 

Cir'^j'itu.M'. I'ili'i 1 1.-*2 iiH'iii s across, at firs: ^y 
cxpaiiili'il. :.t h'ri^tli di'pri'svc-il and sinuati'd, r* »" 
short, din-i' duwu iicn* and tlu.-ro raisi'.i ii.t) 1.;: 
tawny. 

Stems ni.'irly ( jj-.:iL I inch i i.;l». --."i ii-.i's t.: «• 
than tlv' ['ill. .^. d^'hsi Iv l»ut M.«»i tly tinr.oiit«»s»'. :is \ 
fu..ai*H)ns vi'ii. 

(i.li>. I'u •-li I'uiouiiil, liii-n j»urj)ii-ii, oi" a r.»l! '^r ' 
«:i\, smu.iUU mi. •:.«!, uWx ,i«i !>v a sj.-.tri i-.-ji-j. 

('i.'.sviv a.iirii I • ^iijiWiChu jfu/if'Sy l;ul vi.iv i:;Ni.i 



DECADES OF FUNGI. 483 

nature of the downy coat, fugacious ring, and the bright 
coloured gills. It is also a smaller species. 

146. A. (Armillaria) eurrhizus, n. sp. ; pilejp camoso e sub- 
conico expanse fortiter umbonato cute gelatinosa rugosa 
▼estito; stipite sursum attenuate extus cartilagineo ; radice 
Aisiformi ; annulo e strato externo orto evanescente ; lamellis 
adnexis albis. — Gardner^ n. 43. 

Peradenia, Ceylon. On the ground, eaten by the Cingluse. 
June, 1844. 

Pileus at 6rst subconical, then expanded, 8^ inches across, 
strongly umbonate, fleshy, covered with a rugose gelatinous 
coat; umbo brown, shaded off into dirty white; margin 
somewhat crenate. 

Stem 2 inches high, \ an inch thick in the centre, clothed 
with a cartilaginous coat attenuated upward, sending down a 
strong fusiform root into the soil 3 inches long. 

Ring continued from the outer coat visible only in young 
specimens. 

Gills arcuate, white, adnexed. 

Allied to Agaricus mtuddusy with precisely the habit and 
appearance of Ag* radicatus, 

147^ A. (Tricholoma) cras9us, n. sp. ; maximus valde carno- 
808 pileo convexo obtusissimo glabro luteo-fusco; margine 
sinuato-plicato ; stipite valido solido pallido; lamellis albis 
adnexis primitus postice sinuatis. — Crordner^ n. 53. 

On die ground in shady places. Peradenia, Ceylon. 
June, 1844. 

Pileus 8 inches across, very fleshy, obtuse, smooth, some- 
times minutely cracked, sometimes splitting longitudinally, 
yellow-brown ; coarsely plicate towards the margin which is 
involute. 

Stem 6 inches high, 1^ inch thick, swollen at the base, 
nearly smooth, dirty white, slightly spotted. 

Gills crowded, not very broad, adnexed, at first slightly 
sinuated, white. 

Allied to Ag. colossus^ geminua and tumidua ; a most mag- 
nificent species. 

Q Q 2 




In cktdii shady pbcei oo tbe groand* Bef«4ari 
Jotiep 1S44, 

The Ccflofi sfied metis ^re tnmllf umbiinftta. 

•A- AmmahriekuMt BerL tm iioak. I^amiL Jo 
VoL % p, 41a, — QmtdntT^ lu 10. 

Growing on roots of platiU. Pefadeim, Cev 
1S44. j 

The Ceybti spectimeos sre txacHy Ui« pUnt of 
ll ippeiTi from the dmwfng that the pUona ii ] 
fremh, mud Ute gills purplish. 

11. 35. 

On the groimd* Itaiitane Range, Cejlon. 
and n. S5 on old wood. 

'llie specimens are robnist and bigldy csespitoae, 
in no assignable diaimcter from the KuropCM 
n* 35 13 a corioiis sta.ie in which the stems 
and form one ^id mass* 

•A» c^iitiri, P. GmdneTj n. S8. Ceykm* 

Of this I hare seen no spedmenj but the dravl 
accords with A. dtymus. 

148. A. (Pleurotus) vers^omUSf n. sp. ; hjgn^hai 
pileo membranaceo ex integro umbilicato spathulal 
brevi glabro ; lamellis latiascnlis postice atlenuatis 
tibus interstitiis nigulosis. 

In forests on mossy branches. Talagalla* Feb. 

Varying extremely in form, entire and nrobilica: 
dibuliform, flabelliform, spathulate, or almost linei 
phanous thin and membranaceons. 

Stem short, smooth, or rarely (as also the ba 
pileas) sprinkled with a few strigoae fascicles, grc 
cartilaginous when dry. 

Oills moderately broad, attenoated behind, 
decurrent. 

Interstices slightly wrinkled. 

Resembling A. petahdes, but not very cloady m 



1 



DECADES OP FUNGI. 485 

position will be next to A. mutUuSy with which it agrees in 
its very variable form. 

149. A. (Pleurotns) iestttdo, n. sp. ; densissime imhri- 
catus; pileis vertice porrectis lobatis griseis subtiliter 
tomentosis, pellicula gelatinosa vestitis; lamellis ochraceis. 
Gardner, n. 41. 

On old wood. Hautane^ Ceylon. June, 1844. 

Densely imbricated 1-2 inches across, laterally confluent 
Bubflabelliform, in consequence of the vertex being elon* 
gated ; cuticle gelatinous, but not viscid, grey, clothed vrith 
short down : margin not striate. 

Gills narrow, ochraceous, attenuated behind, clothed with 
minute bristles. 

Resembling A. spiculiferus in the velvety gills; but I 
cannot point out any species to which it is very closely 
allied. It is not recupinate in any stage of growth, and 
therefore must be placed in Fries' second section of Pleu- 
rotns. 

*A. pluteus, Bat$ch. Gardner, n. 22, 98. 

On the ground. Hautane, Ceylon. June, Sept. 1844. 

*A. phkbophorua, Ditmar, Gardner, n. 46. 

On old wood. Hautane, Ceylon. June, 1844. 

The pileus is rather paler than is usual in European 
specimens. 

150. A. (Flammula) holocrodnui^ n. sp. ; caespitosus cro- 
ceus; pileis convexis carnosulis furfuraceo-sericeis centre 
glabrescentibus ; stipitibus solidis; lamellis angustis decur- 
rentibus. 

On dead wood. Ambegamoa, Ceylon. Feb. 1846. 

Caespitose. Pilei 1-2 inches broad, slightly fleshy, convex, 
bright tawny yellow, as is the whole of the plant, at length 
naked in the centre ; margin involute when dry, permanently 
furfuraceous. 

Stem 1-i an inch high, varying greatly in thickness, 
fibrillose, solid. 

Gills narrow, crowded, shortly decurrent, of a rich tawny 
yellow. 




6^i 



Spores minute, tawney, broadly cymbiforni. 

This specks has exactly the habit of A, 
baa the spores of the faurth section of Fric 
Fiammula^ from all the species of which it 
ttarrow slightly decurrcnt gills* 

♦A> cerode^, Fr, Ep.p, 195. Gcfrrfuwr, n. 7, IS. 

On the ground. Peraclenia, Ceylon, May. U 

N. 6 belongs to the same section, bat ihje 
unfortunately so decayed^ that 1 cannot 
and mode of attach men t of the gUls, 

*A. ptdludes^ Ff\ Ep. p. l!>7. 

On the ground in open places. PeradcniJi, Ceyh 
A. camptf^tris^ n. VJi n, 20 la ap[i«renLly a 
fonii of the same spectea* 

♦A, mtiffimuSp Fi\ Ep. p* i?05> Gardnm^^ ii, 40* 

On fallen flowers of Cufyoia ttreus* Pet 
Junci 1844. 

15 U A* (Crepidotus) Ai^o/trdn, n. sp.| pUeiy] 
eitctmtrico versitormi glaberrimo hepatieo; stip 
piiKQ compresso lamellis fragilibus laceratis ^dig 
concoloribus* — Gardner^ n. 52. ^ 

Hautane Range, Ceylon. On old wood. Jnn^ 

Pileus 1^ inch broad, umbilicate, eccentric, s 
nearly stemless, smooth, liver-coloured. 

Stem 1 inch high, ^ thick, cartilaginoos com pi 
the same colour as the pileus, sending oat a fei 
the base. 

Gills much torn, palei* than the pileus. 

Spores minute, ferruginous. 

A very distinct species resembling rather son 
eccentric Pkuroti than any in its own group. 

152. A. (Crepidotus) phaophyllus, n. ap.$ pik 
catis porrectis obovato-cuneatia albidis sabsqui 
lamellis fusco-purpureis. — Gardner, n. 36. 

On old wood. Hautane Range, Ceylon. Janet 

Densely imbricated; pilei 1 inch long, ] ol 
broad, obovato-cuneate, dirty white, with a few 



DECADES OP FUNGI. 487 ''^ 

transverse scales which are not visible in the dried spe- 
cimens. 

Stems none. 

Gill moderately broad, purple brown. 

Spores purple brown. 

This species has somewhat the habit of Paxillus PanuoideSf 
but it is a true Agaricus distinguished from its allies in the 
section CrepidottiSf by purple brown gills and spores. 

1 53. A. (Psalliota) (rachodeSy n. sp. ; pileo carnoso e convexo 
expanso demum depresso verrucoso interstitiis sericeis ; 
stipite sursum attenuato farcto albo; annulo amplissimo 
deflezo ; lamellis angustis subliberis pallidis demum fuscis. — 
Gardner, n. 64. 

On the ground in shady places. Peradenia, Ceylon. 
July, 1844. 

Pileus 4^ inches broad, pale reddish brown, at first 
convex, then expanded and depressed, thick and fleshy; 
epidermis broken up into warty scales, interstices silky. 

Stem 4 inches high, nearly | of an inch thick in the 
middle, attenuated upwards, stuffed with loose fibres, at 
length hollow, white, sometimes quite obtuse, sometimes 
rooting. 

Ring an inch broad, deflexed, fugacious. 

Gills narrow, slightly adnexed, pale yellowish white, at 
length brown. 

Spores obliquely ovate. 

Nearly allied to A. cretaceus, but with the pileus warty. 
The stem is not the least sunk into the flesh. It has quite 
the appearance of a Lepiota. 

154. A. (Psalliota) simulana, n. sp. ; amplus pileo carnoso 
hemispherico piloso-squamoso centro glabro; margine cre- 
nato; stipite valido sursum attenuato fibrilloso; annulo 
lacerato fugaci ; lamellis approximatis angustis liberis primum 
candidis. — Gardner^ n. 79* 

On the ground. Peradenia, Ceylon. August, 1844. 
Pileus 5i broad, fleshy, hemispherical, obtuse, smooth, 



488 DBCADE8 OF FUNOI. 

and umber-brown in the centre, beyond which it is clothed 
with small pilose scales. 

Stem 4 inches high, } of an inch thick in |the centre, 
attenuated upwards firom the obtuse base, white, aoKd 
fibrillose. 

Ring near the top of the stem torn, fugacious. 

Gills for a long time white, scarcely more than 1 line 
broad, attenuated behind, not ventricose, at lengtii dark 
from the spores. 

Distinguished by its narrow white gills from A. eampeBtrUy 
and in its whole habit from A. arven»i$. From A. creiaceas 
it is essentially distinguished by its stem not penetrating the 
substance of the pileus, and consequently in its gills not 
being remote, and in its soUd stem. 

*A. silvaticua, Sc/u^f. t. 242.-- Gardner ^ n. 28. 

On the ground. Peradenia, Ceylon. June, 1844. 

*A. arvensUy Schctff. t. 310. — Gardner ^ n. 27. 

On the ground in woods. Hautane, Ceylon. June, 
1844. 

*A. campestrie, L. — Gardner, n. 19. 

On the ground in open places. Peradenia, Ceylon. June, 
1844. 

Another state occurred with a rather different habit marked 
n, 48 ; but I believe not distinct. 

155. A. (Psalliota) rufo-allms, n. sp. ; pileo carnosulo sub- 
viscoso albido centre depresso rufescente ; stipite tenui 
bulboso sursum candido, infra annulum integrum patulum 
rufescente ; lamellis ventricosis adnexis atro-fuscis. — Gardmerf 
n. 23. 

On the ground. Peradenia, Ceylon. June, 1844. 

Pileus 1 inch or more broad, expanded more or less, 
depressed, with occasionally a small umbo, white, shaded off 
into red-brown in the centre, rather viscid. 

Stem about 1 inch high, scarce a line thick, bulbous at the 
base, white above ; below the narrow spreading white ring 
red- brown. 



DBCADE8 OF FUNGI. 469 

Oills nearly black, ventncose adnexed. 

Allied to A. melatpermus, Bull, but not so convex, and 
differing in the rufous stem, and less fleshy pileus. It has 
somewhat the appearance of a dwarf smooth state of A. 
sguamosus. 

♦A. sublaieritius, Fr. Ep. p. 22 \. --Gardner, n, 89. 

On old wood. Hautane Range, Ceylon. Aug. 1844. 

^A./a8ciculariSf Huda. — Gardner^ n. 45. 

On the ground in shady places attached to little bits of 
wood. Peradenia, Ceylon. June, 1844. 

A very small state of the species. 

*A. cemauSj MuU. — Gardner, n. 26. 

On the ground, and attached to turgs. Peradenia, Ceylon. 
June, 1844. 

The specimens, it should be observed, have the characters 
of A. cemuui, with the habit of A. etipaius, 

*A. papilumaceusj Bull. — Gardner, n. 4, and n. 54. var. 

On the ground. Hautane Range, Ceylon. July, 1845. 

The specimens appear not to have grown on dung, but on 
the bare soil. 

•A. campanulatuSf L. — Crardner, n. 2. 

On the ground. Peradenia, Ceylon, June, 1844. 

•A. htascena, f^. A. striatus. Bull. t. 552. /. F. G.— 
Gardner, n. 25. 

On the ground. Peradenia, Ceylon. June, 1844. 

In the larger Ceylon specimen, the smooth portion above 
the furrows is tesselated from the cracking of the cuticle. 

*A. diiseminaius, P.^^Gardnery n. 61. 

On old wood. Peradenia, Ceylon. July, 1844. 

*Hygrophorus obrueseuSj f)r. Ep. p. 331.— Garc/iter, n. 70. 

On Uie ground in woods. Ceylon* July, 1844. 

N. 71 appears to be a nearly allied pure white species, 
which is eaten by the natives. The specimens are unfortu- 
nately too much injured by mites to allow me to determine 
them aocorately. 

*Russula emeiica, Ft. Ep. p. S57. ^Gardner ^ n. 87. 

On the ground. Hautane, Ceylon. Aug. 1844. 



490 DECADB8 OP FUNGI. 

156. Marasmius sukiceps, n. ap.; pileo membranaceo 
depresso umbilicato rofo-pallescente e centro sulcato ; stipite 
compresso cartilagineo Telutino-pruinoso basi substrigoao; 
lamellis ventricosis secedenti-Iiberia rufis ; sporis fermgineo- 
ochraceis.— Garc/neTy n. 38. 

On old wood. Hautane^ Ceylon. Jtme, 1844. 

PileuB umbilicate, depressed, rafoiis beooming pallid, 
strongly sulcate almost from the centre. 

Stem compressed, externally cartilaginoas sabstrigooe at 
the base, then velvety, pruinose at the apex. 

Gills ventricose, distant, nearly free, but in very depressed 
individuals subdecurrent ; interstices even. 

Spores ochre-red, obliquely ovate, subapiculate. 

This species has just the appearance of a small specimen 
of M. peronatusy but has the spores of a Cor/mnrtttt. 

157. M.yii/vi(;6j7«, n.. sp.; sub-csespitosus, pileo convexo- 
piano leevi fulvo-ferrugineo ; stipite elongate sab-glabro 
fulvo; basi fulvo-strigosa ; lamellis emarginatis albis.— 
Gardner, n. 73« 

On decayed wood, leaves, sticks, &c. Hautane Kange, 
Ceylon. July, 1844. 

Pileus \ an inch or more across, convex, at length plane 
or depressed, of a beautiful £awny, clothed with a delicate 
bloom, even, not striate. 

Stem thread-like, 2-3 inches high, smooth, or slightly 
pruinose tawny, like the pileus, fixed at the base by tawny 
strigose down. 

Gills numerous, white, tawny brown when dry, emar- 
ginate. 

Allied to M. ferrugineusy Berk. ; but more especially to 
M.pyrrhocephalus, from which it differs in its more numeroot 
emarginate gills» smooth stem, and the tawny strigose down 
at the base. 

158. Heliomyces LeveUtianuSf n. sp.; fasciculatus insi- 
titius pileo e convexo campanulato umbonato sulcato cas- 
taneo; lamellis paucis subconcoloribus adnexis; stipite 
subfusco fistuloso glabro. — Gardner, n. 72. 



DECADES OF FUNGI. 491 

On decaying wood. Hautane^ Ceylon. July, 1844. 

Fasciculate. Pileus f-1 inch broad, at first convex, 
campanulate, strongly umbonate, smooth, sulcate, of a 
bright chesnut brown. 

Stem filiform, fistulose, smooth, brownish, not shining. 

Gills few, slightly ' ventricose, adnexed, pale chesnut ; 
interstices nearly smooth. 

This and the following species are intermediate between 
Heliomyces and ManumiuSy but with the advice of M. 
L^veill^ I refer them to the former. The present is a very 
beautiful fungus. 

159. H. caryottBi n. sp. ; fasciculatus albido-luteus ; pileo 
conyexo crenato sulcato umbilicato; stipite fistuloso sub- 
gh&bro; lamellis latis ventricosis adnexis. — Gardner^ n. 3. 

On fallen flowers of Caryotaurens. Peradenia, Ceylon. 
June, 1844. 

Pileus 1 inch broad, convex, umbilicate, crenate, sulcate, 
smooth, pale, dirty yellow, as are the gills and upper part 
of the stem. 

Stem filiform, fistulose nearly smooth, brownish at the 
base. 

Gills broad, ventricose, adnexed, sometimes pressed close 
to the stem, but not really adnate; interstices nearly even. ,j 

This species acquires a brown tint in drying. 

^Lentinus Lecomiei, Fr. Ep. p. 388. — Gardner, n. 1, IS. 

On old wood and roots of trees. Kadaganava. Hautane 
Range, Ceylon. June, 1846. 

Pileus when firesh, pallid, gills nearly white. 

•L. itrigosus, Fr. Ep. p. S&S.^Gardner, n. 18. 

On rotten trees on the Hautane Range, Ceylon. June, 
1844. 

Exactly the Guiana species of Montagne. In the drawing 
the pileus is represented of a pinkish grey, and the gills 
white. 

^L. badhtiy Berk. Panus badiutf Berk, in Hook. Lo$ui. 
Jaum* qf Bot. Vol 1, p. 145. — Gardner, n. 59. 



492 DBCADE8 OF FUNGI. 

On wood in forests. Hautane Range, Ceylon. July, 
1844. 

There is a slight difference between the Ceylon ind 
Philippine plant; but I consider both, notwithstanding, the 
same species. In the Philippine plant the colour is darker, 
inclining to brown, the furrows on th)e pileus more distant, 
and the stem more or less naked. In the Ceylon fungus the 
pileus is of a beautiful umber, more closely striate, and the 
stem clothed with coarse velvety pubescence, liie diffe- 
rences in colour, and in the coating of the stem, I belieye, 
arise from age. I think it would be very improper to make 
two species without an opportunity of examining fresh 
specimens, and the great changes which take place in this 
genus in the appearance of the stem, suggest extreme caation 
in the erection of species. The stem in the drawing is 
represented as nearly black. 

160. L. revelaiuSf n. sp.; confluenti-csespitosus ; pileo 
depresso crassiusculo e velutino glabrato ochraceo; stipite 
elongate extus spongioso ; lamellis angustis decurrentibus 
ihtegris. — Oardner, n. 117. 

On decaying wood. Point de Galle, Ceylon. April, 
1844. 

Confluenti-ceespitose ; pilei unequal 2^ inches across, 
depressed, fiexuous, rather thick, ochraceous, clothed at first 
with dense velvety down, then naked, but slightly pulvera- 
lent not virgate; margin scarcely involute, except in the 
young plant, when the pileus is infundibuliform. 

Stems connate 2^ inches high, nearly i thick, dothed 
with spongy down, nearly equal, hard, and rigid. 

Gills crowded, narrow, entire, decurrent, slightly anasto* 
mosing behind. 

This very remarkable species is allied to L. comuUtHi 
Berk. ; but differs materially in the velvety decidaoas 
clothing of the pileus. 

161. L. mbnudus, n. sp. ; pileo subinfundibulifonni far- 
furac^o-squamoso glabrescente virgato ; stipite gracili rigido 



DBCADES OF FUNGI. 493 

deoranm nigresoente ; lamelUs latiusculis sabintegris vix 
echinulatis decurrentibus distantiusculis. — Gardner, n.ll6« 

On fallen trees. Point de Galle, Ceylon. April, 1844. 

Pilens 2 inches or more broad, subinfundibuliform, clothed 
sparingly with furfaraceous scales, which gradually fall off, 
and leave the surface nearly naked, but virgate. 

Margin scarcely involute. 

Stem slender, rigid, black at the base, 1 inch or more high, 
dilated at the summit. 

Gills rather distant, decurrent, slightly forked behind, 
nearly entire^ scarcely at all echinulate. 

Nearly allied to L. crifdtuSj Berk. (A. criniius, L.), which 
it resembles in the gills, but differs in many essentials. 

*L. pergcaneneua, lAv. Ann, des Sc. Nat. 3, S6c. Vol. 5, 

p. 117. 

On decaying wood. Point de Oalle, Ceylon. 

There is a species marked n. 107 in Mr. Gardner's collec- 
tion which is allied to L. anthoc^halus, LA;.; but has 
broader gills. The specimens are unfortunately too much 
injured by insects to admit of their being described. 

162. L. giganteuBy n. sp. ; mazimus, pileo convezo um- 
brino squamulis depressis saturatioribus maculato; centro 
crasso; margine primum involute tenui sulcato pallido; 
sripite sursum valde incrassato subvelutino soUdo radicante ; 
lameUis arcuatis subdistantibus integris longe decurrentibus 
albis. (Tab. XVII. XVIIL/. 2).— Gardner, n. 58. 

On the ground. Hautane Range, Ceylon. July, 1844. 

Pileus 8 inches across, at first convex, with the margin 
strongly involute, at length nearly plane in the centre, then 
contracted, with the margin slightly expanded; umber- 
brown, thickly spotted with darker adpressed scales ; margin 
thin, pale, smooth, sulcate. 

Stem 3 inches or more high, about an inch thick in 
the centre, expanded above, solid, pale, rather velvety, 
rooting. 

Gills moderately broad, rather distant, strongly arched, 
entire. 



494 DBGADB8 OF FUNGI. 

A most magnificent and curious species allied to L. daeok^ 
dens^Fr. 
Tab. XVII. XVIII. /. 2. L. giganieus, not. size. 

163. L. macukUus, n. sp. ; albidus pileo depresao medio 
maculato-squamosoy margine tenui repando sulcato ; stipite 
glabro 5 lamellis albis decurrentibus. (Tab. XIX. / 2). — 
Gardner^ n. 39. 

On the ground. ^ Hautane, Ceylon. 

Cream coloured. Pileus 3^ inches across, depressed in 
the centre, and marked with brown scale-like spots. 

Margin arched, smooth, sulcate. 

Stems connate 2 inches high, more than \ an inch thick, 
solid, smooth. 

Gills rather narrow, arcuate, thin, decurrent, lacerated, 
with their edge entire. 

This species has very much the habit of Laciarius pipe- 
raius. It is allied to L. descendeng, and is, I believe, quite 
distinct from any published species. 

Tab. XIX. /. 2. L. maculaius, nai. size. 

164. L. incarupicuiuSf n. sp. ; subc«spitosus albidus ; pileo 
coriaceo centro valde depresso virgato ; margine involato 
fnrfuraceo-squamoso ; stipite brevi ligneo (urfuraceo glabres- 
cente ; lamellis tenuibus decurrentibus postice leviter anas- 
tomosantibus leevibus, denticulatis. 

On wood. Talagalla, Ceylon. 

Somewhat tufted, dirty white. Pileus I| inch broad, 
much depressed in the centre, but scarcely infundibuliform, 
Tirgate, nearly smooth, margin arched and involute, clothed 
with f urfnraceous minute scales. 

Stem I of an inch high, 2 lines thick, hard, fiirfuraoeoas, 
at length smooth. 

Gills very thin, slightly anastomosing behind, shortly 
decurrent, more or less denticulate, not conspicuously sca- 
brous. 

This species differs from L. furfitrosuSf Monisy in its den- 
ticulate not dichotomous gills. In other respects, and in 
habit i